Tag Archives: Hypatia

Freedom of Religion: Fact and Fantasy

1692 Massachusetts Christian Puritans saw the Devil everywhere

1692 Massachusetts Christian Puritans saw the Devil everywhere

Freedom of religion is a centuries-old expression. In most cases freedom of religion does not exist.

Freedom of religion is not accepted by the Supreme Court of the USA, as seen in Sandra Day O’Connor’s rant that the USA is a Christian nation (it is not).  The Roman Catholic majority of justices side with their faith and rule in favor of Christianity.  There is little interest in defending the rights of Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, free-thinkers and non believers. This is seen in the repeated demands for a god oath or affirmation to tell the truth.  God oath’s are distinctly religious (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1988), Vows, Virgins, Oaths and Orgies. Arlington, TX: Liberal Arts Press).   This has become the rallying cry for sectarian judges at all levels, from the traffic courts in Des Moines, Iowa, to petty courts in Louisiana and the nefarious local courts in Texas.  Most courts or jurists. It is not enshrined in the nation, nor in separate states. At best freedom of religion is a buzzword.  In reality freedom of religion is a fantasy that has enchained and enslaved the mentality and academic advance throughout the USA since its inception as American colonies.

From Maine to Georgia, the North American colonies were not founded as bastions of theological freedom or the right to disbelieve.  What came from pulpits and stages of colonial churches was the same hot loathing of predatory pastors that existed in Europe, with special condemnation of Jews, “pagan” (i.e. Muslim) slaves, and those who did not express exaltation and conviction of the Christian perspective of males who saw in Christianity justification for gynephobia and misogyny, racism and radicalization of theology that still saw Jews as “killers of the Christ” and “naked savages” (American aboriginal Indians) who did not bow before raised bibles, and later were damned as sinners by Joseph Smith Jr–one of the greatest plagiarist and ignorant speakers in USA history.

Those who came to the shores of the Eastern coastline were greedy, self-serving, and self-loathing Puritans, Pilgrims, people in quest of gold and land, and who had little interest in a truly encompassing society freed from the fetters of religion.  Instead, these colonists were determined to create a “New Salem” (Jerusalem) and bring about a theocracy led by theocrats–as with the Matthers, Willis, and other bible bleaters.  The colonists had a narrow definition of what religion was.  Their god had to be prayed to daily, Their god would appoint “ministers of the faith” who would lead congregations like a ram herding sheep into judgemental assemblies in vocal or silent prayer while calling out witches, warlocks, and disbelievers for execution as with the Salem Witch Trials.  The colonial Christians chartered congregations that would give a non-biblical tenth of their possession and production to sustain the slovenly spokespersons of the community’s god.

Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony hanging Quakers

Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony hanging Quakers

Plymouth colony (Massachusetts) was among the most intolerant colonies.  In part this was due to its Puritan background.  In part this was due to Plymouth colony’s mephistophelean misogyny of its leaders who were more prone to seduce young girls and a few boys but hushed it up under claims of clerical immunity while reading  gynophobia plastered across the pages of what copyists claimed were the epistles (or letters) of a mythological Paul written by various hands from 200-1000 CE.

When any person would speak out in favor of a different form of worship, or for the rights of women to participate in a discussion of a biblical text or a pastor’s sermon (as was the case with Anne Hutchison), the heavy hand of hardened clerics came crashing down with excruciating éclat.  Their denial of human and civil rights for women, people of color and existing LGBT people who were dispatched from the worldly life as “abominations” became routine (read my article on LGBT and Jewish people in colonial America).

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson

Mistress Anne Hutchinson was chastised, defamed, libeled and slandered for her outspokenness and denunciation of those who would not let her speak or preach. Hutchinson cited bible verses to justify her reading and speaking with other women–and some men–in defiance of the male antagonists who would keep her quiet based on wrongful readings of the letters of “Paul”.

Anne Hutchinson was better read and more articulate about the scriptures that she interpreted and commented on  far more accurately than the pretensions and modestly educated Puritan preachers who acted more like popes than presbyters within her ossified and odious community.

Born Anne Marbury (1591–1643), Hutchinson was a Puritan woman. She served as a spiritual adviser for many when not performing domestic chores and being an attentive mother of 15. Birth control was unheard, and the misinterpreted line in Genesis  9:7 was not an injunction to act like rabbits or guinea pigs/cuyes, but was an admonition to minister to others so that a group would find freedom in thought.

The controversial Anne Hutchinson was an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy.  Antinomianism is the belief that under the gospel dispensation of grace, moral law is of no use or obligation because faith alone is necessary to obtain salvation. It was in part the teaching of Martin Luther (who had a far greater impact on English theology than did the strictness of Jean Calvin of Geneva), although he qualified his rejection of good works by writing that faith is: “a living, creative, active and powerful thing, this faith. Faith cannot help doing good works constantly. It doesn’t stop to ask if good works ought to be done, but before anyone asks, it already has done them and continues to do them without ceasing. Anyone who does not do good works in this manner is an unbeliever…Thus, it is just as impossible to separate faith and works as it is to separate heat and light from fire” (Luther, Martin. Vermischte Deutsche Schriften, Johann K. Irmischer, ed. Vol. 63 (Erlangen: Heyder and Zimmer, 1854), pp. 124-125. [EA 63:124-125]).   It was Antinomianism, with its view that salvation was for the soul only and not the body, rejecting most of the Old Testament and responding to critics that it matched the debate of the Council of Jerusalem (c. 50 CE) that rejected the necessity of circumcision (Acts 15:5,  19-22, cp. Acts 10:9-16)  that was on part of the Laws of Moses, that doomed early Puritanism to play a minor role in the devolution of faith in Massachusetts.

A charismatic and popular preacher who threatened Puritan pastors, Hutchinson who was expelled from her colony in 1637.  She was walked to the border of Plymouth as her penalty for the crime of challenging the authority of the male ministers who minced words to justify good works that had nothing in common with the Reformation of John Knox, Martin Luther, John Calvin and other would-be reformers turned revolutionaries.

A woman who refused to be silent, Hutchinson exposed the subordination of women in the culture of colonial Massachusetts.  Citing scripture Hutchinson spelling out articulate arguments against the reading of the most heated passages in the Epistles of Paul.  The mother of 15 children rejected the staid sentence sourly secreted into the vastly plagiarized First Letter to the Church of Corinth.  She noted that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 claimed, wrongly, that women were to be silent.  Hutchinson called attention to the full passage as being a reference to the church, and not a permanent position in discussion of sermons or scripture solely against the preaching of women.  Women, such as Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, and Noadiah, were prophets in the Old Testament, and greeted as “sisters in the faith” in the New Testament (Romans 4:20), becoming judges, priests, and even bishops in the early Church.

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 has traditionally been linked with 1 Timothy 2:8-15. This is the mark of an addition by a copyist, that modern theologians are only now beginning to understand.  While there is no substantial evidence that the Plymouth pioneer knew of this, Hutchinson fought for the right of women to read and study scripture without the menacing mention of women being silent based on the idea that all people were like little children whom Jesus invited to visit him (Matthew 19:14).  Even the Paul of the New Testament saluted women, as in the case of Phoebe (Romans 16:1–2) Priscilla, wife of Aquila (both being tent makers; Acts 18:2) and recognized as leaders in 1 Corinthians 16:19 and Romans 16:3.

What Hutchinson did not argue is the text itself. Such an education was forbidden women by men who were threatened by any thought of equality between the sexes.  Only ennobled women, wealthy women, had any formal education, and then quietly in their homes. The transmogrification of equality is the leftover garbage of the establishment of Christianity as an official religion by the Emperor in the fourth century CE.

If Anne Hutchinson had an education in Biblical text and interpretation, she would have noted that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is a declarative statement and the passage does not match the rest of the text. Translation and interpretation have never been strong suits in theological studies from the ancient world to this day when school pretend to teach both sciences not only in the Third World but in most schools in the First World.

A more careful study of the questionable declarative verse would note that the writers of the Pauline epistle to the church at Corinth ignored the scripture’s declaration that women will prophesy (Joel 2:28; Acts 2:17-18) and did so in the church at Corinth (1 Corinthians 11:5).  The persecutor of Christians including at Corinth, Saul of Tarsus (who later takes for himself the name of Paul that means “small”, “humble” and even a “limited gathering of scholars”.  The name Paul is a family’s surname at the time of the first century CE.  It is Roman in heritage and spelled Paulus or Paullus.  Nowhere in the New Testament considered an Apostle except by Saul, himself.  The name Paul had no Hebrew or ancient Greek equivalent.  It is introduced in Biblical Greek.  The man is a self-created legend, and the Bible says nothing about Paul’s death. Only in 2 Timothy 2, do we read Paul writing about anticipating his death. 

1 Corinthians 14 and the silence of women

1 Corinthians 14 and the silence of women

What is unique is the writers of the Epistles, especially the letters to the congregation (there was no church) is that they are filled with repetition and self-rejection.  This is seen, dramatically, in the two verses 34 and 35.  They are self-contradictory, with 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 being at best a gloss or marginalia eased into the text by a medieval monk.

The Paul of the New Testament permitted women to participate when properly adorned (1 Corinthians 11:2-16). 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 stands out in sermons of all Christian cults and creeds–and has no biblical foundation except for itself (as I tell my students, you cannot use one book to prove the validity and credibility of that same book).  It is plagiarized from Old Testament lore that justifies the murders committed by Saul who was nothing more than a poor imitation of Joshua and Gideon who launched a Holocaust quit in keeping with that pushed by Adolf Hitler.

Gideon's Holocaust of Semitic people in Palestine/Canaan

Gideon’s Holocaust of Semitic people in Palestine/Canaan

Few have had the courage of Hutchinson to strike back at the theological terrorists machinations and insipid insanity of the patriarchy that then and now controls Christianity.  This patriarchy, using select sentences that were added to a book compiled and plagiarized from far older sources and passed off by those who would control others who were denied an education.  It was submissively accepted by those who bowed before alleged superiors who threatened their lives, limbs and property in the stagnant claim of being intercessor between god and man (ignoring woman).  Like ancient priests, Plymouth pastors prattled that they controlled all in the name of fear of a wrathful demon known as YHWH who unleashed holocaust after holocaust in the Torah and Book of Prophets (Old Testament) through the mass murderers Joshua and Gideon.  The source from the beginning of the innovation and creation of Christianity claimed their authority from a deliberate misreading of Matthew 16:18-19.

The Bible has always been a sponge of blood, from Genesis through Revelation.  Its pastors dined from burnt sacrifice and were given seats at the head of tables where they would invoke their deity to look upon food and heart with a jubilant spirit while the ecclesiastics ate first.  The idea of a “burnt sacrifice” is Akkadian in origin, passing through the language of Syria. The Hebrew feminine noun qorban (plural qorbanot קָרְבֳּנוֹת) first occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Leviticus 1:2.  It is found in 80 other passages is pronounced similarly in the Arabic language (Arabic kurban قربان).  Women were allowed to participate in the sacrifices–a fact that male preachers ignored, claiming that women were to be “meek and mild like Jesus”.

There was nothing “meek and mild” (a phrase that applies only to the Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew 11:28-30.  In the original Greek (πράος) meek means “in control” and “with great power that is under control”. It defines someone who is not subject to anger) about the Mistress who rattled the Puritan community and distressed the Fathers of the Colony.  None of the male ministers had anything in common with the Jesus of the New Testament.

Anne Hutchinson heartily made her displeasure known with the fools she suffered.  This was especially the situation with witless John Wilson and his rogue interpretation of religion “of one of works”. Having enough of his prattle praising tithing that was barely substantiated within scripture, Mistress Hutchinson got up and left whenever the millstone minister rose to pray or preach parched words of damnation and demons.  Tithing, actually, refers to a bribe (Deuteronomy 12:5-11):, extortion (Numbers 28:20-32), or payment under duress or to obtain spoils of war and theft (Genesis 14:20, 28:20-22) or a forced bribe to keep god from destroying his people (Malachi 3:8-10).

Repeatedly, Goodwife Hutchinson was reprimanded to mind the ministry of men.  She was to “silence herself” as being less than a man in the eyes of a critical, cruel and wrathful god.

Expelled by the “men of god” who declared End Times was “neigh [near]” and an apocalyptic war was about to begin with Jesus (defying the law of gravity) would ride out on a horse from the clouds with sword in hand to take blood from non-believers (Matthew 10:34), Hutchinson was exiled from her original home and community.  With many of her supporters, Hutchinson established the settlement of Portsmouth (that would become the Colony of Rhode Island) and Providence Plantations.  There was no rest for the outspoken Hutchinson. As at Plymouth, so it was at Portsmouth. Hutchinson’s heroic stand for her opinions and interpretations were met with scorn.  The chauvinistic chorus of misanthropic ministers damned her, “for she is but a woman” enfeebling every effort at blind justice and direct democracy.

A feisty firebrand who insisted on faith and with no emphasis on good works, Hutchinson ultimately found a home on the ancient landmark called Split Rock in what later became The Bronx in New York City. Her aspiration to help others, including the original aboriginal population (who became known as Indians), the city fathers launched acidic arguments against her, and leagued with “forces unknown.”  In August 1643, Hutchinson and all but one of the 16 members of her household were massacred during an attack by the native Siwanoy.  Her 9-year-old daughter Susanna was taken captive. 

The travail threaded through the life of Hutchison gave a tortured birth of a hatred-inspired fear of women throughout most of New England.  It spilled its poison into other colonies with a speed unmatched since the imaginary war in heaven between the Advocate of Job 2:1 (a Babylonian tale) known as Satan, and the mythical Akkadian god incorporated into the Bible under the name of Michael.  Religious rites were galvanized, ministers obtained a near god-like authority.  Religious freedom was curtailed, and colonies settled by one group of religionists were forced out by other religionists determined to draft their own ideologies into their charters, as happened to Maryland.

18th century carricature of Pope on Guy Fawkes Night in Boston

18th century caricature of Pope on Guy Fawkes Night in Boston

Maryland was established as a colony for Roman Catholics by Lord George Calvert in 1625. Roman Catholics were quickly disenfranchised as being “papists” and too attached to the plutocracy of the Vatican and the demands of the papacy.  “Good Christians” [Protestants] of Maryland, exploded intemperate against Roman Catholic priests who were rejected as following a foreign potentate  determined to turn the New World colonies into vassal states of the Vatican.  According to broadsheets, the Pope was to rule over splintered states by bishops loyal only to the Vicar of Christ.  This Vicar was caricaturized as a diabolical demons surrounded by vipers who would grow fat on the food denied the poor.

Roman Catholics in Maryland quickly lost their freedom of religion.  They were disenfranchised in 1646. They were, however, allowed along with “all [other] Christians” (emphasis mine) to live and work in Maryland in 1649 by means of the Maryland Toleration Act.

The Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)

The Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)

The Maryland Toleration Act became the source for the First Amendment of the fledgling United States of America. It was never, originally, a popular document nor a well-received First Amendment.

Virginia’s House of Burgesses recognized the Church of England as the official religion of the colony in 1619. The tie to the Established Church in England was, however, weak, and Anglicans in Virginia frequently pursued a course different from their counterparts in London.

In 1775, the bishop of London (Richard Terrick, 1710 – 1777) appointed James Blair to represent his interests in the colony, but there was scant attention to the authority from London in matters of religion, except that all prayer books and services followed the Church of England style that were far more closely related to the doctrines of Martin Luther than those of John Calvin.

The German, a former Augustinian monk who wrote numerous tracts in defence of the papacy and Rome, Martin Luther became over time  contemptuous of Jews (whom initially he had written in defense of) and argued for a strict interpretation of the words of the Bible with little to no tolerance for apostasy or heresy. Jews were not welcome anywhere in the New World when the colonies were formed.  They were slandered as being slayers of “the Christ”–a title Jesus never used in the original New Testament.

New Amsterdam (1626 engraving)

New Amsterdam (1626 engraving)

Little is known about the first Jew to visit the colonies.  The “sons of Israel” were poorly tolerated in colonial America (cf. Warren Blumenfeld (2012), “On The Discursive Construction of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing”: Jews As “U-boats” With A Mysterious ‘Queer Light'”, Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1-28). Jews were accepted only if they could bring supplies to the colonies, as was the case with the second Jew who sailed to the New World: Solomon Franco.

Jews in Colonial America (17th century drawing)

Jews in Colonial America (17th century drawing)

Solomon Franco was a Sephardic Jew from Holland. There is scant record of this enterprising man, except it is believed that he settled in the city of Boston in 1649. 

Franco delivered “needed” supplies to Edward Gibbons, a Major General in the Massachusetts militia.  Franco quickly wore out his welcome when he demanded payment.

Gibbons was astonished that anyone would expect payment from a man of his rank–especially a Jew. A dispute broke out over who should pay Franco (Gibbons or Perada a Dutch merchant who arranged for the shipment of goods). On May 6, 1649, the Massachusetts General Court that Franco was to be expelled from the colony, but granted Franco “six shillings per week out of the Treasury for ten weeks, for sustenance, till he can get his passage to Holland”. The “sustenance allowance quickly ran out.

Jews found a home in New York (August 1654 drawing)

Jews found a home in New York (August 1654 drawing)

Five years later Solomon Pietersen, a merchant from Amsterdam, sailed into Boston. In 1656, Pietersen became the first known Americanized Jew to intermarry with a Christian. This action was deemed scandalous, being tantamount to “race mixing” that was illegal. Pietersen’s marriage to a Christian woman (referred even then to miscegenation, coming from the Latin miscere “to mix” + genus “kind”) is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, and procreation.  The same bigotry that has been the lot of LGBT people by such biblical illiterates as Bob Vander Plaats of Iowa, Timothy Dolan of New York, Francis George of Chicago, Bryan Fischer, Ann Coulter and the ever-ignorant Benedict XVI (who declared he would resign as pope on February 28–an action that has not occurred since 1415 in the Middle Ages). 

Those who spew hatred against marginalized groups painfully mistranslated and misinterpreted the universal myth of Ham {Greek Χαμ, Kham ; Arabic: حام, Ḥām, “hot” or “burnt”} in reference to skin pigmentation: Black for Africans, “dark brown” for Jews and “Arabs” {the Semitic or Abrahamic people of Mesopotamia Africa}, and so forth; Genesis 9:20-27), “force” Ham’s later generations, according to some records, to formally convert to Christianity. To this end Black slaves in Virginia and other states demanded that their slaves go to Christian churches, and if they went with their white masters, to sit either on benches in balconies or in near-by cabins (some were allowed to sit at the back of the church if it did not have a full congregation).

There are no records showing Pietersen formally converted.  His daughter Anna, however, was baptized in childhood.  The action was one of the forced/enforced requirements of that day to stay in the colony.

Jacob Barsimson arrives at New Amsterdam (1654)

Jacob Barsimson arrives at New Amsterdam (1654)

The third Jew to arrive at New Amsterdam (lower Manhattan, where Wall Street is today) was Jacob Barsimson. Barsimson was born in Holland and worked for the Dutch East India Company. He was among the refugees who was aboard the Peartree on August 22, 1654, fleeing the Portuguese Inquisition when Portugal conquered Batavia (Jakarta).

Around this time 23 more Jews (four couples, two widows, and thirteen children) arrived as refugees from Brasil (that had been a Dutch colony before it was conquered by the Portuguese. The refugees’ spokesperson was Asser Levy, primarily because he represented the legendary priestly class of the ancient Hebrews. Levy argued for Jewish rights in the Dutch Colony of New Amsterdam. Levy won for the Jews basic civil rights including admission into the House of Burghers and was also granted the privilege of serving guard duty for the colony–something no non-Christian was allowed to do, so great was the colonists fear of angering their god of wrath. Levy’s victory was not without a fight.

The Christians of the local Dutch Reformed Church, led by local merchants, appealed to the colonial governor, Peter Stuyvesant, to have the Jews expelled, on the grounds, as Stuyvesant wrote to the Dutch West India Company (September 22, 1654), that the Jews practiced usury and were “deceitful trading with the Christians … [praying] that the deceitful race—such hateful enemies and blasphemers of the name of Christ—ne [be] not allowed to further infect and trouble this new colony to the detraction of your worships and the dissatisfaction of your worships’ most affectionate subjects”.

Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam (New York)

Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam (New York)

The Dutch West India Company declined because of several influential Jews in New Amsterdam who promised to provide “the poor among them shall not become a burden to the company or to the community, but be supported by their own nation”. To the consternation of “good Christians” in New Amsterdam, the Dutch West India Company went further:

We would have liked to effectuate and fulfill your wishes and request that the new territories should no more be allowed to be infected by people of the Jewish nation, for we foresee therefrom the same difficulties which you fear, but after having further weighed and considered the matter, we observe that this would be somewhat unreasonable and unfair, especially because of the considerable loss sustained by this nation, with others, in the taking of Brazil, as also because of the large amount of capital which they still have invested in the shares of this company. Therefore after many deliberations we have finally decided and resolved to apostille [annotate] upon a certain petition presented by said Portuguese Jews that these people may travel and trade to and in New Netherland and live and remain there, provided the poor among them shall not become a burden to the company or to the community, but be supported by their own nation. You will now govern yourself accordingly.”

After New Amsterdam fell to the British, in 1737, the General Assembly, of what was renamed New York, voted that no Jew was to be allowed to vote for members of that body.  Disenfranchised the Jews spent most of their time in business pursuits.

Few Jews moved beyond New York City. There were not sufficient Jews in Upstate New York to form a congregation until 1838, and there were no rabbis to serve until 1846.

There was no recognized Jewish community or congregation in Boston before 1840, and while an occasional Jew made it into Vermont and New Hampshire, there were no congregations until 1882. While there were a few Jews in Massachusetts, there was no significant record of any Jew or of any Jewish congregation before 1800. Even fewer lived in Maryland.

Covenant of Peace (first Jewish synagogue at Eaton, PA) 1839

Covenant of Peace (first Jewish synagogue at Eaton, PA) 1839

Pennsylvania had its first Jewish emigrant, Joseph Simon, in 1730, but there was no synagogue or cemetery for Jews until 1732 at Shaefferstown.  A synagogue was established at Easton in 1839, but its rabbi was not welcomed by any Christian pastor or congregant.

Pennsylvania was carved out for Quakers. While the Quakers were far more tolerant than any other Christian in Colonial America, they were to the far left of the Church of England that was too “popery”.  Quakers’ aversion to war, violence,  and argument made them as distrusted as were the animosities between chrestianos and christianos until the Emperor Constantine I created his crated “catholic [universal] church” in 325 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini 36-37, in Greek) by decree with no reference to Matthew 16:18.  There is no biblical proof that Jesus ever anointed a pope nor called for worship centers beyond an empty field (Matthew 18:20) or prayer in secret (Matthew 6:6).  There was never, to this day, a person in the USA who ever followed the teaching of Jesus, those who claim to be Christians are Paulinists, with Roman Catholics in the USA fleeing the teaching of Jesus more than any group.

Anti-Catholic American Patriot showing hatred for the Pope

 Roman Catholicism, having been suppressed in the past (Jenkins, Philip (1 April 2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23) throughout the seaboard colonies continued to be feared as being covert workers for a Catholic invasion and take-over orchestrated by the Pope in the Vatican.  

KKK armed to defend the USA from an invasion by Rome and its Catholic priests (19th century)

KKK armed to defend the USA from an invasion by Rome and its Catholic priests (19th century)

Americans, both colonialists and those who came with and after the Revolution, continued to arm themselves against alleged invasion of Roman Catholic Spaniards from Florida, Mexico, Cuba, and other Latin American nations.  Fear of Roman Catholics further spurred the KKK to arm themselves, seek out Roman Catholics and execute them. They were supported by legislators and laws in such hate-filled states as Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Georgia, Texas and the rest of the southern tier. Governors, Congressional representatives and senators, and state legislatures from West Virginia to California, Texas to Minnesota turned a blind eye to the carnage of many Christians who declared, like Billy Graham, Richard Land, G.Em Melchert and James Dobson, that Roman Catholics were not Christians.  The anger that rang from the roof tops of Nazareth Lutheran Church and College Hill Lutheran Church in Cedar Falls, Iowa, was matched in embittered denunciations by the cult of the Wisconsin Evangelical Synod, the Southern Baptist Convention and its Christ for the Nations ministry, buttressed by Pentecostal predators from Jimmy Bakker to Jimmy Swaggart, Scott Lively to James Dobson, with the support of born-again governors from Rick Perry (R-TX) and Scott Walker (R-WI).

Second Amendment to Constitution of the USA.

Second Amendment to Constitution of the USA.

Many of the most hate-filled people, from legislators in Iowa, Nebraska and the Dakotas, found solace only in the Second Amendment that they believed was their buttress for maintaining guns and other weapons, even though the Amendment said it was to sustain “a militia”.  The people have a right to “keep and bear arms” but for defense.  Previously arms had been housed in community arsenals at public expense. 

Irish Catholics, Jews and Blacks were considered equally evil by White "saved" Christians leadding to establishing the KKK.

Irish Catholics, Jews and Blacks were considered equally evil by White “saved” Christians leading to establishing the KKK.

Blacks and Irish Catholics were considered evil, worthless and expendable  in early USA history.  Irish and Black people were frequently drawn as being equal, with the Irish lampooned as being ape-like.

Cartoons and caricatures depicting the Pope as “the Great Whore” and priests as cutthroats and worse spread from broadsheets to newspapers and books. With the rise of the Khristian Knights of the [KKK] Klan, attacks on Roman Catholics increased along with the slaughter of Blacks and other minorities.

Even the otherwise well-read democrat and orator for human rights and civil liberties for all, Thomas Jefferson, wrote against Roman Catholicism. Jefferson argued: “History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government,” (Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813) and that “In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own” (Letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814).

"American Patriot" Anti-Catholic articles attacking Pope and End Times theology

“American Patriot” Anti-Catholic articles attacking Pope and End Times theology

By the 1840s the nightmare fantasy fable of End of Times and the invention of a physical hell spawned by ancient Mesopotamian civilizations and plagiarized by most Abrahamic religions and people throughout the Middle East, was directly linked to the influx of Roman Catholics.  Roman Catholics were viewed as being more intent on damnation than on salvation even for the most avid Puritans.  More and more the papacy was labeled the Whore of Babylon (Dante, Inferno Canto 19, drawn from the ranting of John “of Patmos” (an island where those who were determined

In Inferno canto 19 Dante rebukes pope Nicholas III in the fourth bolgia

In Inferno canto 19 Dante rebukes pope Nicholas III in the fourth bolgia

to be insane were housed, with the writer of Revelation being consider “quite mad” even by his coreligionists who thought him suicidal or prone to murder) in Apocalypse 13 and 17:1-2.  Both the Apocalypse and other renderings of End Time theology were, plagiarized from old Babylonian tales and Akkadian folklore interwoven into Egyptian records. The verses in Apocalypse 13, 17:1-2 are closely identified with the tale found in the Babylonian Book of Daniel 5, 9:27). This  lead to the indiscriminate slaughter of Roman Catholics and the burning of their property 1840-1872 (Jimmy Akin (2001-03-01). “The History of Anti-Catholicism”. This Rock. Catholic Answers).  No newspaper, no periodical, no Christian minister raised his voice against this attack on civil rights and human liberties.

Benedict XVI (resigned papacy February 18, 2013)

Benedict XVI (resigned papacy February 18, 2013)

Today’s Roman Catholic Church in the USA. the religion most repressed in early America, is the most oppressive religion within the nation–and within the world.  The Roman Catholic Church continues to deny women the right of choice and the right to be priest–a role women held in the early communities and in the congregations set up by Apostles of Jesus of the New Testament.  The Roman Catholic Church, especially with the ascent of the two most hate-filled pontiffs in modern history, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, rejects basic human rights for various groups from non-Christians (there has been token efforts to dialogue with Buddhists and Jews, but nothing on the scale of John XXIII who reached out to everyone) to LGBT and other marginalized people.  The Roman Catholic Church under John Paul II and his rottweiler cardinal from Germany, Joseph Ratzinger, made a concerted but secretive effort to protect pedophile priests and prelates from Roger Mahoney (Los Angeles) and  Timothy Dolan (New York City read here and here and here)  intones, in the ”name of Jesus Christ”. The German Pope, Benedict XVI, is chief of those who are opposed to the Constitution of the USA’s proclamation of all people being equal and afforded equality before the law.  At the same time, the pontifex maximus continued protecting pedophile priests from the Jesuits in Alaska who sexually assaulted little girls and boys under the age of 12 in tribal villages and in remote areas to secular priests in the Oregon, Iowa, Texas and throughout the USA dioceses and abroad.

Ashlynn Conner, a little Irish American girl, bullied into suicide at age 10 in Illinois

Ashlynn Conner, a little Irish American girl, bullied into suicide at age 10 in Illinois

While Colonial charters and laws contained specific proscriptions against Roman Catholics by state constitutions, atheists are openly attacked in the same way and with an identical fury as the early Roman Catholics and Jews. Atheists, however, are attacked more frequently than either of the groups of oppressed people.  Students in USA schools and universities bullying are among the rising number of self-define “soldiers of Christ” who feel “called upon” to attack atheists.  These “soldiers of Christ” are sworn to rid the USA of atheists, either by murdering them in cold blood or by “encouraging those who doubt or deny god” to commit suicide by channeling their hate on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and other means of social communication.  This vitriol is even more acute in the “soldiers of Christ” in attacking any LGBT who is either self-acknowledge and proud of himself or herself, regardless of age.  Even young children are singled out for torment that can lead to suicide, as was the case with ten-year-old Ashlynn Conner, to 15-year-old Jamie Hubley, and more.

The majority of the tormentors being parents, siblings, classmates, evangelical groups.  Most of the groups are certified hate organizations, such as Focus on the Family (Alabama), and Bob Vander Plaats’ The FAMiLY that leads the charge against women’s rights in Iowa.  Vander Plaats is sustained by the collective insanity by nine nightmare clinically insane Republican Representatives strangling democracy in the Iowa legislature (House File 153) who seek to enact legislation that would declare sperm, ova, zygote, and fetus a “person” and its “destruction” murder–a tactic used in many other states to deny women personal freedom. 

If this barbaric broadside would past, the Tea Party Republicans would many any woman who was raped stand trial for first degree murder).  This is especially true in carnivorous cults of the Wisconsin Evangelical Synod, Missouri Lutheran church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) and the Roman Catholic Church and the US Council of Roman Catholic Bishops (read here and here).  It is acceptable to abuse a child in any of these cults (my uncles sodomized me when I was younger than eight, and one was a minister in the Missouri Lutheran Church, and the other a student of theology, not yet ordained; when I complained first to my mother (who was convinced I had seduced my uncles) and to my pastor (who argued that I was the sinner), I gave up all interest and faith  in religion.

Charles Darwin on atheism

Charles Darwin on atheism

Atheists cannot hold public office in Arkansas (Article 19, Section 1), Maryland (Article 37), Mississippi (Article 14, Section 265), North Carolina (Article 6, Section 8), Pennsylvania (Article 1, Section 4, while the wording is tricky, the message that those who differ in their interpretation and belief in a god cannot be disqualified), South Carolina (Article 17, Section 4), Tennessee (Article 9, Section 2), Texas (Article 1, Section 4)—while the 14th Amendment, Section 6 technically makes it moot, the states that discriminate reject that amendment, and several contenders for the presidency of the USA have campaigned to have the Amendment overturned.

Atheism in San Diego, California (2013)

Atheism in San Diego, California (2013)

Atheists have only limited rights.  Atheists and those who do not attend churches, synagogues or private meeting houses (Quakers, Unitarian-Universalists, etc), are openly attacked from Virginia to California, Minnesota to Texas and throughout all other states.

A federal court in Indiana dismissed a claim that an Indiana law prohibiting secular celebrants from solemnizing marriages (Indiana code 31-11-6-1).  At the same time the Christian court allowed religious representatives to perform marriages in open violation the First Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the USA.  The federal court in Indiana rejected a brief submitted by the Center for Inquiry in Center for Inquiry, Inc., et al. v Clerk, Marion Circuit Court, et al (read here, pdf).  It is an overt, court consciously calculated double standard extensively covered in numerous legal cases.

Humanist ads are not attack advertising.

Humanist ads are not attack advertising.

Humanists enjoy life. They seek out the better in themselves and other people. They do not attack. Humanists teach that all things are open to questioning and debate.

To silence debate is the mark of religion that offers no freedom to the individual. Debate silenced is nothing less than mental, and physical slavery.  Socrates was the thinker who best represented humanism: questioning everything, working to change that which could be changed, and accepting fate for what was in store by being a model citizen, an educated teacher, an analytic debater, and a good spouse who made sure all debts were paid

 Aesculapius, Greek God of Medicine and Healing with serpent (Wisdom) on staff, and cock (health and ease of death) on pedestal.

Aesculapius, Greek God of Medicine and Healing with serpent (Wisdom) on staff, and cock (health and ease of death) on pedestal.

It was recorded by Plato that Socrates said:Crito, we owe a rooster (in the original, the word is cock: a male gallinaceous bird: a chicken, turkey, grouse, pheasant, and partridge, grouse, etc., while a rooster is a domestic fowl: a male chicken with no superior powers.  The god of health was partial to cocks because of their curative powers and use in ritual worship) to Asclepius. Please, don’t forget to pay the debt.” Asclepius was the Greek god for curing illness, and for Socrates the greatest cure for illness is death.  ( Plato, Phaedo 115b-118a; cp. Waterfield,Robin (2009). Why Socrates Died: Dispelling the Myths. New York:W.W.Norton and Company).  Socrates was found guilty of corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety (“not believing in the gods of the state”), cf. Plato. Apology, 24–27. 

Religion is like genitalia: don't show it off in public or shove it down your children's throat

Religion is like genitalia: don’t show it off in public or shove it down your children’s throat

Distrust in oneself and in those who admit/claim to be atheists is a prime reason for seasoned social ostracization of atheists and atheism. Several psychological studies show that results were consistent with the hypothesis that the relationship between belief in God and atheist distrust was fully mediated by the belief that people behave better if they feel that God is watching them: if you are not a believer you will suffer the pains and fires of hell. Other studies show atheists were systematically socially excluded only in high-trust domains; belief in God, but not authoritarianism, predicted this discriminatory decision-making against atheists in high trust domains (Gervais, Will M.; Shariff, Azim F.; Norenzayan, Ara (December 2011). “Do you believe in atheists? Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice”. doi: 10.1037/a0025882 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 101(6), 1189-1206).

Many people argue that atheists and nonbelievers are expressing hidden anger against a god that/who offended them or did not give them what they asked for (Exline, Julie J.; Park, Crystal L.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Carey, Michael P (January 2011). “Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer”. doi: 10.1037/a0021716 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 100(1), 129-148). This has been repeatedly been disproven, with research on why many elect atheism, being a study of 350 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism.  Those who vouched that they had no belief in a god had a wide reading of history , science and religion (75 times) that grew throughout their lifetime; disgust with religious hypocrisy (60) as seen in the case of Ted Haggard, Jerry Falwell, Bishop Eddie Long

Bishop Eddie Long's boy friends

Bishop Eddie Long’s boy friends

(whose victims Bishop Eddie Long’s boy friends call him a “monster” as the bishop had no less than four boy-toys, while Long claims the charges are false and he was the victim); influence of particular author or book (55); a byproduct of Socialist materialism (30); effects of college education (25); effects of study of sciences (25); and others in lesser numbers. Less frequently emotional factors were mentioned, such as: illness and death in family, the horrors of war, the futility of prayer, the evils and unhappiness in the world, etc. 36% of the atheists were oldest children, while only 15% were youngest children; about 9% were only children (Vetter, G. B.; Green, M. (July 1932). “Personality and group factors in the making of atheists”. doi: 10.1037/h0075273 The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol 27(2), 179-194).

Most people who reject god do so after intensive study of history, science, religion, and philosophy: atheists tend to be more educated and broadly versed than do theists (Teo, Thomas (2009), Editorial. doi: 10.1037/ a0017640 Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, Vol 29(2), 61-62). Families do disassociate themselves from members who declare their rejection of any god(s) that the family may believe in and worship, but this is a sign of paternalism and the fear of the family unit not being carried on by future like-minded generations.

States that the deny atheists and agnostics basic human and civil rights

States that the deny atheists and agnostics basic human and civil rights

By 2013, there is only an abridged form of religious freedom with many states within the union, with many states disenfranchising or denying the right to serve in a public office if the individual does not recognize a god. Even the deity is questioned as it was in the past: Jesus has to be Caucasian white, the name of the creator has to be God (not Allah), and so forth.  The act of swearing an oath is said to have religious connotations as it affirms the existence of a deity and a person’s confession of the existence of a deity, but this has no biblical support. On the contrary, the Bible expressly forbids people to swear (Matthew 5:34, James 5:12), therefore to swear “So help me god” is actually biblically prohibited since it is a rejection of YHWH and Jesus and an affirmation of a pagan god.

A Christian pastor does not mean that it is a man or a woman in a suit pounding pulpits as if he or she was/is the Wrath of Moses.  A Christian preacher is not a man in a red dress covered with delicate lace sitting enthroned in a cathedral. 

Christianity from its beginning in 325 CE meant a dictatorship over a group of semi-thinking people.  We find this in the pontifications of John Paul II and Benedict XVI, the US Council of Roman Catholic Bishop and similar church councils around the world, as well as in the proclamations of various cults from those of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Pentecostal group, Ultra Orthodox Jews, and in the estranged world of mind control of Bob Vander Plaats’ The FAMiLY in Iowa, or James Dobson’s American Family Association in Alabama, or other certified hate groups.  The teachings of Jesus of the New Testament is not Constantine’s Christianity that details that select individuals have the right to deny other people personal rights, liberties or freedoms, and have the power to require others to believe or disbelieve as predator (priest, pastor, bishop, cardinal, pope, imam, ayatollah, rabbi, and so forth) demands.  That is slavery.

Various evangelical groups reject non-evangelical groups with their own interpretation of holy books and leaders. These groups ranged from chrestianos to christianos, concerning the warrior messiah of Matthew 10:34 to the prince of peace in Isaiah 9:6.  The two were joined by Constantine who controlled the ultimate canonization of scripture.  For this reason, it can truly be written, that Christianity is among the most barbaric of religions and has been since it was created by the Emperor Constantine I for religion (the Church) claims superiority over the state throughout history, even within the USA where politicians ranging from US Senators Charles Grassley (R-IA), to Jim Inhofe (R-OK) and former (now Governor) Sam Brownback (R-KS, converted to Roman Catholicism by Opus Dei priest Rev. John McCloskey’s guidance) all reject a wall separating state and church.

The Roman Emperor at the time of the assaults on Rome and the City of Constantine, Constantine I created an ecclesia (ἐκκλησίαa: public court, political assembly of citizens of an ancient Greek state [American Heritage Dictionary] who had the obligation to do business and bring wealth to the emperor) where only his interpretation of Paulinity would be held and upheld, and the actual teaching of Jesus would be watered down, and his private life ignored.  There was no placed in the early Church for a renegade man who never had a girl friend, who never married, who never took up arms to defend the empire, who allowed a man to rest his head upon Jesus’ chest, who was followed out of the garden by a nude youth, and most likely was gay, since Jewish society all males to marry and procreate–which Jesus never did–save in one Coptic fragment.  The problem with the ancient fragment is it is too late to consult with other similar fragments that have disintegrated with time or were consigned to the first of Constantine who was busy working on creating his own church.

Coptic fragment referring to Jesus wife (or partner?)

Coptic fragment referring to Jesus wife (or partner?)

The Pauline church was Constantine’s make-believe early “church” in opposition to the brothers of Jesus who saw the movement as a reformed Judaism.  Determined to be the sole arbiter of thought and expression, Constantine’s church would be a national unit that would allow Constantine absolute control over the empire’s faiths.

The Emperor Constantine I orders books burned including gospels considered equal to the synoptic gospels and letters he did not like 325 CE

The Emperor Constantine I orders books burned including gospels considered equal to the synoptic gospels and letters he did not like 325 CE

Constantine burned all books, scrolls, records, gospels, epistles that he did not approve–a common practice especially when it comes to religion and its denial of individual freedoms and human rights. Constantine’s church [business enterprise] was not known as Christianity after the theological coup. To ensure imperial control over the newly created church, Constantine ordered the works of Arius and other “heretics” were burned, in the manner of the Coptic pope in Egypt demanding that the famed library of Alexandria be destroyed.

Hypatia killed by Christians in Alexandria, Egypt on order of the Coptic Pope

Hypatia killed by Christians in Alexandria, Egypt on order of the Coptic Pope

It was under the clerical  Catholic cannibalism of the pseudo-Christian Coptic Pope Cyril that the famed astronomer, philosopher, mathematician, scientist, librarian and atheist Hypatia was torn apart by Coptic Christian monks who shredded her skin, tearing it off while she lived, and throwing her living body onto a pyre of burning scrolls and writings of ancient thinkers in all then-known fields of academic inquiry. The death of Hypatia was planned by the Coptic monks and set a signal for all bibliolators in the conservative Christian community to rise up against the ‘learned scholars’ of Alexandria, a center of knowledge throughout the ancient world and destroy all things that were not of, from, and within the Bible. It was the beginning of the Dark Ages in Egypt that spread like a fungus throughout Europe, turning off all lights that pierced the darkness of biblical literalism and enforced belief (George F. Simmons (1992). Calculus Gems: Brief Lives and Memorable Mathematics. New York, NY: MacGraw Hill; Maria Dzielska (1995). Hypatia of Alexandria, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (Revealing Antiquity, 8), p. xi, 157).

With the message of the mythical Paul cannibalizing Christianity, the law body (the actual meaning of the word in the early centuries, first to fourth, ecclesia, changed by the fifth century when courtiers transmogrified the true meaning of the word by attaching to it the incorrect translation and title of “the Church”) gave the world the grotesque Inquisition. The bloody Inquisition did not remain uniquely Roman Catholic.  It quickly was taken up by such “reformers” as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII and his heirs, Scandinavian potentates, and the most vile representatives of man in Russia and captive provinces.  All based their “reformations” on spurious tracts that were current but did not reflect original documents designed to ensure peace or protect people. Few men, after the second century CE, realized that there never was a St. Peter, St. Paul, or Roman Popes (the first does not appear or is catalogued before the second century, not even in the first edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, with some writers arguing that there were no bishops nor a pope in Rome before the end of the fourth century).

Luther, Martin: Von den Jüden und ihren lügen Wittemberg (1543)

Luther, Martin: Von den Jüden und ihren lügen Wittemberg (1543)

The protesting reformer, Martin Luther’s war against the Jews and his books (Von den Jüden und iren Lügen, 1543, that the German ex-Augustinian monk wrote: Conversion of the Jews will be the work of God alone operating from within, and not of man working — or rather playing — from without. If these offences be taken away, worse will follow. For they are thus given over by the wrath of God to reprobation, that they may become incorrigible, as Ecclesiastes says, for every one who is incorrigible is rendered worse rather than better by correction; cf. Oberman, Heiko. Luthers Werke. Erlangen 1854, 32:282, 298, in Grisar, Hartmann. Luther. St. Louis 1915, 4:286 and 5:406; cp. Luther, Martin. Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi) that became the supporting arguments for Hitler’s extermination of the Jews.

These same arguments sprung up like weeds in the mincing of the madman Richard Land and the Southern Baptist Conventions to use them against the LGBT community.  Like slurry it has resurfaced among poorly trained Pentecostal preachers who are personally against Muslims, etc.  There is even the absurdity of the “reverend” Terry Jones of Florida who damns everything Islamic, like Fred Phelps and his cult the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, KS, that even his own granddaughters fled.

When a person is in another nation, the visitor must respect or at least obey the laws of that nation.  The visitor has no right to enforce on others his or her own views or theologies.  This happens too frequently as with the carnage called for by Scott Lively and his gaggle of evangelical goons,  flying to Africa to initiate genocide.  Scott Lively, Lou Engle, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer met at the infamous C Street, Washington, DC “The Family” house that shelters US Senators Charles Grassley (R-IA), James Inhofe (R-OK), John Stennis (R-MS), Richard Lugar (R-IN), adulterers Mark Sanford (R-SC), John Ensign (R-NV) and numerous other dominionists, including Rev. Ted Haggard whose seduction and payment for homosexual prostitute to keep him “company” was forgiven “in the name of Jesus Christ”:  USA leaders who want to throw over democrcy in the USA and establish a theocracy where they would awaken a sleeping Jesus to take up sword for the New Apostolic Reformation and ride a stead from the clouds to Earth and launch an Apocalyptic war (Sharlet, Jeff (2010). C Street: The Fundamentalist Threat to American Democracy. New York: Little Brown; Sharlet, Jeff (2008).  The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power. New York, NY: Harper Perennial). Grassley of Iowa is the least well known–but the most dangerous member of The Family who planned to put his grandson in the Iowa legislature but intends for the youth to take over the USA.

Lively, primarily, is sponsoring the death call to elevate his own desperation to be seen as a pivotal evangelist in the USA and is desperately deceiving members of Parliament in Nigeria and Uganda for personal gain and fame. 

Lively is funneling money into the pockets of Speakers of Parliament to launch an unholy war against minorities.  He has the support with the great racist Benedict XVI who publicly blessed Uganda Speaker of Parliament Rebecca Kadaga when she promised a “cleanings” of all LGBT from Uganda by December 25, 2012. Repeating the words of her hero, Adolf Hitler, Kadaga promised that a “final solution” would be Uganda Parliament’s Christmas present for “good Christians”.  

Roman Catholics of Uganda, led by the Roman Catholic episcopacy: its bishops and clergy (most who are admitted pedophiles) demanded the legislation to pass quickly so that they could help the nation murder all LGBT who threatened the children of the nation.  Ugandan Roman Catholics and Anglicans also demanded the slaughter of all Jews and others who do not agree with them, claiming that they had the support of Benedict XVI.  Most were furious when they learned that their beloved pope was already named as a subject for trial for crimes against humanity.   They protested when “liberal” factions claimed that no  evangelist has a right to enter any nation and “convert” others to their insanity, and that a holy war must break out between Christians of Uganda and Muslims in Uganda.

George Carlin on god

George Carlin on god

What maintains religious officiates is the absurdity of tithing. The “tithe” was an ancient law to appease a jealous king who was also considered a god (Genesis 14:20) and came from the “spoils” [theft] of wars. Tithing became a special bribe mortals made to kings/gods (Genesis 28:20-22) and became a part of “the Laws of Moses”.  The Ten Commandments, of which there are three distinct sets in Exodus, were plagiarized from the Code of Hammurabi and other ancient Middle Eastern texts with the arrival of the Egyptian mercenaries known as Apiru (prototypes of the Hebrews) who served in the Akkadian army (Leviticus 27:30-32). The Apiru leaders declared that tithes would be the main support of temple priests (reclassified as Levites in Numbers 18:20-32) whose primary duty after appeasing a cannibal god was to guard the warriors’ wealth (Nehemiah 13:4-12).

There is nothing spiritual about tithing, as throughout the Middle East it was extortion money paid to the most unscrupulous elements of society. TIPS, however, were medieval in origin and meant To Insure Prompt Service that were given out by lords and clergy to get immediate service–it was never a wage paid at the end of a meal, nor required, but, like in the bible, was a bribe.  Only through TIPS and bribes can there be freedom of religion for the few who conform the most to the dictates of the wealthy and those in power.

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Filed under atheism, Bible, Bullying, Christian Terrorists, Church history, History of USA, Jewish history, Ku Klux Klan, Martin Luther, Old Testament, Robert Vander Plaats, separation of church and state, suicide, Torah

Roanoke, Virginia’s Christian cabal and the words of the New Testament Jesus

Some of Roanoke, Virginia’s Christian cabal has publicly demonstrated that they do not believe in the Jesus of the New Testament and have never heard or studied the message ascribed to him in what is today known as the New Testament.  Odiously opportunistic, in suppressive stealth, these calloused, cold, cruel covert canonists came with spray paint cans in hand or with wrapping paper and duct tape at the ready, to undo a message of good will to people.  Being more in keeping with veiled votarients vying for the selectivity of a jealous god who favored a few but not all as recorded in Luke 2:14 (written by Saul of Tarsus companion long after the inscription of Mark and Matthew): “Glory to God in the highest heaven, and peace on earth to people He favors!” (Holman Christian Standard Bible 2009; cp. New International Version (NIV): “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men on whom his favor rests.” compare with Stephanus 1550 Textus: Δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία or the Vulgate: gloria in altissimis Deo et in terra pax in hominibus bonae voluntatis).

This is not a god for all people.  The deity worshipped by the cabal in Roanoke, Virginia is more like the Republican candidate for President of the USA in 2012, when the candidate rejected the idea that he would represent all of the citizens of the USA (read here and here and here and here with video with the promise to represent 100% here).

Roanoke’s staid and ossified orthodox partisans have defied every word that the Jesus of the New Testament is reputed to have said, the message allegedly preached, and the compassion and love that the magnetic leader of a small sect of pacifist Hebrews heralded.  Instead of using the spears, swords, and knives described in the Torah and Prophets, those who would root out evil in the form of any writing they found disfavor with, used paint and tape and paper.

The rogue Roanoke remonstrators rabidly wrote with slashes of black and tribulations of red during the unhistorical birth date of their god on December 25, 2012 (a month and date artificially created by the Imperial Church invented by the pagan Emperor Constantine I, their scorn for the message commonly found, seldom read, and even less understood in the Gospel ascribed to the authorship of a Matthew (7:1: Μὴ κρίνετε ἵνα μὴ κριθῆτε and the Vulgate: nolite iudicare ut non iudicemini) while with their actions denounced the spirited injunction in the Book of Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, the title was not a part of the original composition but added by Irenaeus late in the second century CE; it is commonly ascribed to Luke, although the authorship is under debate and the earliest records do not make this notation before the second century CE to the fourth century CE; cp. Epiphanius, Panarion 51.11 where it is suggested that he was one of the “Seventy” disciples; with Luke’s historical accuracy questioned in Powell, Mark Allen (1989). What are they saying about Luke? New York: Paulist Press. p. 6. It is argued that much of the Book of the Acts of the Apostles is plagiarized from far older Greek accounts phraseology and plot elements from Euripides’ play The Bacch, cf. Helms, Randel McCram (1997). Who Wrote the Gospels? Altadena, CA: Millennium Press.  The debate on the authorship is summarized by Brown, Raymond E. (1997) in his Introduction to the New Testament, New York: Anchor Bible (1997), pages 267–268, and can be furthered with an analysis of the use of the plural first person pronoun “we” indicated multiple authorships and is sprinkled heavily in the Book of Acts: 16:10–17; 20:5–15; 21:1–18; 27:1– 28). 

The text in question is Luke 10:34: Ἀνοίξας δὲ Πέτρος τὸ στόμα εἶπεν Ἐπ ἀληθείας καταλαμβάνομαι ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν προσωπολήπτης ὁ θεός or in the Vulgate: aperiens autem Petrus os dixit in veritate conperi quoniam non est personarum acceptor Deus).  Even English “translations” differ, and interpretations are as poor as in any department of language interpretation throughout the Third World universities and most schools of higher education in the First World.

Conversion of Saul (Caravaggio)

Conversion of Saul (Caravaggio)

Far worse is tortured truth that these weathered Christians, heralding back to the past when their ancient colleagues tore the flesh off of those who did not share their own sadistic séances with readings of Saul of Tarsus who never met the Jesus of the New Testament (1 Corinthians 9:1-2; Galatians 1:13-14).  Saul’s “conversion” was actually a temporal lobe epilepsy that most likely ended in a convulsion that led to temporary blindness (Landsborough, D. (1987). “St. Paul and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgury & Psychiatry 1987; 50; 659–64; Geschwind N. (1979). Cp.  “Behavioural changes in temporal lobe epilepsy”. Psychological Medicine. 9 (2: May): 217–219; and Stern, A. (1957). “Zur Problem der Epilepsie des Paulus”. Psychiatria et Neurologia (Basel) May;133(5):276–284; this problem may have affected the prophet Ezekiel: cf. Altschuler, E.L. (2002). “Did Ezekiel have temporal lobe epilepsy?” Archives of General Psychiatry 59 June (6): 561-562).  Saul, who admitted he never met the New Testament Jesus, allegedly wrote letters that rejected and raped the original message of tolerance, and were incorporated by imperial decree when they were not denounced and unpunished since they gave greater grandeur and authority to the male with the subordination of the female.

Paganism outlawed throughout Europe (390 CE). Christians began systematic holocaust of non-believers.

Paganism outlawed throughout Europe (390 CE). Christians began systematic holocaust of non-believers.

Using Pauline transmogrification of the Jesus message, the merchants of deceit moved toward Roanoke to add havoc to the winter holidays.  They tightened their theologically taught terrorist Christian act of vandalism and hooliganism so typical of the ancient imperial “catholic [universal] church” (that the Emperor Constantine created in 325 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini 36-37) when the centers of worship and homes of charity to the poor and elderly were dedicated to other gods were destroyed or forcibly converted into the pagan temples of Christianity, beginning under the emperor Theodosius I in 381 CE (Theodosian Code 16.10.11) that none were safe) that the right to express an opinion was sacrificed on the stained altar of fanaticism of blind faith in defiance of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the USA.

Christianity has never been a tolerant religion.  Like the bastardization of the ministry of Jesus fetiditly foisted onto the backs of the ignorant by the original Elmer Gantry (the tent revivalist Billy Graham) and subsequent televangelists from G. Pat Robertson to the Bakkers of PTL, today no one knows basic boundaries of decency and carnivorously cannibalizes the cerebrum abilities once thought to possibly exist in the corpus of the community of alleged human beings (at least in name).  The Roanoke, Virginia vandals, as if fresh out of the ancient Sunday school (a pagan institution in origin that was an institution to celebrate, capitalize on and capture the majesty of the Sun God: Sol Invictus, introduced into Roman religion by emperor Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, ca. 203 – 11 March 222; the name is a reference to the god Elagabalus and is the Latinized form of the Syrian Ilāh hag-Gabal, which derives from Ilāh (“god” the prototype for Allah: الله‎ that translates as the God, not God, from the Aramaic “Alaha” or “the [supreme] god/goddess of the moon” (cf. Herodotus, Histories Apodexis, lines 131-132), and Allah’s three daughters: Lat (goddess of fate whose temple was at Mecca, and whom Muhammad worshipped until forbidden to continue with his prayers by the tribal deity Allah), Uzza (Venus, goddess of love and sex) and Manat, goddess of destiny).  These are found in the Qur’an (an-Najm 53:19-22) and constitute the infamous Satanic Verses that read in the earliest copies of the Qur’an but have been deleted in later versions (original text to the left, the redacted text is to the right):

Allah (god of the moon) and his three daughters (goddesses)

Allah (god of the moon) and his three daughters (goddesses)

Near it is the Garden of Abode. Behold, the Lote-tree was shrouded (in mystery unspeakable!) (His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong! For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest! Have you seen Lat. and ‘Uzza, And another, the third (goddess), Manat? Near it is the Garden of Abode. Behold, the Lote-tree was shrouded (in mystery unspeakable!) (His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong! For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest! Have you seen Lat. and ‘Uzza, And another, the third (goddess), Manat?
These are the exalted cranes (intermediaries) Whose intercession is to be hoped for. [Words of Satan Deleted]
What! for you the male sex, and for Him, the female? Behold, such would be indeed a division most unfair! (an-Najm 53:19-22) What! for you the male sex, and for Him, the female? Behold, such would be indeed a division most unfair! (an-Najm 53:19-22)

In the ancient world, the crane was a god or goddess (usually naked, since nudity represented purity as with the original “Adam and Eve”–clothing always has represented a sinful condition) who flew to heaven and the throne of the chief god or goddess with the prayers of mortals.  The crane (or stork) is also discussed in the ancient Apiru/Hebrew world (Isaiah 38:14 כְּסוּס עָגוּר כֵּן אֲצַפְצֵף אֶהְגֶּה כַּיֹּונָה דַּלּוּ עֵינַי לַמָּרֹום אֲדֹנָי עָשְׁקָה־לִּי עָרְבֵנִי׃; Jeremiah 8:7 גַּם־חֲסִידָה בַשָּׁמַיִם יָדְעָה מֹועֲדֶיהָ וְתֹר [כ וְסוּס] [ק וְסִיס] וְעָגוּר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־עֵת בֹּאָנָה וְעַמִּי לֹא יָדְעוּ אֵת מִשְׁפַּט יְהוָה׃) and in medieval (Roman Catholic) Christianity’s bestiary.  In Mecca and the evolution of the myth of Allah, the daughters were the primary messengers for people’s petitions to the god/goddess of the moon (who became Allah).

Add to this the gabal (“mountain” (compare the Hebrew: גבל bul and Arabic: جبل‎ jabal)), and the result is “the God of the Mountain” being the Emesene manifestation of the deity formatted after Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa (modern Homs) in the Roman province of Syria, c. 220 CE as an offshoot of the earlier Sol Indiges. 

The Roanoke miscreants’ ministry manifested its Machiavellian materialism in its use of spray paint to deface one of the four Blue Ridge Coalition of Reason billboards in the Roanoke area. Their god is so weak, so petty and so jealous that its Stoßtruppen (whose Obersturmbannführer remained in hiding) had to defend the unholy name by vandalizing the misperceived aspersions on a billboard that merely stated scientific investigational logic: that which cannot be proved most likely does not exist.  Many accept science over faith and find no reason for the existence of a god that even Stephen W. Hawking argued against in his A Brief History of Time: from the Big Bang to Black Holes (Toronto ; New York : Bantam Books, 1988).

First vandal attack on reason in Roanoke, VA (December 2012)

First vandal attack on reason in Roanoke, VA (December 2012)

During the third week of December, 2012, the billboard at Virginia Route 419 at 1420 Lynchburg Turnpike, in Salem, facing east, originally read: “Don’t believe in God? Join the club.” The word “Don’t” was blacked out by paint on December 21, 2012. 

Martinsville, VA - Klan leaders Amanda and Chris Barker

Martinsville, VA – Klan leaders Amanda and Chris Barker

Faith was no longer a matter of choice for those who worked for understanding rather than bowing before indoctrination by an Inquisition as terrifying as it was in the darkest ages known to Europe.  This troop of tormenters that had spawn the Ku Klux Klan, adopted neo-NAZI symbolism and revered the machinations of US Senator Joe McCarthy (R-WI) and his gaggle of priests was invigorated once more in the State of Virginia. Matching the theological students in Afghanistan known as Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎, identical to the Hitlerjugend spawned by the Sturmabteilung; cf. Klee, Ernst (2005). Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage), the firebrands of evangelical extremism bred on hate and swallowed poisoned draughts of bigotry, creating their current curdled culture of predatory practitioners, pastors, priests, and pandering paternalizing  people taking up the challenge of the religious right to dismantle the Constitution of the USA and its First Amendment.  

Michael Jock

Michael Jock

Those who attacked reasoned debate, an environment of inquiry and dialogue were solid supporters of the NRA and those who argue that all teachers should arm themselves and that every home should have a gun so the homeowner could “stand your ground” if she or he felt threatened, as has happened throughout the USA.  Michael Jock, a man in Florida shot a customer, Randall White who was complaining about slow service  at Little Cesar’s Pizza and raised his hand against Jock’s pushing him, leading Jock to pull a .38 Taurus Ultralight Special Revolver and fired a shot into the White’s torso, claiming that he “feared for” his life.

George Zimmerman (left) shot and killed unarmed Trayvon Martin (right)

George Zimmerman (left) shot and killed unarmed Trayvon Martin (right)

George Zimmerman killed Trayvon Martin who on December 28, 2012, was exposed for concocting an escape plan as if it was a scenario for a Hollywood film to get out of paying a security firm $27,027, according to court documents, to send armed bodyguards from Associated Investigative Services (AIS) to meet Zimmerman at the Seminole County jail and dress him in body armour before speeding him off in a rental vehicle previously checked for hidden GPS tracking devices, put him in a disabled stall in a major hotel’s main bathroom, change his clothes and put on dark glasses so that he could walk to a different vehicle that would carry him to a “safe house”.

Michael Dunn kills teen Jordan Davis over loud music in Florida

Michael Dunn kills teen Jordan Davis over loud music in Florida

Michael Dunn, also of Florida, used the Stand Your Ground law to murder an unarmed teenager over loud music (read here and here).  All of those who “Stood Your Ground” are god-fearing, “good Christians” with no tolerance for racial or other minorities.

New studies show more people are shot to death with ALEC/NRA “Stand Your Ground” laws.  The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), a private non-profit and the largest economics research organization in the United States released a working paper showing that deaths due to the law increased between 4 and 8 additional deaths each month, and Texas A&M University researchers also released a study in June 2012, finding states that passed the laws saw an increase in homicides between 7 and 9 percent annually, which amounts to between 500 and 700 homicides cumulatively, with no drop in violent crime rates.  This is but an extension of the religious wars that have bloodstained history since the inception and invention of religion by mortal men.

dying for the same godThese are the people who claim to be men and women of god (but which god? or goddess?) who bark out demands that god be put back into school rooms, that prayers are made mandatory, and that reason and investigation be curbed.

Second attack on Coalition of Reason billboard (Roanoke, VA, December 28, 2012)

Second attack on Coalition of Reason billboard (Roanoke, VA, December 28, 2012)

A second of the four Blue Ridge Coalition of Reason billboards in the Roanoke area was found vandalized on December 28, 2012. The billboard at 32 Boulevard Street near the underpass and just north of Patterson, in Roanoke, facing south, originally read: “Don’t believe in God? Join the club.” But the “n’t” was blocked out with wrapping paper and duct tape, leaving the text to read “Do”, in keeping with the Christian assassins in Alexandria who pulled the famed mathematician, philosopher and librarian Hypatia (c. 350/370-415 CE), skinning her alive with their finger nails and throwing her onto a pile of burning ancient and new scrolls that did not praise their concept of a warrior Christ (Matthew 10:34) when she screamed “Do not destroy the works of the greats for the arrogance of the ignorant [the bishop Cyril was named the new Coptic [pope] Theophilius]”  Her murder marked the end of classical antiquity and academic scholarship for the next 1000 years (Wider, Kathleen (1986). “Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle” in Hypatia, Vol 1 No 1 (Spring, 1986): pp. 21-62; Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press p. 49–50; Mangasarian, Mangasar Mugurditch (1915). The Martyrdom of Hypatia: The Death of the Classical World: A Lecture. Chicago, IL: Independent Religious Society; Teruel, Pedro Jesús (2011). Filosofía y ciencia en Hipatia. Madrid. Spain: Gredos.).  

Fred Edwords (National Director Coalition of Reason)

Fred Edwords (National Director Coalition of Reason)

Roanoke avengers with as little skill and intelligence as the ancient chrestianos, felt compelled to silence dissent, dissolve the conduct of inquiry, and demonstrate their own prejudice in raw refutation of John 13:34 and Ephesians 4:32. The prejudice in Roanoke against any one who would question religious faith is very real, leading Fred Edwords, national director of United Coalition of Reason to respond: “Prejudice against non-theistic and other non-religious people continues to be very real in America, so we are forced to speak out whenever these unfortunate incidents occur.”  This is more in keeping with the rage of Jeremiah 4:7 (עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכֹו וּמַשְׁחִית גֹּויִם נָסַע יָצָא מִמְּקֹמֹו לָשׂוּם אַרְצֵךְ לְשַׁמָּה עָרַיִךְ תִּצֶּינָה מֵאֵין יֹושֵׁב׃) and the segregation of Leviticus 13:44 (אִישׁ־צָרוּעַ הוּא טָמֵא הוּא טַמֵּא יְטַמְּאֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן בְּרֹאשֹׁו נִגְעֹו׃ : where lepers are condemned as “unclean”) demonstrating that nothing within the book matches the message of Jesus of the New Testament who even ate with “the unclean”—that had nothing to do with the lack of a bath—and visited with the adulteress in John 8:1-11.

On its website at www.BlueRidgeCoR.org, the Blue Ridge Coalition of Reason declares its purpose as “a joint outreach effort” to help the public connect with “local freethought [sic], humanist, atheist, agnostic, rationalist” and other such groups. It provides interested people “with information and a sense of community.” The coalition was officially launched December 19, 2012, when the billboards were announced.

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Zombies, Matthew 27:52-53, Southern Baptists and reality

Zombies (the “living dead”) have always been a part of the world’s sacred and profane literature.  Legends abound about zombies and other ghouls.  Each tale was created to keep the people passive: to oppress them with religious dogma that would put their food and wealth onto the tables and into the pockets of the priests, pastors, rabbis, mullahs and imams, and similar soothsayers. Religion has long been the yoke to harness the poor to do the bidding unquestioningly of those who would speaker for god. The quickest path to wealth is through the ministry, requiring next to no labor or thinking.

Easter Island statues memorialize a prehistoric zombie outbreak

Zombies and their depiction go back at least

Shaft of the dead man - Lascaux Cave

to 35,000 – 23,000 BCE in Romanian caves, 25,000 – 15,000 BCE, as seen in the famed caves of  Lascaux, France, and of course the more famous statues on Easter Island.  There are depictions of similar living dead that date to 60,000 BCE in Katanda, Central Africa.  There is evidence of zombiphobia in Egypt as early as 3500 BCE (Maish, A., and R. Friedman. Pondering Paddy: Unwrapping the Mysteries of HK43. Nekhen News 11: 6-7; and, Murray, M.A., 1956. “Burial customs and beliefs in the hereafter in Predynastic Egypt”. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 42: 86-96.).

There is commentary on a purported zombie attacks in ancient Egypt as early as 3200 BC.   However, most of the tales were maintained to keep the people satisfied, and there is little hard evidence that zombies existed except in the minds of local citizens.  Most of the alleged evidence for zombies is from and Hierakonpolis where some workers were stricken when their brain had been infected with the virus Solanum that was claimed to turn people into zombies: they walk upright but in a near catatonic state, have halting speech, etc. (the virus does not exist; it was made up by Max Brooks to support his book on zombies and zombification).

Solanum seaforthianum (Brasilian Nightshade)

The plant solanum was cited by Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) in a botanical essay. What is known is that only green parts and unripe fruit are poisonous to people; however, there are many edible varietals including the potato, tomato, and eggplant.

 While Solanum, as a plant, is poisonous and has been fatal, it is also used by native people as medicine but in low amounts.  This plant is known as Giant Devil’s-fig (Solanum chrysotrichum) has been shown to be an effective treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis in a scientific study. It is most commonly found in Australia.

Solanum. chrysotrichum

 The Assyrians were among the most ferocious. Ashurbanipal, king from 668 to 627 BCE, was recorded as having exalted: “I will hack up the flesh [of my enemies] and then carry it with me to show off in other countries”.  His heirs were equal to every move of the king, cutting open the bellies of their opponents “as though they were young rams” and demanding that the people see “the living dead walk among them.”

Mesopotamia was a haven for many zombie stories, including those that prelude the single reference in the Gospel of Matthew.  The issue of zombies raising from the dead, stepping out of their tombs, waiting to hear the Judgment Call (Apocalypse) is as old as recorded time, and in Sumerian and Akaddian records matches the Biblical account added to Matthew 27 (verses 52-53: καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων  ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ  εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς, compare it to 2 Kings 13:21 for a similar resurrection; cf. Isaiah 26:19, and the far older Babylonian lore in Job 42:17 that was fully plagiarized by the early Hebrews). It is found in the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld a goddess who goes to the Netherworld to see her sister Ereshkigal. Ishtar is the goddess of sex and war, and her sister is goddess of the underworld; male deities are not yet supreme.

Ishtar (Goddess of sex and war; storms Hell's Gate and wins)

The Mesopotamian Biblical account of the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld, preserved on sanctified clay tablets (the best known is the first

Gilgamesh Tablet XI recounting the Great Flood

two-thirds of Tablet XI (created c. 2700 BCE; cf. Tigay, Jeffrey H. (1982), The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 217 f.) which is the earliest record of the myth of the Great Flood, at least one thousand years older than the account in Genesis), gives the scholar two of the prime focus points for zombies that would make an appearance in the New Testament: 1) animated dead people who 2) feed on the living. The latter is not found in Matthew but in all other contemporary accounts; what is unique in the Biblical account is that the Jesus of the New

Fragment of Tablet VI (Epic of the Gilgamesh) Zombies rise up

Testament tells his followers to “eat of my flesh” and “drink of my blood”—typical zombie theology: Matthew 26:26, a self-idealized cannibalism common in all Mesopotamian cults and is found on twelve clay tablets of the Epic of the Gilgamesh; cp. Tablet VI and Ishtar’s rage:

I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,
I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down,
and will let the dead go up to eat the living!
And the dead will outnumber the living!

Perillos being forced into the brazen bull that he built for Phalaris

In ancient Greece and Italy, giving antecedent to the myth of a blood thirsty Babylonian god, saw regular brutality during the reign of Phalaris (Φάλαρις) tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 BC.  He had hollow a bronze oven made in the shape of a bull (always a symbol of a god, and nearly universally known as Yah {or Jehovah}) in which he would roast his enemies alive (Pindar, Pythian 1), and fed on suckling babies (Tatian. Oratio ad Graecos (“Tatian’s Address to the Greeks“), Chap. XXXIV; it is considered a heretical work written by a student of Justin Martyr who turned to Gnosticism as being more in keeping with the Sayings of Jesus than the emerging state controlled church), giving birth to the legend of the slaughter of infants in Egypt and Israel.  In the end he was overthrown in a general uprising headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c. 488-472 BC), and burned in his brazen bull. Both the story and the symbolism became incorporated into Hebrew lore with the invention of the myth of Moloch and the Biblical Gold Calf (עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב) in Exodus 32:4—the Egyptian god Apis—but the Hebrews would have two golden calves unlike the Egyptians (1 Kings 12:26–30; cf. Nehemiah 9:18–19).

In most cases the dead would eventually rise up to greet their sadistic saviour who commanded them to walk among mortals as testimony to the power of the demigod. In most cases the zombies were foretellers of impending doom and the destruction of the planet in a great apocalypse.  The prophet Ezekiel had his own Zombie army: Ezekiel 37: 1-14 (1) The hand of the Lord was upon me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and set me in the middle of a valley, it was full of bones. (2) He led me back and forth among them, and I saw a great many bones on the floor of the valley, bones that were very dry.  (3) He asked me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said,”O sovereign Lord, you alone know.” (4)  Then he said to me, “Prophesy to these bones and say to them, “Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord! (5) This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: I will make breath enter you, and you will come to life. (6) I will attach tendons to you and make flesh upon you and cover you with skin. I will put breath in you, and you will come to life. Then you will know that I am the Lord”:  הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיֹּוצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתֹוךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמֹות׃  וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבֹּות מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשֹׁות מְאֹד׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמֹות הַיְבֵשֹׁות שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃  כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃  וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עֹור וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קֹול כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמֹות עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמֹו׃  וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עֹור מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחֹות בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃  וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבֹוא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדֹול מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ ס וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמֹותֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃  לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ ס  וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלֹותִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃  וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ ף.  The entire story is plagiarized from ancient Egyptian military history and theology that was repeated in the records of numerous growing states including that of Persia and the Hyksos.  This may be the source for the legend of the lost army of Cambyses II. Cambyses II led a Persian army of 50,000 soldiers into Egypt and supposedly perished in a sandstorm in ancient Egypt 2500 years ago, long before any Hebrews were known or Habiru mercenaries serving the Hyksos.  It continues to this day with fantasies from New York to Albania and beyond.

Zombies are introduced in the Old Testament, in Zechariah 14:12 And the Lord will send a plague on all the nations that fought against Jerusalem. Their people will become like walking corpses, their flesh rotting away: וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָמֵק בְּשָׂרֹו וְהוּא עֹמֵד עַל־רַגְלָיו וְעֵינָיו תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן וּלְשֹׁונֹו תִּמַּק בְּפִיהֶם׃ (cp. the gentleness of a loving god in Leviticus 26:16, Deuteronomy 28:21-22, Job 18:13, Zechariah 14:15, 18).

This is the foundation for Matthew 27:52-53: 52 and the tombs broke open. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. 53 They came out of the tombs after Jesus’ resurrection and[a] went into the holy city and appeared to many people. (καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ  τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς.)

These two lines give cause for pausing in reflection on the warrior Jesus of the New Testament.  It is in error to even consider that such a ghoulish event happened.  Josephus, the chronicler of the time, does not mention it—nor do any of the apologists for what became Christianity, nor do its detractors.  It is a unique mentioning.  The tone and word choice of these two lines indicates a later addition to the text; but it has greater value.  It repeats what ancient Babylonians and Hyksos and their mercenary troops (Habiru: Hebrew) saw in the tale of the ambulant dead a promise of eternal life or immortality.  But to give full credit to those who would eventually call themselves Hebrews is a disservice to fact, as such tales appear universally. 

The ancient Scandinavians, before the intrusion of Paulanity, were an advanced people with a theology similar to what would become Christianity. Among those who were sought out for advice was the zombie Völuspá (“Prophecy [spá] of the völva”).  The Great God Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future. She was reluctant, crying out, “What do you ask of me? Why tempt me?” Since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him.  Odin was seeking information on the war of the zombies that would come when his favorite son, the God Thor, would set out to battle evil in the universal war of Ragnarök (Armageddon).  This predicted battle foretold the ultimate death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Freyr, Heimdall, and the jötunn (trickster) Loki), as gods would disappear when people gained sufficient intelligence to stop believing in them; it would also lead to the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water (a second Great Flood). Afterwards, the world resurfaces anew and fertile, the surviving gods meet, and the world is repopulated by two human survivors (gender is not spelled out).
 
The Ragnarök (Armageddon) would be fought, in part, by zombies, which in Scandinanvian Viking culture are known as draugr (draug in Icelandic; draugen in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish).  Ancient to medieval Scandinavians saw zombies as an exemplar of a continuation of a tumultuous life: carousing, drinking, fighting, wenching and generally making a nuisance of oneself (e.g. Harald Halt-foot).  A similar phenomena is found in Japanese culture where Japanese zombies reflected extreme piety such as the living mummies on Mount Yodono. Zombies even appear in Mexico, both in the past and today where it is known as the Day of the Dead.  The Day of the Dead is a celebration for the returning revenants who are welcomed and treated as guests, just as they would be if they were still alive and had returned briefly from living somewhere else, which in the eyes of ancient cultures they were.

With the invention of Christianity and the elevation of Paulinity (the writings of the legendary St. Paul) by the pagan Emperor Constantine I (Christianity tries to claim that Constantine converted to Christianity on his death-bed, but there is no proof of this happening; at the most he became an Arian Christian as his “confessor” was the Arian bishop Eusebius) at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.  Constantine’s one major contribution to Christianity was ordering all books and writings that disagreed with his church were to be burned in a manner that popes and prelates of the Middle Ages and later Adolf Hitler would follow, leading the psychotic Coptic Theophilus of Alexandria to torch the great Library of Alexandria and commission the murder of the world’s greatest mathematician and philosopher on orders of the Christian Emperor Theodosius who took, energetically, all measures including torture and murder in converting all his subjects to Christianity,with most of this coming from fourth century writers that were used by Edward Gibbons (there is a sound argument that it was destroyed earlier, by Julius Cesar).  The most illustrious of the victims was the virgin (unmarried) Hypatia whose flesh was torn off of her body while she lived by enraged Christian monks. Hypatia had served as the librarian but was singled out for martyrdom by the fatuous followers of the  phantasmagorical Theophilus because of her comments against Christianity that she equated with fantasies of small children.  Personally, I find more evidence for Theodosius as the prime instigator given his sordid record of forcing everyone to convert to a bastardized religion that had nothing in common with the original scrolls and the Sayings of Jesus, but were invented by later church councils that would even elevate the Egyptian Trinity to being a Christian concept, transmogrifying the original Isis-Ra-Horus into the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to remove the significant stature of a woman as being the primary mother of all things (the ancient Hebrews would transmogrify this by removing Horus in favor of the sun-god Ra and substituting the word lord (El) to complete their trinity.  They would ultimately abbreviate the Egyptian Trinity into Is-Ra-El: Israel). 

I do not agree with the Greek testament by Rufinus Tyrannius who continued Eusebius Historia Ecclesia (Books X and XI) as he claims that the local pagans “incited the Christian mobs” with their refusal to convert to the pagan faith out of Jerusalem.  The “local pagans” had been heavily taxed, were beaten, denied jobs, and forced to attend the “love feasts” of the early Christians and were victimized daily, having no say in their own destiny.  This is supported by  the pagan writer Eunapius of Antioch (died after 400 CE) who wrote about the sack of the Serapeum in his Life of Antonius, and, before he died in 390 CE, prophesied that all the pagan temples in Alexandria would be destroyed (not a desperately surprising contingency at the time) out of “religious fanaticism” and an effort to make the scrolls of Christianity into a god that he termed as bibliolatry: worship of the bible, predating the rise and evolving intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Constantine’s Christian Church (originally known as the catholic [universal] Church taught that the dead might return from the grave to take vengeance on the living for not saying Masses for them, and paying the priest for each Mass said.  This had little to do with piety, but was ecclesiastical extortion, one of the many ways that the Church raised revenue, and on the Night before All Souls Day (Halloween; on All Souls Day read the Bollandist Ada Sanctorum (Saec. VI., pt. i. p. 585) which requires “sacrifice”) the Church said special masses for the dead always at inflated prices—the offerings being put into gourds (similar to pumpkins) that were crafted with faces and had a candle within to illuminate the scowl or smile depending on the nature of the carver.  At each Mass the priest would remind parishioners that the faithful would soon come near a walking dead in testimony of the resurrection of Jesus and the need that the fearful faithful had to put coins in the gourd to keep the candle stable so that its light would lead the New Testament Jesus to the church where the central figure would enter the host that would be displayed upon a table or altar where the sacrifice (similar to Abram’s near-slaughter of his son Isaac) of the “Son of God” was to be executed.  Halloween, like all Christian celebrations, borrowed heavily from incorporates traditions from pagan harvest festivals and festivals honouring the dead, particularly the Celtic Samhain, especially in votives and prayers for the dead and the payment to priest to pray for the dead to stay away from the living (Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford UK and New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, pp. 11-21 sqq).  Today, Celtic Reconstructionists, pagans, and others who maintain ancestral customs, make offerings to the gods and the ancestors in keeping with their original heritage before missionaries arrived swinging battle axes and swords while preaching from Bibles (Hörandner, Editha (ed.; 2005), Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo, Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), Wien (Vienna), Austria: LIT Verlag Münster; and, Santino, Jack (ed.;  1994), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life.  Knoxville, TN, USA: University of Tennessee Press).

The ever-intolerant world of evangelical Christianity that demands that believers accept every word of the Bible as literally true has had numerous casualties in its battle for conformity especially within the Southern Baptist Convention where literacy is an article of faith and the Bible considered inerrant: Article XX of the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics states, 

We affirm that since God is the author of all truth, all truths, biblical and extra biblical, are consistent and cohere [sic: coherent], and that the Bible speaks truth when it touches on matters pertaining to nature, history, or anything else. We further affirm that in some cases extra biblical data have value for clarifying what scripture teaches and for prompting correction of faulty interpretations. We deny that extra biblical [sic: extra biblical or extra-biblical] views ever disprove the teaching of Scripture or hold priority over it.

This is matched by the in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy:

We affirm that canonical Scripture should always be interpreted on the basis that it is infallible and inerrant. However, in determining what the God-taught writer is asserting in each passage, we must pay the most careful attention to its claims and character as a human production. In inspiration, God utilized the culture and conventions of His [sic] penman’s milieu.  A milieu that God controls in His sovereign providence; it is misinterpretation to imagine otherwise.

So history must be treated as history, poetry as poetry, hyperbole and metaphor as hyperbole and metaphor, generalization and approximation as what they are, and so forth. Differences between literary conventions in Bible times and in ours must also be observed”.

Michael Licona (Facebook)

Michael Licona (Facebook)

While the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy asserts that an inattention to the culture and literary conventions in Bible times could lead to a misinterpretation of the biblical text, professors have been fired from teaching appointments for not conforming their interpretations according to erroneous English translations and codified canons, as has been the case with Professor Michael Liconawho was denounced by the twenty-first Grand

R. Albert Mohler, Jr.

Inquisitor R. Albert Mohler, Jr., president of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary — the flagship school of the Southern Baptist Convention and one of the largest seminaries in the world who wrote: The affirmation of biblical inerrancy is nothing more, and nothing less, than the affirmation of the Bible’s total truthfulness and trustworthiness. The assertion of the Bible’s inerrancy — that the Bible is “free from all falsehood or mistake” — is an essential safeguard for the Bible’s authority as the very Word of God in written form. The reason for this should be clear: to affirm anything short of inerrancy is to allow that the Bible does contain falsehoods or mistakes. The intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention has exceeded even the corrupt Councils of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages, when “evangelical philosopher” Norman Geisler,  a Christian apologist and the co-founder of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina with a PhD from Jesuit Loyola University.  

Norman Geisler

Norman Geisler has argued that creationism be taught in public schools, affirms the existence of UFOs but claims that they are “a satanic manifestation in the world for the purpose of deception” (San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, December 12, 1981), and has publicly been accused of plagiarism (Danel W. Bachman, “The Other Side of the Coin: A Source Review of Norman Geisler’s Chapter,” FARMS Review of Books, 12/1 (2000): 175-213).  Geisler , who argues for an early dating of the New Testament going against every other learned scholar and advocating certain actions are absolutely right or wrong regardless of other contexts such as their consequences or the intentions behind them thus destroying free will, addressed two open letters to Michael Licona, charging him with violating the inerrancy of Scripture in making his argument about Matthew 27:52-53. Geisler is the problem, for he has little comprehension of interpretation in the first century.

Licona, Geisler argued, had “dehistoricized” the biblical text. As Geisler made clear, this was a direct violation of biblical inerrancy. Licona’s approach to this text, Geisler argued, “would undermine orthodoxy by dehistoricizing many crucial passages of the Bible.”  This is the approach of all tyrants who will stifle dissent: from Martin Luther to Pius IX, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI and Opus Dei cardinals and bishops such as Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne of Lima, Perú, destroy the freedom of inquiry, and rule as theocrats without a conscience.  No one should ever accept any word, any document, any message sola fide (on faith alone) as it degrades the individual, destroys education, and makes a mockery of free will. Geisler is more like the Dominican monk and

Tomás de Torquemada

Spain’s Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquema (the son of a Jewish rabbi), than he is a Christian on the order of the New Testament Jesus.  It is most likely that this pulpit parasite is totally unfamiliar with Matthew 7:1 or Acts 10:24, for he, like the member congregations of the Southern Baptist Convention, has placed his Bible before god and made himself and other theocrats into gods as exposed by his own words, using the cryptic psychology of unwavering obedience to authority. To accept such a command and obey with unwavering obedience can lead to catatonic withdrawal, suicide, and self-doubting of actuality and personal work completed or in-progress (Zisselman, Marc H, and Jaffe, Richard L. (2010). “ECT in the Treatment of a Patient With Catatonia: Consent and Complications” American Journal of Psychiatry. 167:127-132; cf. “Replicating Milgram: Researcher Finds Most Will Administer Shocks to Others When Prodded by ‘Authority Figure’,” December 19, 2008; American Psychological Journal; the same demand for acceptance infallibility of anyone or in anything was used successfully by Nazi Germany in containing and eliminating dissent and questioning: Joyce, Nick (2009). “In search of the Nazi personality; The Nazi Rorschach responses have captured psychologists’ imaginations for decades.” Journal of the American Psychological Association Vol 40, No. 3; cp. Gilbert, G.M. (1950). The psychology of dictatorship; based on an examination of the leaders of Nazi Germany. New York, NY, USA: Ronald Press Company). Geisel has done himself, the Southern Baptist community, and Liconia an unparalleled disservice. Geisel has put the Southern Baptist Convention, its churches, and its members, directly in line with Nazi thinking and actions, as the churches (Roman Catholic and Protestant/Lutheran) and their adherents and ministers directly supported what Hitler did (with a few minor opponents: read Ericksen, Robert P. (1985). Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch. (New Haven, CT, USA and London, UK: Yale University Press; for unpublished material, consult the Landeskirchlichesarchiv in Hanover).

Geisler called upon Michael Licona to change his position on this text and to affirm it as historical fact without reservation. But Geisler, a member of the Evangelical Theological Society [ETS] for many years, made another very important point. He reminded Licona that such arguments had been encountered before within the ETS, and it had led to the expulsion of a member.”  This matches, identically, the heresy trials of Arius before the Emperor Constantine I leading to the bonfire of burning Arian books.”

St. Paul overseeing the burning of scrolls at Ephesus

This evolved from the mythical St. Paul (there is no record of a Saul or Tarsus or a St. Paul outside of the New Testament; he is not named nor discussed by Josephus, Tacitus, or other contemporaries, not even among the early church presbyters) and his order for the burning of books in Ephesus (Acts 19:19: A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly: ἱκανοὶ δὲ τῶν τὰ περίεργα πραξάντων συνενέγκαντες τὰς βίβλους κατέκαιον ἐνώπιον πάντων, καὶ συνεψήφισαν τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν καὶ εὗρον ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε.) and elsewhere as “instruments of evil”.  I am surprised that Geisler has not called for an auto-de-fé to rid the world of Licona, for his overt public psychology shows him to be dictatorial with illusions of grandeur.  The same intolerance for dissenting opinion, for revision of corrupt writings, and for the clarification of texts that led to the burning of books throughout history became a furnace of hate by the Roman Catholic confessing Adolf Hitler, testified:

My feelings as a Christian points me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter. It points me to the man who once in loneliness, surrounded by a few followers, recognized these Jews for what they were and summoned men to fight against them and who, God’s truth! was greatest not as a sufferer but as a fighter. In boundless love as a Christian and as a man I read through the passage which tells us how the Lord at last rose in His might and seized the scourge to drive out of the Temple the brood of vipers and adders. How terrific was His fight for the world against the Jewish poison. To-day, after two thousand years, with deepest emotion I recognize more profoundly than ever before the fact that it was for this that He had to shed His blood upon the Cross. As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice… And if there is anything which could demonstrate that we are acting rightly it is the distress that daily grows. For as a Christian I have also a duty to my own people.

-Adolf Hitler, in a speech on 12 April 1922 (Norman H. Baynes, ed. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, Vol. 1 of 2, pp. 19-20, Oxford University Press, 1942)

To say that the biblical literalists are misguided is most generous of their own insanity demanding absolute obedience to a work of fiction. Albert Mohler, Jr., is totally incorrect—as there is no non-biblical historical proof for a Jesus, nor any of the mythology surrounding the Jesus of the New Testament: the birth (born in a rock similar to the god Mithras, of a virgin), found by wise men seeking the star of the apocalypse (magi), to the death by crucifixion on a pillar (not a cross tree as the gods Odin and Thor were crucified, nor any common thief on a crux).  The alleged proof in Tacitus (the “proof of Jesus” is allegedly in Annals xv.44, but the original was “lost” (burned?) and there is no existing “copy” until the eleventh century CE; Tacitus was born 25 years after the alleged death of Jesus, and was age 7 at the time of the Great Fire of Rome—he was no eye-witness; on the insertion being a “pious fraud” see: Henry Furneaux, ed., Cornelii Taciti Annalium ab excessu divi augusti libri. The annals of Tacitus with introduction and notes, 2nd ed., vol. ii, books xi-xvi. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1907. Appendix II, p. 416f., 418; the most that can be said for Tacitus’ account of Jesus of the New Testament is that he was merely repeating what he heard as he had no eyewitness accounts and did not do what today is considered investigative reporting: France, Richard Thomas (1986). Evidence for Jesus. London, UK: Trafalgar Square Publishing. pp. 19–20, also released by London, UK: Hodder and Stoughton, and Downers Grove, IL, USA : InterVarsity Press) and Josephus (Guignebert, Charles Albert Honoré (1914). Le problem de Jesus. Paris, France: Ernest Flammarion, 1914; reissued under the title Jesus, New York, NY, USA: University Books, 1956, p. 17; cp. Mitchell, Logan (1842?) Christian Mythologies unveiled: a series of lectures…. London, UK: Cousins, who noted:

“Mattathias, the father of Josephus, must have been a witness to the miracles which are said to have been performed by Jesus, and Josephus was born within two years after the crucifixion, yet in all the works he says nothing whatever about the life or death of Jesus Christ; as for the interpolated passage it is now universally acknowledged to be a forgery. The arguments of the ‘Christian Ajax,’ even Lardner himself, against it are these: ‘It was never quoted by any of our Christian ancestors before Eusebius. It disturbs the narrative. The language is quite Christian. It is not quoted by Chrysostom, though he often refers to Josephus, and could not have omitted quoting it had it been then in the text. It is not quoted by Photius [9th century], though he has three articles concerning Josephus; and this author expressly states that this historian has not taken the least notice of Christ. Neither Justin Martyr, in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew; nor Clemens Alexandrinus, who made so many extracts from ancient authors; nor Origen against Celsus, have ever mentioned this testimony. But, on the contrary, in chap. 25th of the first book of that work, Origen openly affirms that Josephus, who had mentioned John the Baptist, did not acknowledge Christ. That this passage is a false fabrication is admitted by Ittigius, Blondel, Le Clerc, Vandale, Bishop Warburton, and Tanaquil Faber.'”

p. 47; and, as the Rev. S. Baring-Gould remarked:

This passage is first quoted by Eusebius (fl. A.D. 315) in two places (Historia Ecclesiae, lib. I, c. xi; Demonst. Evang., lib. iii); but it was unknown to Justin Martyr (fl. A.D. 140), Clement of Alexandria (fl. A.D. 192), Tertullian (fl. A.D. 193), and Origen (fl. A.D. 230). Such a testimony would certainly have been produced by Justin in his apology or in his controversy with Trypho the Jew, had it existed in the copies of Josephus at his time. The silence of Origen is still more significant. Celsus, in his book against Christianity, introduces a Jew. Origen attacks the argument of Celsus and his Jew. He could not have failed to quote the words of Josephus, whose writings he knew, had the passage existed in the genuine text. He, indeed, distinctly affirms that Josephus did not believe in Christ (Contra Celsus I).

The absurdity of turning to Josephus or Tacitus has long been disproven, and the New Testament not only found saturated with errors but statements that contradict (or “enhance/explain”) Old Testament fantasies from the gods (elohim) “creating” the world in six days (Genesis 1, 2) to Peter’s notation that a mortal day may be equal to one thousand years (2 Peter 3:8). 

Mohler fulfills page 13 of the Southern Baptist affirmation of the literal infallibility and correctness of the texts:

“Since God has nowhere promised an inerrant transmission of Scripture, it is necessary to affirm that only the autographic text of the original documents was inspired and to maintain the need of textual criticism as a means of detecting any slips that may have crept into the text in the course of its transmission. The verdict of this science, however, is that the Hebrew and Greek text appears to be amazingly well-preserved, so that we are amply justified in affirming, with the Westminster Confession, a singular providence of God in this matter and in declaring that the authority of Scripture is in no way jeopardized by the fact that the copies we possess are not entirely error-free.

“Similarly, no translation is or can be perfect, and all translations are an additional step away from the autograph. Yet the verdict of linguistic science is that English-speaking Christians, at least, are exceedingly well served in these days with a host of excellent [sic] translations and have no cause for hesitating to conclude that the true Word of God is within their reach. Indeed, in view of the frequent repetition in Scripture of the main matters with which it deals and also of the Holy Spirit’s constant witness to and through the Word, no serious translation of Holy Scripture will so destroy its meaning as to render it unable to make its reader “wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 3:15)” [emphasis mine in bold italics]

The Southern Baptists of today have nothing in common with the eighteenth century Danbury Baptists who petitioned Thomas Jefferson to help them maintain a separation of state of church.  Today, the Southern Baptists openly endorse candidates, contribute to “tearing down the wall” separating church and state (an invocation by Roman Catholic Rick Santorum), and to creating a theocracy of their own making.  The people will become the zombies in their army as witnessed by the generation of the New Apostolic Reformation.

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Serpent in the Garden

Even before recorded time the serpent has been a symbol for wisdom, fertility, creativity, and creation.  It was prized for millennia.  Few civilizations saw the serpent as evil.  Those civilizations that viewed the serpent as a sinister miscreant were generally patriarchal and patrilineal.  The other cultures and societies viewed the serpent as benevolent, intelligent, a teacher, a doctor, and a caregiver.

The serpent in the Genesis myth is not new.  It had many previous Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Babylonian, Hittite, Hurrian, etc.) antecedents and ancestors among the gods and goddess of the Fertile Crescent and from Egypt and beyond.  These included (1) Anu/An; (2) Dumuzi/Tammuz; (3) Ningishzida/Gishzida; (4) Ea/Enki; (5) Enlil/Ellil; (6) Marduk/Merodach; (7) Inanna/Ishtar; (8) Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell; (9) Shamhat (Ukhat).  The emerging Hebrews merely recast the characters and changed their names, as they also did for such fictional beings as Adam, Eve, Cain, Abel, Seth, Noah, Moses, and even Yahweh.

Anu ("Lord of the Great Above") the God of Heaven (Sumerian) son of the first pair of gods, Ansar and Kisar

Anu/An is a Sumerian god of the sky.  Anu/An is known as the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, Consort of Antu and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions.  Anu was believed to have come from “the great void” (the Milky Way star system in quest of gold and ore).  Anu is a very old god, and he is a part of the Sumerian Trinity that became a foundation stone for the Christian invention of Three-Persons-in-One.  Joining Anu in this theological triad are Enlil, god of the air and Enki, god of water: the basic elements that make up the planet and became bricks in the wall dividing civilizations by Habiru scribes millennia later.

Like all Mesopotamian and Mediterranean deities, Anu is especially dedicated to sexuality.  Sex plays as big a role in his religion as it does in that of the tribal Habiru agricultural god Yahweh.  While Yahweh was more like Zeus, having sex and then abandoning his temporary mistresses (with the one exception being the boy Ganymede whom Zeus flew to Olympus to be with him) to return to his wife Hera, Anu had several consorts.  His most important temporary affair was with the goddess Ki (earth), Nammu who was technically Anu/An’s mother (and the only creatrix of the universe in Babylon) who was goddess of the primeval sea (Engur) that gave birth to An (heaven), Ki (earth) and the first gods: among whom would be Abram (Abraham from the Ur of the Chaldees–the mythological father of Isaac and Ishmael who would ultimately propagate the female deities known as the “Satanic Verses”), and Uras (another goddess of earth, primarily red soil, and mother of the goddess Ninsun and a grandmother of  the Babylonian hero Gilgamesh (Kramer, Samuel N. (1998). Sumerian Mythology: a Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press).

Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi (a sex ritual)

Dumuzi/Tammuz was another Sumerian deity who was god of food and vegetation, who died each year at autumn to rise again as a new crop.  He was especially popular in Syria where his name  ܬܡܘܙ (Dumuzi) meant faithful and true son: the prototype for Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem; in Sumeria,  Tammuz  (תַּמּוּז) was known as the Good Shepherd, and like many other gods, he was the consort of his mother (in Akkadian: Ishtar (Astarte or Asherah in Canaan; marriage occurred when sex was enacted, as became the foundation for marriage in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), the most prominent Mesopotamian female deity) and rescue Ishtar/Inanna: the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility and warfare.  Tammuz is recognized by the prophet Ezekiel (Ezekiel 8:14-15; cp. Edwin M. Yamauchi, Edwin M. (1965). “Tammuz and the Bible” Journal of Biblical Literature 84.3 (September, pp. 283-290), Kramer, Samuel Noah (1980). “The Death of Dumuzi: A New Sumerian Version” Anatolian Studies 30, Special Number in Honour of the Seventieth Birthday of Professor O. R. Gurney (1980:5-13), and, Wolkstein, Diane and Kramer, Samuel Noah editors/translators (1983). Inanna, Queen of Heaven & Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer. New York, NY, USA: Harper Colophon).

Ningishzida as a Hydra serpent

Ningishzida/Gishzida is either another name for Dumuzi, or a similar Sumerian god who was lord of the underworld, much like Pluto and Hades.  He is commonly depicted as a serpent with a human head and is considered the son of Anu (Ira Maurice Price, Ira Maurice (1900) Notes on the Pantheon of the Gudean Cylinders, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 17, No. 1 (October, pp. 47-53) and an ancestor to the Gilgamesh and also the son of Ereshkigal, but in those days there were no definite chronologies or genealogies. Ningishzida’s symbol of two serpents or snakes twining (possibly copulating) predates the Caduceus of Hermes, the Rod of Asclepius and the staff of Moses by more than a millennium.  In the Adapa myth the serpent deity is a male god, not the female being the later Hebrews create (Turner, Frederick (2006). Natural Religion.  New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Transaction Publishers).

Ningishzida/Hydra is portrayed as serpent-dragon with the forepaws of a lion, but no hind legs.  This image is preserved on an early Persian clay tablet  Langdon (1931) but Black and Green (1992) date it to the Greek Seleucid period, the successors of Alexander the Great. (cf. Langdon, Stephen Herbert (1931). The Mythology of All Races: Semitic. Boston, MA: Archaeological Institute of America, vol. 5, p. 190, fig. 159; cp. Black, Jeremy, & Green, Anthony (1992).  Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, An Illustrated Dictionary.  Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, published in cooperation with the British Museum Press of London).

Ea or Enki in Mesopotamian religions: both a god and a goddess who could change gender at will

Ea/Enki was originally a Sumerian god but was adopted into Akkadian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Hittite and Hurrian theology where he was a creator god associated with water and was among the earliest deities to be associated with numerology (his sacred number was 40). His image is a double-helix snake, or the Caduceus, very similar to the Rod of Asclepius, and is often shown with a horned crown of divinity dressed in the skin of a carp.  Dating from the third millennium BCE, Ea/Enki is considered the god of wisdom, semen and magic (leading to fertility and fecundity; cp. Leick, Gwendolyn (2001), Mesopotamia: the Invention of the City. London, UK: Allen Lane/The Penguin Press, p. 20), his delight was to engage in discussions with women known to be superior to men in theological debate (Kramer, Samuel Noah (2007). Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC. Charleston, SC, USA: Forgotten Books). It is from the Enki story that the writers of Genesis were able to create the myths of Adam and Eve walking in the Garden, as after Ea/Enki completed his/her conversation they would make the mortal(s) into slaves for the gods.  Ea/Enki were the background for what would become the myth of Noah and the Great flood (see the carvings on the rock sanctuary of Yazilikaya near Bogasköy).

Relief from Susa . Enlil to the left, Ninlil to the right. Tree of Knowledge is the symbol for the erect phallus.jpg

Enlil/Ellil and Ninlil were the gods of creation (as recorded on clay tablets in the third millennium BCE, long before any Torah or Bible was even thought of), and the account of the birth of Nanna is the foundation for Genesis 1-3 (cf. George Aaron Barton (1918). Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press, p. 52).  The conception took place in a “heavenly city” never occupied by mortals–who were later introduced to work for the gods on 22,000 square feet of cultivated fields.  The goddess Nun-bar-ce-gunu warns her daughter Ninlil not to approach the river, fearing that she would want sex with Enlil. She disobeys her mother, goes to the river and is raped by Enlil.  This violence conceives

Nanna conceived

Suen-Acimbabbar, the moon-god in a “ritually impure” manner–which lead to the arrest and exile of Enlil (completing the myth of the exile of Adam and Eve from the Garden). 

Marduk/Merodach is from the third millennium to the eighteenth century BCE and the era of Hammurabi (Jastrow, Jr., Morris (1911). Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria, G.P. Putnam’s Sons: New York and London. pp. 217-219).  Originally, Marduk was considered the sun of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and connected with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic (C. Scott Littleton (2005). Gods,

Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal

Goddesses and Mythology. Tarrytown, NY, USA: Marshall Cavendish. Vol. 6, p. 829).  Literally, Marduk means “bull calf of the sun-god Utu”, giving rise to the cow deities of India and Egypt, and to the golden calf fantasy of Exodus. Marduk is historically pictured with his dragon-snake Mušḫuššu, and is commonly found on Babylonian cylinder seals.  By 1000 BCE, Marduk’s name becomes a title: Bel (Lord; it would in time be synonymous with master and husband).  As Babylon’s power grew, the Enûma Elish was written, culminating in an apocalyptic battle between good and evil, giving rise to the Babylonian myth of Daniel and His Companions and laying the foundation for John of Patmos’ nightmare, the Apocalypse.

Mesopotamian Goddess Inanna/Ishtar

Inanna (a Sumerian goddess; the name means “Queen of Heaven”) / Ishtar (the Akkadian counterpart) is the goddess of sexual fertility, love, and warfare and was the most prominent and popular female deity in Mesopotamia 4000 – 3200 BCE. The famous Uruk Vase (found in a deposit of cult objects of the Uruk III period; Ralf B. Wartke, “Eine Vermißtenliste (2): Die “Warka-Vase” aus Bagdad”, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 26 April 2003, Nbr 97, page 39; it was stolen from the Bagdad Museum during the April 2003 invasion of Iraq and broken into fourteen pieces by three unidentified young men on motorcycle determined to steal it; it was more than 5000 years old; from then on looting has been regular, including by allies (UK and USA soldiers and contractors), so the museum has been bricked up and covered over with cement) depicts a row of naked men carrying various objects, bowls, vessels, and baskets of farm produce, and bringing sheep and goats, to a female figure facing the ruler.  The

Uruk vase (3000 BCE; partially restored) Iraq

nudity of the men, abhorrent to contemporary Christian conservatives and Islamic fundamentalists and has been signaled out as a “devilish corruption” of the individual, signified their place in purity and subservience to the ruler in the same way that the mythological Adam and Eve were nude until the gods of Gan Eden.  It was for this reason that the Hebrew gods of Genesis took time to sew for the first people on earth aprons before expelling them from the garden.  The unique aspect of the Hebrew gods terror at seeing the nudity of the first people was that there were no other people in the Garden (according to Genesis). This indicates that either the gods were afraid to look at the nude bodies that they had “created in their own image” or that the penis and vagina/clitoris had not been created by the gods and that they were the invention of the serpent who knew that without the sex organs full knowledge would not be obtainable or useable.  Knowledge in the ancient world was equated with sex.  To this end all early religions had “sex priests” (the Hebrews referred to them as “dog priests”: kedeshah (קדשה)‎ meaning “to set apart” from mortal to perform rituals for the [pagan: non-Hebrew] gods; they were never homosexuals; cf. Thus Deuteronomy 23:18-19, but this practice continued into the fourth century CE: Eusebius, Vita Constantini, 3.55, 58) to perform fertility rituals in honor of the gods and goddesses of creation where creation was the result of sexual orgasm.

Nergal: Patron God of Kutha/Cutha

Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell is the son of Enlil and Ninlil and ruler deity of the city of Cuth (Cutha): “And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal” (2 Kings 17:30). Nergal was sometime god of the sun, but primarily god of war, fire and pestilence, thus earning him a place in Hebrew and Christian mythology as being the Satan of Hell. 

Tablet of The Deluge in the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian (2000 - 700 BCE)

Shamhat (Ukhat) was a temple prostitute in the age of Gilgamesh (Dalley, Stephanie (2000).  Myths from Mesopotamia, Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and others.  New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, revised edition,  p.137.).  Shamhat appears on Tablets I/II and VII of the Epic of Gilgamesh from which the Hebrews found the legend of the Deluge (the Great Flood). On Tablet I she plays the integral role in taming the wild man Enkidu, who was created by the gods as the rival to the mighty Gilgamesh by tempting the wild man and civilizing him through continued sexual intercourse that he enjoys “six days and seven nights” until his former companions, the wild animals, turn away from him in fright, at the watering hole where they congregated. Uncertain what to do, and wanting to be with his friends, Shamhat persuades him to follow her and join the civilized world in the city of Uruk, where Gilgamesh is king.  Enkidu rejects  his former life in the wild  become the best of friends with Gilgamesh with whom he has many adventures.  Because Shamhat used sex to entice Enkidu, women from that time on in Hebrew lore were considered devils and temptresses and purity laws (Leviticus) were written to help man avoid the evils of women.  

Margiana silver plate decorated with snakes (Early Bronze Age) Metropolitan Museum New York

In the Middle East, from which the Abrahamic religions spring, serpents were considered senior deities, and are found with favor among the ancient Canaanites/Palestinians (Rosen, Arlene M. (1995). “The social response to environmental change in Early Bronze Age Canaan,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14(1):26-44) in the Bronze Age—who would be transmogrified by later invading mercenaries known as Habiru/Hebrews as שרף meaning “burning” and originally as a term for an enlightened being/god. While Canaan (כנען; Oswalt, John N. (1980). “כנען,” in R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke (eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago, IL, USA: Moody, 1980.  Pp. 445–446) had a highly advanced and sophisticated society; the invaders were at best mercenaries and more precisely barbarians (Redford, Donald B. (1993) Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press).

Ouroboros serpent with arms, hands, legs, feet swallowing its tale (fertility and eternity symbol) at Ptuj castle

Only in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) does the serpent represent sexual desire, as in other religions that are far older the serpent (or snake) is seen as the ouroboros:  a symbol of eternity and continual renewal of life as found in Buddhism.  The ouroboros is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail and was a common motif used for rings, handles, dishes, and so forth.  The word/term originates from within Greek language; οὐρά (oura) meaning “tail” and βόρος (boros) meaning “eating”, thus “he who eats the tail” (cp. Plato, Timaeus, 33: πᾶν ἔξωθεν αὐτὸ ἀπηκριβοῦτο πολλῶν χάριν. ὀμμάτων τε γὰρ ἐπεδεῖτο οὐδέν, ὁρατὸν γὰρ οὐδὲν ὑπελείπετο ἔξωθεν, οὐδ᾽ ἀκοῆς, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀκουστόν: πνεῦμά τε οὐκ ἦν περιεστὸς δεόμενον ἀναπνοῆς, οὐδ᾽ αὖ τινος ἐπιδεὲς ἦν ὀργάνου σχεῖν ᾧ τὴν μὲν εἰς ἑαυτὸ τροφὴν δέξοιτο, τὴν δὲ πρότερον ἐξικμασμένην ἀποπέμψοι πάλιν. ἀπῄει τε γὰρ οὐδὲν οὐδὲ προσῄειν αὐτῷ ποθεν—οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν—αὐτὸ γὰρ ἑαυτῷ τροφὴν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ φθίσιν παρέχον καὶ πάντα ἐν ἑαυτῷ καὶ ὑφ᾽.  According to the second century Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1.82, “The divine power, Kundalini, shines like the stem of a young lotus; like a snake, coiled round upon herself she holds her tail in her mouth and lies resting half asleep as the base of the body”).

The serpent of Genesis 1-3 is of recent vintage, and the concept that the serpent represents evil is an invention, as found in linguistic studies. Nahash (a word that means “serpent” in Hebrew, comes from the root nshs and it should be translated as “to find out” or “discover” by conversing with more intelligent gods and goddesses, especially the Mother of All Gods (it appears in all languages: Θεοτόκος, Աստուածածին, Богородица, ღვთისმშობელი, and so forth; it is not reserved for one language, religion, or people) in the ancient Jewish world: Eve.  Technically she was a helpmeet (not a helpmate): one who guided those subservient (“created from dust” to her, as was the inferior Adam who was Kohen (officially this word denotes a descendant of Aaron and a

Egyptian God Thoth as a bearded man-serpent "Wisdom-bearer"

Jewish priest. However, long before the fable of Moses and Aaron appeared, it meant “serpent priest”) who in ancient Egypt was Sato (“son of the earth”).

The figure of Eve is based upon much older mythology and is traceable to the ancient Mother Goddess or World Mother and the serpent cults of the pre-Biblical period before there were Jews, Hebrews or Israelites—people of a later invention. Closer examination of the name ‘Eve’ revealed her serpent origins, for the Hebrew for Eve is havvah (חַוָּה‎, Ḥawwāh in Classical Hebrew, Khavah in Modern Israeli Hebrew, and in Arabic: حواء‎) meaning ‘mother of all things.’ Outside of the Abrahamic use it also translates as ‘serpent’ as found in the Egyptian Book of the Netherworld. Likewise, the Arabic words for ‘snake,’ ‘life,’ and ‘teaching,’ are closely related to the word or name “Eve’ (cf. Gardiner, Philip; and Osborn, Gary (2005). The Serpent Grail: the Truth behind the Holy Grail, the Philosopher’s Stone and the Elixir of Life. London, UK: Watkins, cp. Philip Gardiner (2007). Secret societies: Gardiner’s forbidden knowledge: revelations about the Freemasons, Templars, Illuminati, Nazis, and the serpent cults. Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA: New Page Books).

When discussing the serpent that appears in Genesis 1-3, who is not a disfavored nor a disfigured being, but an equal with the gods as shown in the dialogue with Eve. According to CE translations of Genesis, the serpent was “cursed” (actually “blessed”) by the senior deities (a plural noun in the original) who allowed it to debate the Mother of All Creation (it must be remembered that Genesis is a work of recent vintage—coming at the end of the Torah—not at the beginning; it is placed at the beginning of the Hebrew and Christian bibles only because of its name, which means “First” or “In the Beginning”). 

Genesis is a series of short stories that were plagiarized from far older works from India (Śrī Brahma-samhitā 5:1: īśvarah paramah krsnah, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahah anādir ādir govindah, sarva-kārana-kāranam), Mesopotamia (Enûma Eliš).   Egypt predating Genesis and the arrival of Habiru/Hebrews, being written 2780 – 2250 B.C.E (Hart, George (2004). Egyptian Myths. Austin, Texas: University of Texas. p. 9.), Ethiopia with the god Wak being the creator and throughout Africa, and so forth—showing that communication by people was in progress and only when education ceased was there the need to fantasize the fable of the Tower of Babel in an effort to explain the lack of dialogue.  This can be seen in a drawing by Colonel Coombs, of a sculptured column in a cave-temple in the South of India, representing the first pair of mortals at the foot of an ambrosial tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavily laden boughs, presenting to them some of the fruit from its mouth (cf. Jackson, John G. (1988). Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth.  Austin, TX: American Atheist Press). I use the pronoun its to denote the position but not the sex, as the drawing, now in the British Museum Department of Oriental Antiquity, has the serpent portrayed as a woman and heralds a distinct Babylonian influence.

Samothrace neophytes initiated into the Cabiri (pre-Grecian mystery religion)

In other cultures, the first people were not Adam and Eve (male and female) but rather two males (compare the Norse legend of two male gods creating the first two people out of two pieces of wood: with genderless beings in the religions of India and Asia).   The serpent is seen as the wise god giving them knowledge, and accomplished this by swallowing them (feet forward, indicating fellatio), so that they could be “born again.”  As noted by Mircea Eliade: the ritual swallowing by the Snake is to be interpreted as a return to the womb- on the one hand because the Snake is often described as female, on the other, because entering the belly of the divine also carries a symbolism of return to embryonic state…It represents not so much a ritual death followed by resurrection as a complete regeneration of the initiate through his gestation and birth by the Great Mother.

Serpent "re-birthing" man

Mircea Eliade (1983). Rites and Symbols of Initiation: the Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth New York, NY, USA: Harper & Row, an abridgement (chapter 2)

An ithphallyic male sky god and Nut with a snake-headed god under her (Egypt)

from the 1958/1959 edition Naissances mystiques; essai sur quelques types d’initiations. [Paris, France]: Gallimard. A Romanian and Italian translation exists. This was found to be the situation everywhere; outside of Abrahamic religions, as the serpent/snake represented wisdom and knowledge as was the ultimate symbol of wisdom and salvation: being born again (reincarnation) or being allowed to enter a garden of delights.  (cf. Bushby, Tony (2003). The Secret in the Bible.  Maroochydore, Qld: Stanford Publishing Group).

Gerald Massey wrote:

…it was the Serpent of Wisdom that first offered the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge for the Enlightenment of Mankind; whether this be Egyptian, Akkadian, or Gnostic, it is the Good Serpent. And as Guardian of the Tree set in Heaven it was the Good Serpent, or intelligent Dragon, as keeper of the treasures of Astral knowledge. It was the later Theology, Persian and Hebrew, that gave the character of the Evil One to the Serpent of Wisdom, and perverted the original meaning, both of the temptation and the Tempter who protected the Tree; which has been supplemented by the theology of the Vitriol-throwers who have scarified and blasted the face of nature on earth, and defiled and degraded the starry Intelligencers in heaven…

 Massey, Gerald (1887). The Hebrew and Other Creations Fundamentally Explained. London, UK: privately printed, a second edition was printed in London by Villa Bordighiera of New Southgate as a response to Archibald Henry Sayce’s Hibbert Lectures, an annual series of non-sectarian lectures on theological issues. (1–see footnote below).

A careful reading of the “Eve” story in Genesis does not show an ignorant, haughty nor prevaricating evil woman.  On the contrary it shows a wise woman capable debating a god, citing scripture (that later day Hebrews would rewrite, indicating that Eve’s story of being a wise sacerdotal priestess was impossible) while debating the fine hermeneutic (διερμηνεία: interpreting) points of Genesis 1-3, theologians for centuries deliberately or ignorantly misunderstood.

There are many problems with current (mis)translations of the original scrolls.  Even worse is the plethora of misinterpretations of the narrative.  “Eve” was created last so that she could be first, as was the custom in ancient civilizations: the servants arrived first to herald the ruler. Woman was the crowning glory of the narrative.

The Hebrew narrative is poorly written and can easily be exposed as fraud.  According to the contemporary era story of Genesis, the gods (אֱלהִים: a plural noun) “created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without shape and there was nothing on it except for darkness … so the gods said ‘let there be light’…” (Genesis 1:3).  No where does the scroll tell us where the light comes from–the gods would not create the sun and moon and stars until much later (Genesis 1:16-17). 

There is also the contradiction between the earth “bringing forth living creatures” (Genesis 1:24) and then the gods creating living creatures (Genesis 1:25).  The “creation” of man appears at Genesis 1:26.  One verse later “man” is “male and female”.

Creation of mortals (Epic of Gilgamesh) in Mesopotamian theology

In the second story (Genesis 2), the gods create woman from a rib (verse 22). This does not appear in the first story (Genesis 1). The omission is significant.  A rib is decidedly stronger than dust: woman is created of a superior substance, and is the stronger person, and the story actually comes from the Gilgamesh that tells of the creation by the gods of a genderless earth creature, Enkidu. Originally destined to be the nemesis of the semi-divine King Gilgamesh of Uruk, Enkidu becomes Gilgamesh’s companion on a great adventure, travelling the length and breadth of the known world. In one particular encounter on that journey, Enkidu beds a woman and is transformed into a human male when the gods grant Enkidu a penis.  From that penis the mortal race is conceived.  The writer(s) of Genesis 2 are in open conflict with the author(s) of Genesis 1. 

Neither school of writers seem to have been aware of the work of the other school. The accounts are dramatically different; the unity is broken. Genesis 1 and 2 were not only written by different people, but during different time periods.  They were spliced together only as the community of scribes approached the impending work required for the Septuagint bible.

Celtic goddess Hekate Goddess of Wisdom (symbolized with snakes), Wild Creatures, the Moon and the Crossroads

Order is made out of this chaos only with the advent of wisdom (the Tree of Knowledge and its fruit, being reserved only for the gods, a copy of ancient Sumerian theology).  The serpent/ snake of Genesis 2:3 is heralded as subtle/ crafty–having the power of speech (third account, Genesis 3:1; the New American, English Standard, and New International translations use the word “crafty”, while the New Living Translation uses “shrewdest”, while the King James, American Standard, and Douai-Rheims uses “subtle” [in various spellings] the original meaning was “skillful” or “ingenious” and understood as mental acuteness and discernment) and thus interpolated as a woman (although it is woman who is in control of the serpent/snake). 

Minoan (Crete) Serpent Goddess

The serpent (נחש or nachash, which means to “observe attentively”; modern mistranslations use the word as if it signified “brazen” or “chains” “fetters of brass” and other attributes of slavery, but this does appear in the Genesis fable; those terms appear only in 2 Samuel 22:35, Job 20:24, but in Job 26:13 it is further misused as נחש ברח, or nachash bariach, as something that passes through a gate or door or through rings, as with the Norse and Babylonian concept of the serpent swallowing its tale, but in each case it is a symbol of eternity of being and eternal life, and Psalm 18:34, with it being considered filthy or a form of fornication in Ezekiel 16:36; Ecclesiastes 10:11) is marked as “the babbler”: an old Hittite concept brought to Mesopotamia from Egypt.

Black-lored Babbler (Turdoides melanops) of Africa

The “babbler” was a bird Egyptian in origin that reiterated “everything good and pure” at the time a person died and stood to be judged on whether or not he or she deserved eternal life. The babbler later became a crocodile that was also Egyptian in origin.  It can be seen in Isaiah 27:1 and 65:25.  In these references it is clearly the god crocodile (the Egyptian god Sobek who offered power, protection, and fertility who in the Middle Kingdom was associated with the sun-god Ra; he would destroy sinners but debate the just and good who sought or obtained wisdom having come out of “the waters” (the ocean) of chaos and created the world; read: Harris, Geraldine and Pemberton, Delia (1999). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.Lincolnwood, IL, USA: Peter Bedrick Books, pp.142-143.  From 1991 – 1650 BCE, Sobek’s influence extended far and became one of the foundations

Worship of the crocodile God Sobet, Temple of Kom Ombo

for the Genesis myth that dropped his depiction with the ankh, representing his ability to undo evil and cure illnesses, so as to degrade him from his divine status as if he were inferior to the gods of the Garden) or alligator who swallows the hearts of unbelievers.

In the Hall of Judgment in ancient Egyptian theology

In the Hall of Judgement Ma’ at weighs the hearts of the dead against her feather. If the heart weighs heavier it is thrown to the crocodile-headed Ammut to devour as it holds numerous sins that weigh down the heart. If the heart weighs lighter than the feather the soul that is not burdened with many transgressions may cross into the kingdom of Osiris, into paradise.

Isaiah’s use of the crocodile exposes the Isaiah account as plagiarised.  In spite of its many flaws, this tale is picked up and used later in Amos 9:3 where the serpent (נחש hannachash) rests at the bottom of the “seas” and remains the primal/primordial source of knowledge: נחשתי nichashti.  It is erroneously translated in the Septuagint, or Greek version of the Old Testament, as οφις; it has greater wisdom than the gods of the garden, as the serpent states “the gods know that on the day you eat of the fruit, your eyes shall be opened [you will have acquired knowledge] and you shall be equal to the gods.” (Genesis 1:5).  This happens two verses later.  The serpent walks erect and has feet, reaching out, for it has arms and hands–it does not “slither” on its belly (meaning “all four members) until the unmerciful garden keeper casts an evil spell upon it (Genesis 3:14b), but only after the serpent engages the mortal (female) in theological discourse.

Tree of Knowledge and its gods/priests (Assyrian cylinder)

The evil demon gods who damn the serpent and “man and woman” expose their draconian nature by admitting the truth of the serpent’s judgment, wisdom, and words. Genesis 3:22 condemns the gods of Eden without hesitation: “And the gods said, ‘Behold’, mankind has become one of us [this is a direct indication of the plurality of unity that is inherent in the Eternal Spirit and is a reference to personal distinction]—to know good and evil—for that reason, now, lest they put forth their hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat [its fruit] they will live forever [and be gods like us]”. 

Egyptian Tree of Life

The Tree of Life is found in all civilizations and in all of the world’s religions, but it is nourishing and to be sought out for food and wisdom.  For example, in ancient Egyptian theology, Isis Herself also appears once as a holy tree with a breast in its branches, nursing the king, found in the grave of Tuthmosis (Thutmosis); sexuality was affirmed, and breast milk was considered the milk of the gods–the milk of life for all future and present generations.  The breast was bared to receive

Goddess Isis as Tree of Life (Thutmosis tomb, Egypt)

petitioners who sought knowledge, food, and drink.  This motif  appears in most artistic expressions everywhere throughout the ancient world that was not plagued with the false modesty of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. It was natural–without the forced modesty of putting on an apron to cover the sexual organs as the gods of Genesis compelled its people to wear once they stopped following orders that came without a reason (Genesis 3:21) one line in the Torah that has no equal in any of the world’s older and more enlightened religions.  In other instances, the Tree of Knowledge is also the Tree of Life, as without Knowledge there is no life. This was equally the case in ancient India and Greece, where people came, the gods who were serpents rejoiced, and bade them take

Hesperides (the golden apple) Tree of Life with the serpent as a doctor (ancient Greece)

from the Tree its fruit and eat.  The serpent surrounds the tree to offer advice, medical care, compassion, and education.  This is true everywhere from the frozen Northern regions and states, to the Buddhists in Tibet and monks moving into China and East Asia.  It occurred everywhere in every scripture–except in Genesis and among the Habiru mercenaries working for the Akkadians and Hittites until they set off for their own series of conquests: Palestine, Canaan, and tributaries that were never their own property by right, but became their land by might: force of arms and brutal battles and open genocide forays (Genesis 34:25-29; That Palestine/Canaan was never the property of Israel is attested to in Genesis 37:1, cp. Deuteronomy 2:25, 3:3-6, 18; Joshua 6; the Old Testament gods are equal to Set of Egypt: blood-thirsty and vengeful, sparing no one who would cross them. 

Nagarjuna (Buddhist Tree of Life) Tibet

In Genesis the intent is clear.  The gods of the Hebrews did not want mortals (who were “fashioned in their image” and would have been most likely demigods) to live forever for such a situation could lead to a revolt against the gods, or the rejection of the gods in favor of knowledge.  If this were to happen the gods would disappear and no longer exist.  The fate of all fantasies when people stop believing in them and think for themselves (cp. Revelation 2:7).   

The gods of the garden were not omniscient (all-knowing).  They had to ask Adam where he was (Genesis 3:9).  This is the mark of an overseer, who calls out for a worker by name.

The gods of Gan Eden were not omnipresent.  They were not with the “woman” when she debated the serpent. 

The gods of paradise were not omnipotent.  They had no power to stop woman and her debate.

The eleventh verse of this ancient tragedy opens more questions about the omniscience of the garden god—questions that any gifted deity would not have to ask. This is found repeated in verse thirteen.

“Adam” proves himself to be weak: of fashion, creation, and courage. The man blames the woman as would any cowardly bully. 

Woman asserts herself.  She responds affirmatively.  Eve cites her source (2–see footnote below).

Far from being loving, merciful, forgiving, and generous gods, the deities are harsh, cruel, vengeful, unrelenting, and evil. They insist that the mortals suffer and glory in their suffering (Genesis 3:15-19). 

Only once the woman suffers is she given a name–and then by the mortal who caused the suffering by pulling back and putting the full blame on the woman. The name Eve does not appear until line 20, with the scriptural notation that she is “the mother of all living things”: the title given to goddess throughout Sumerian history and theology, a theology carried over to Mesopotamian nations and Egypt, and only of late used in the emerging writings of Hebrew scribes.  It is a title identical to that bestowed on the Goddess Isis of ancient Egypt—and, yet, there is the surprising confession that Eve is Isis in part as she is the creatrix who gave life to all things (Genesis 1:11-25 ff, 2:9-19) making Eve the creating deity over any other deity (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1982). Woman in ancient Israel under the Torah and Talmud: with a translation and critical commentary on Genesis 1-3. Mesquite, TX, USA: IHP).

The destiny of the Mother of All Things, however, changes in the fourth tale, (Genesis 4:1-2) as she no longer has the power to spontaneous create, but must regenerate laboriously: giving birth.  This is quickly masked over by the scribes who created the fifth account–obviously unaware of the other records, for there are numerous generations from a single mother who had but three sons.  For Cain to marry (Genesis 4:17), he would have had to marry a daughter of Seth (in Egyptian theology his name is Set and he was the god of evil and darkness, but definitely patriarchal with no respect for women), his niece, while Seth would have had to have had sex with his mother as Oedipus did in Greek lore.

Sumerian Tree of Knowledge and Serpent God 2025 BCE

While “Eve” is essential to the Abrahamic religions’ plagiarism of far older world fables on creation, the serpent in the garden is the central figure, especially concerning the Temptation beside the Tree of Knowledge.  The words of the serpent are critical to understanding the significance of the “fall” (or rise) of males and patriarchy that did not exist for millennia. Nearly the serpent’s entire message is in the Third Tale (Genesis 3, which Batto, Bernard F. (1992). Slaying the Dragon, Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition. Louisville, KY, USA: Westminster/John Knox Press, p. 60: “The Yahwist’s Primeval Myth.” rejects as original or authentic).  It is the serpent-god who begins the dialogue:

vs. 1b: “Yes, [have not] the gods said, ‘you shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” The full text is: וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃. In vs. 2b-3,

the woman points out “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden, but the fruit of the tree that is in the among/amidst/in the center of the garden, the gods declared ‘You all shall not eat of it, neither shall anyone touch it or you will die’.” The full text reads: וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתֹוךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בֹּו פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ .

The serpent retorts (vs. 4b=5): “Surely you will not die. For the gods know certainly that on the day that you eat [of the fruit of the tree], your eyes shall be opened and you shall be equal to the gods: knowing good and evil.” The full text reads: וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מֹות תְּמֻתוּן׃ כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיֹום אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טֹוב וָרָע׃  

Dispute Between Emesh and Enten (Sumerian cylinder)

The serpent is recognizing different forces.  The serpent is not the betrayer, nor is the serpent an enemy of gods for the woman is a god (the creatrix) and the serpent is working to increase her knowledge.  This knowledge led to sex with the “first man” and from their union came Emesh and Enten (Cain [literally it means “the Shining One” and was later accorded to Lucifer; in the Greek New Testament, Cain is referred to as ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ: “the evil one” 1 John 3:12] and Abel, which in Hebrew means “breath”, “vanity”, and “waste”, but in Akkadian, Abel means “son”, and in Arabic Abel translates as “herdsmen” of camels, while Cain translates as “metal smith” indicating their professions: farming and industry and their “battle” was between the two professions, not between two men: Richard S. (1993).  Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Kevelaer, Germany: Verlag Butzon & Bercker ; Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany: Neukirchener Verlag, pp. 24-25) two Mesopotamians who fit into Sumerian theology.

The serpent demonstrates that it (since in fact there is no actual reference to the gender of the serpent as male or female) is in fact a deity.  It is not a demon as demons at this time in history did not recognize the existence of good but, like Marduk of Persia, were preoccupied with murdering messengers of light

Shiva (Pashupati terracotta seal) excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated c. 2000 BCE

(Ahura Mazda) in a great (and final) battle for control of the earth. 

Lord of cattle holding a snake of wisdom (India)

In India, the serpent-god was the guide to heaven, his erect phallus a symbol of peace and love and direction toward god.  This is seen graphically in the Shiva Pashupati (“lord of cattle”) seal, a famous terracotta seal excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated approximately 2000 BCE depicting a horned (divine) yogi figure in lotus position with an erect phallus:  a symbol of the way to heaven.  Shiva, frequently depicted in yogi form, is commonly venerated in

Shiva lingam in 10th century temple of Sri Brihadeswara Thanjavur (India)

the form of the male organ of procreation or lingam. The lingam, upon which devotees focus their prayers that is usually located at ground level, the vertical configuration of the icon symbolizes ascent, pointing to heaven. Shiva lingam is usually found in the innermost sanctuary of Shiva temples. Reference to the Shiva lingam (लिङ्गं in Sanskrit) is noted in ancient Hindu scriptures, including the Puranas and Mahabharata.

Yoga practices rest on awakening the “kundalini,” a Sanskrit word meaning “serpent power.” Only when the “coiled serpent” (the phallus) is awakened the real (subconscious) Yogi becomes the creator and destroyer of the universe, like God. Yoga is motivated by a spirit that inspires self-deificationin the practitioner with a promise of

Shiva Lingam and Yoni (India)

reincarnation through regeneration (sexuality and sexual active intercourse).  As Hindu theology ebbed into Mesopotamia, with an intensive emphasis on the divine qualities of the phallus and phallic worship that had long played a role in Canaanite and other Palestinian religions, the Habiru began to fight the innovative ontology and form schools to battle it by inventing evil to be the hallmark of the Celestial Advocate (Satan).  The reality of human sexuality was repressed by the ignorance of a few that such activity, if left unguarded and unchecked, would lead to transgressions against the laws of the deities they worshipped

Shiva lingam (Hindu, India)

and such transgressions would become unforgivable sins unless punished to the ultimate extent.  Thus stoning for adultery or effeminacy was demanded by the numerous authors of Leviticus, and from there carried to other tracts that never existed.  While the Hindus, Canaanites and other Palestinians had no problem, and in fact rejoiced in the display of the phallus as a symbol of the deities love for mortals, such a display was forbidden among the early emerging Habiru who considered the organ to be a work of the serpent that they would in time refer to as The Devil.  All images of the phallus would be forbidden among the wandering nomads/mercenaries, and any reference was prohibited under pain of offending the tribal god Yahweh–who would avenge himself by causing those who dared mention it to suffer.  All symbols, common in Hinduism, Asherahism of the Canaanites, and others, were destroyed.  Religion had become the warlord over choice and wisdom was denied.

Single serpent entwined around a pole (Egypt 3000 BCE)

All religions have stories of serpents that become staffs, rods, pillars, and even the phallus.  The ancient Egyptians created legends of magicians (magi) who turned serpents into rods (cf. Exodus 7:10-12) to warn pharaohs of impending dangers, mass famine and pestilence, leading ultimately to the invention of Moses, from the tale of the priest On (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1992).  Moses : making of myth & law : the influence of Egyptian sex, religion, and law on the writing of the Torah ; with an introduction by Decherd Turner; cp. Loud, Gordo,  Megiddo II: Plates plate 240: 1, 4, from Stratum X (dated by Loud 1650–1550 BC) and Statum VIIB (dated 1250–1150 BC), noted by Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult” Journal of Biblical Literature 87.3 (September 1968:245-256) p. 245 note 2.),

Moab serpent-god with feathers and horns of divinity (date unknown)

a symbol that even appears on Moab and Mesoamerica cave walls (cp. Exodus 7:9-12).  Scholars have found this iconography regarding the serpent going back to the legend of Kukulcan/ Quetzalcoatal (first documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BCE or first century CE), represented   as a feathered serpent. Quetzalcoatl was associated most intriguingly with legends of a white bearded hero arriving by boat from the sea, teaching the people, and then leaving, with the promise to return again in the future. This long-lived legend permitted the quick and easy overthrow of the Aztec Empire by Spanish invaders, who troops encouraged by their clergy quick martyred the Aztecs to steal their gold and claim their land for their pagan god and king.  The brutal atrocities committed by the clergy far outdid the carnage capped by the soldiers in service to their kings: secular and divine (cp. Matthew 10:34).

Feathered, with horns, serpent deity (Moab cave art)All ancient religions, including that of the Habiru/Hebrews saw the serpent is co-equal with the gods.  The serpent is the source of wisdom (the Levi, or priestly class, had to destroy that concept, even though Moses had the serpent on his staff as did all medical practitioners, educators, and even priests and royalty). With that the conversation is finished, and the diminishing of woman initiated–to be made complete with the rise of “Christianity” and Islam–both that demand that mortals submit to cruel gods and their priests and prophets.

Papyrus _Oxy VI 932 A private letter on papyrus from Oxyrhynchus written in a Greek hand of the second century CE The holes are caused by worms

Paulinity, the usurper of initial community of believers in Jesus of the New Testament and the actual root of what would become confessional Christianity that had nearly nothing in common with the Sayings of Jesus (referred to by Papias of Hierapolis in Anatolia (c. 60-130 CE): fragmentary logia texts appear on two Oxyrhynchus papyri discovered in 1897 and 1904; cf. Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, read articles Logia and Sayings of Jesus; Papias, Exposition on the Oracles of the Lord survives only in quotations made by Irenaeus and Eusebius; Oxyrhynchus was a city in Egypt (in ancient Egypt it was Per-Mejed the capital of the Upper Egypt Nome and rebuilt after the conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE and renamed Οξυρρύγχου Πόλις : “town of the sharp-snouted fish”) on the

Bronze statue of Oxyrhynchus fish (date uncertain)

west of the Nile.  From this site came an enormous collection of papyrus texts dating from the time of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history were found.  It was also the trove for Gnostic writings, especially the Gospel of Thomas, which many sawn as a threat to the emerging Paulinity church and sacerdotal priests committed to Saul of Tarsus) or any original text (most of which were destroyed by Constantine I and his subservient bishops determined to weed out heresy, deliberately, in the fourth century CE, further twisted the story as recorded by the schools of scribes in ancient Israel, to make the serpent appear as evil: “like sheep (a word that is both singular and plural, here used in the plural format; those that were found at Oxyrhynchus were written, or copied from older originals, between the third and fourth centuries CE.  Many were written on the back of old government and accounting records as papyrus and paper were expensive) among wolves” (a symbol of evil) in Mathew 10:16.  2 Corinthians 11:3 actually admits, reluctantly, that inquisitiveness is a virtue yet one that could lead to “being led astray” from blind obedience to the madness of the creators of Paul (“pure devotion to Christ”: a title Jesus of the New Testament never claimed). 

Shri Anantasayana Vishnu , Lord Vishnu sleeping on the cosmic serpent

The universality of the serpent as a part of the waters and ring of life, as in Hindu theology it is affirmed that Lord Vishnu sleeps while floating on the cosmic waters on the serpent , and antecedent to the Torah is found in Babylonian and other texts where the serpent is a prized and wisdom giving god is found in Revelation 12:15.  It is not until Revelation 20:2 that a mysterious saviour (not named Jesus) seizes the serpent and at that point calls it a devil, and then adds the name “Satan” (that does not mean “evil” but translates as “celestial advocate” and was a Babylonian son of the gods: Job 2:1).  The Babylonian Satan, sourced from the Sumerian Satan (“Divine Advocate”) was a god in mortal shape.

Gadd Seal (Ur III period, 2380-2360 BCE, ancient Sumeria) foundation for SatanNaramsin with horns of divinity, fully armed (Sumeria) (c. 3000 BCE)

The BM 122847 cylinder seal shows a humped bull standing before a palm-tree (Tree of Knowledge), feeding from a round manager (or a bundle of fodder symbolizing the promised birth of a warrior [“messiah”: מָשִׁיחַ meaning “anointed”; cp. سيح that is translated in the Greek Septuagint as  Χριστός (Khristós), cp. Book of Enoch (xxxvii.-lxxi.) of the first century BCE]; behind the bull (a god, called Apis in Egypt where the calf was known as Yah, Marduk is the “bull of Utu”.  Shiva’s Hindu steed is Nandi, the Bull.various names in Mesopotamia; Aurochs are depicted in many Paleolithic European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon in France, while the earliest survivals of a bull cult are at neolithic Çatalhöyük: southern Anatolia (Turkey), which existed from approximately 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE and while most agree it was a matriarchal society, there are those who argue it was gender-nuetral: Hodder, Ian. “Women and Men at Çatalhöyük,” Scientifi  American Magazine, January 2004 (update V15:1, 2005) and Hodder, Ian (2006). The Leopard’s Tale: Revealing the Mysteries of Çatalhöyük. London; New York: Thames & Hudson), is holy scorpion and two snakes; above this scene is a human figure (placed horizontally) who has long arms and legs and rays (“horns”) about his head (antedating Moses of the Torah) who is the overseer.  The serpent is the one who imparts knowledge, discusses Truth with “creatures” and is the senior aid to the human figure (cuneiform Gadd Seal 1). The serpent is the prototype of “all things good” and wisdom.

"Everything good and pure" (Egyptian hieroglyph)

The strangest part appears in verse 15b: “it [the serpent] shall bruise your head, and you both shall bruise his heel.”  This has met little discussion, but the fact that the serpent had a head, arms, hands, and legs, and walked upright (it is only later it crawls on its belly: Genesis 3:14) is indicative not that it was necessarily a person shaped, formed, and endowed like a mortal, but rather that it had a head indicating that it had a brain and was wise—there is no record within the Third Tale that the gods had a head (none is mentioned), nor were the omnipresent or omnipotent as was the serpent who displayed both characteristics (Matthew 10:16, John 3:14-15; the Torah devolution of the serpent was slow and only transmogrified to separate Israelites from other mortal communities: Kelly Satan: a biography, p. 360 “However, the idea of Zoroastrian influence on the evolution of Satan is in limited favor among scholars today, not least because the satan figure is always subordinate to God in Hebrew and Christian representations: Kelly, Henry Ansgar (2006). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press), for the serpent was

Devil Man (Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 CE)

“subtle” (Genesis 3:1).  Furthermore, the serpent was not a traditional snake, for the text reads that “you shall bruise his heal” and only non-serpentine (not snakes) have heels, the passage reminiscent of Achilles whose heel was unprotected in combat (a final combat: an apocalyptic End Time); the Satan, allegedly, created the genitals.

To protect the Abrahamic religions, and after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, a concerted attack on the recognition and worship of the serpent as a source of knowledge broke out with ferocity.

Constantinus II with Licinius Crispus (coin, 4th century CE)The Emperor Constantinus II in 356 CE ordered the Egyptian temples of Isis-Osiris closed and forbade the use of Egyptian hieroglyphics as a religious language while stealing Egyptian gold for his own use. The Emperor Theodosius in 380 CE declared Christianity to be the official Roman state religion, forbade the existence of all pagan cults with especially attention to destroying the records of ancient Egyptian culture and religion, attacking the Egyptian language and the writing systems of Egyptian priests, destroying manuscripts in a way similar to the burning of Arian records by Constantine I, in favor of an illiterate emerging priestly class that changed Christianity into Paulinity favoring a few over the many.

Theophilus and the Serapeum

In 391 C.E. the pandering, predatory Patriarch of Alexandria, Theophilus (d. 412 CE), one of the most evil and illiterate patriarchs in Church history: “Seiz[ed] this opportunity, Theophilus exerted himself to the utmost … he caused the Mithraeum to be cleaned out… Then he destroyed the Serapeum [the greatest library in the world of that day]… and he had the phalli of Priapus carried through the midst of the forum. … the heathen temples… were therefore razed to the ground, and the images of their gods molten into pots and other convenient utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church” (written by Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History 16) having summoned his venal and blood-thirsty monks to arms and sent them as a barbaric horde against the city of imperial Memphis, which had a reputation similar to today’s Vatican and its libraries, and the great shrine of Serapis, the Serapeum, the main temple of the Osirian-Isis religion where more records were kept than could be found in any Christian church or convent. The object, an open secret, was to steal all gold of non-Christians to adorn the Christian churches and starve the masses. 

This violence and carnage was repeated by the Christian community  when the female philosopher Hypatia (350/370 – March 415), a noted mathematician and librarian who was head of the Platonist school at Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy, was lynched and flayed by a mob of Alexandrian Coptic monks who acclaimed Theophilus’s nephew and successor Cyril as “the new Theophilus, for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city”, as recorded in the Chronicle (only a translation in Ethiopian in 1602 survives) by John of Nikiu, an Egyptian Coptic bishop, in the seventh century (“La Chronique de Jean de Nikioû”, ed. and translated into French by H. Zotenberg in Notices et Extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale, t. XXIV, I, pp. 125–605 (Paris, 1883) and also separately (Paris, 1883).  The death of Hypatia ( Toohey, Sue (2003). “The Important Life & Tragic Death of Hypatia”. Skyscript.co.uk.) marked the beginning of the decline and end of education in the Christian world, that substituted memorization of myths for learning and the conduct of inquiry, more interested in turning out bigoted clerics than producing intelligent leaders, scientists, mathematicians and inventors (Wider, Kathleen (1986). “Hypatia”, Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle.  Indianapolis, IN, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 49–50).  Schools were closed, libraries destroyed, and the mythology of Paulinity became the only acceptable religion until Islam took over Arabia and began its march to conquer the world.

USA soldier Lynndie England holding a leash attached to a Abu Ghraib prisoner in Iraq

More violent than the armies of the legendary Joshua, more bloodthirsty than the Cossacks (Казаки) of Imperial Russia, and more deadly than Lynndie England and her gaggle of goons at Abu Ghraib prison (2004-2005; for her role in and torturing Iraqis England was indicted on of one count of conspiracy, four counts of maltreating detainees and one count of committing an indecent act, England received only a three-year prison sentence), the Christian terrorists from Alexandria massacred Egyptian priests in their shrines and in the streets. The ferocity of the violence consumed priests, followers, and the Egyptian intellectual elite of Alexandria, Memphis, and other cities of Egypt who were murdered and their temples and libraries destroyed and a motley crew of scribes were assigned to rewrite (“revise”) history and create a fiction supporting Alexandria’s concept of Christianity that would be buttressed by the Arian bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius, who was commissioned by Constantine to create and write a Bible in 385 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini, IV,36-37). The institutional structure of Egyptian religion, then more than four millennia old, was demolished in less than two decades (cf. Gabriel, Richard A (2005).  Jesus the Egyptian: the Origins of Christianity and the Psychology of Christ.  [S.I.] Iuniverse Inc).

The conclusion in the nineteenth century, and not ignored until the rise of evangelical fundamentalism among the new emerging sects, was that the serpent was neither demon nor devil, but a god sent to educate and elucidate wisdom.  This came from a study of serpentine figures from all ancient civilizations that used the image of the serpent to hallmark medical corporations, technical and educational institutions, and government think tanks employing the symbol of the serpent on their emblems and logos.

FOOTNOTES

(1) Sayce was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist who held the chair as Professor of Assyriology at Oxford University (1891-1919), publishing transcriptions and translations of cuneiform texts for the Society of Biblical Archaeology (see vol. 3, part 1). Sayce argued that the Hittites existed centuries before the age of Old Testament patriarchs, debunking the common thought that the Old Testament was the earliest history of the region; it was but a plagiarism.  His Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian religion and showed how it was far older than any Jewish writing or the Torah (cf. Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). The Hibbert Lectures, 1887. Lectures on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by the religion of the ancient Babylonians. London, UK: Williams & Norgate).  Sayce’s goal was to find the Rosetta stone to unlock all ancient languages. Cf. Archibald Henry Sayce (1875). An elementary grammar: with full syllabary and progressive reading book, of the Assyrian language, in the cuneiform type. London, UK: Samuel Bagster and Sons, I have a copy of the second edition, but no date was printed on the book; Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the ancient Babylonians. London: Williams and Norgate; and, Sayce, Archibald Henry (1888-[1892].  Records of the Past: Being English translations of the ancient monuments of Egypt and Western Asia. New Series; 6 vols. London: Bagster & Sons).

(2) Although contemporary versions read that she claims “the serpent beguiled me” meaning to “suggest” or “impose upon” (James 1:22) even “lecture” but the concept of  “deceit” is of later origin and at first was understood to me “to cheat” from giving full details as in Romans 7:11, 16:18 (where it is to “encourage” or “offer”, and 1 Corinthians 3:18; as a verb transitive, “beguile” means “to make time pass without notice” indicating that the dialogue lasted for some time and various points debated).  In 2 Corinthians 11:3, it is the offering of serious scholarship to the exclusion of accepting “the simplicity that is in Christ”—or accepting the least complicated answer in favor of ignorance, also inserted in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; it is a commandment to obey the priests (Isaiah 37:10) who work for the good of their particular god(s) and not for the good of people, as noted in Jeremiah 29:8.

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