Tag Archives: Cain

Why the Bible is not true: bad translations and worse interpretations

Every religion has its leaders, usually self-appointed guardians of morality who have had some form of indoctrination either by other leaders or by books.  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have the greatest number of illiterates acting as leaders in their respective cults.  The worse offenders are the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox bishops especially in the USA where the new crop are appointed by a marginal scholar, the German-born pope (Josef Ratzinger), and in the land of Slavs by the criminal/cigarette selling billionaire patriarch Kirill of Moscow.  The are joined by the Ayatollahs of Iran whose knowledge of ancient Arabic is minimal (to be as generous as possible) and the illiterate imams in Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Iraq and other Arab nations (but with less lethargy in debates in Egypt and no scholarship prevalent in Somalia, Nigeria or Uganda that merely regurgitates what the current crop of poorly edited Qur’an state and students are required to memorize as if they were successors to Muhammad’s Memorizers).

Cain leads Abel to the field (by James Tissot)

In each of these cults there are accounts, to varying degrees of a rather erotic story that is redefined, reglossed, and redacted into the mythology of two brothers known as Cain and Abel.  Neither existed, but are references to actions.
“Cain” is an old Gaelic word that became Hebrew in time as קַיִן.  It is a word that went from a marginal comment to being incorporated into ancient scripts.  Originally, it meant a rent paid in the form of a subsidy of crops and other agricultural and animal raising enterprises; the crop was usually wheat, but at times corn and various root crops, none of which were special.

Stele of Qadesh in ancient Egypt

It is depicted throughout the history of art as a man bundling wheat or other grains). 

The idea that Cain was a warrior or a man given to battle and murder comes from ancient Celtic legends that made their way south and into Babylonian legends that ultimately flowered in Apiru/Hebrew mythology.

Scot and Irish scribes glossed from marginalia into the corpus of texts. The ancient Hebrew word is Qayin and means “created one”. It has been found in some ancient scrolls and translates as “to rise up” or in ancient Akkadian it means “to strike” with a special antecedent from the earliest Apiru from India who joined the Akkadians as mercenaries in the service and pay of the rulers of Egypt. 

Qadesh Treatise (3000 BCE)

The Akkadian and Egyptian Qayin (הֶבֶל) actually refers to a fertility ritual involving sodomy for both females and males at the instruction of deities (known as Satis, Sati, Amaunet, and Isis, who was a part of all world religions including the faith devoted to Pachamama of Perú) and was a part of the ancient Egyptian Trinity that Constantine I ultimately would refashion into the Christian Trinity) who spoke through their priests.

Ésotérisme Mon étrange pouvoir

It was known as “Ésotérisme Mon étrange pouvoir” that made the priests more valuable than the worshippers. Males were retained in the temple to assure fertility but were subordinate to the female who carried the seed and was the instigator of the act. It is not until much later, with the rise of rabid patriarchy that the male asserts dominance–in part because of the Code of Qadesh (The Rules for Ritual Sodomy in Honor of the Goddess) that they became active but then required the recipient to lay on the ground, leading to the rank and vain plagiarized insertion by Apiru warriors into the Book of Leviticus.

Yahweh’s Wife (on potsherd)

The actual statement in Leviticus is not the rejection of the act but the importance of the act in worshipping and recognizing foreign gods of both genders  (לא יהיה־לך אלהים אחרים על־פני Exodus 20:3, Deuteronomy 5:7) with an overt effort establishes the exclusive nature of the relationship between the emerging nation of Israel and its god, Yahweh (one of the bull gods of ancient Egypt as the God of Israel) by marrying the agricultural deity to the Canaanite goddess of fertility Asherah.

the Lord their God, and served the Baals and Asherahs.- Judges 2:7

While the various writers of Deuteronomy and Leviticus commanded the people “of Israel” to turn from “pagan [country or foreign] gods”, few did.  The majority rejoiced in the old ways and practiced polytheism. The people of Israel did not, reluctantly, embrace monotheism until the Babylonian Captivity. 

the Lord their God, and served the Baals and Asherahs.- Judges 2:7

Part of the confusion is because of a misunderstanding and bad translation of the word Elohim (אֱלֹהִ֔ים that is interchangeable with אלוה and אֱל) all of whom were war lord, murderers, and highly sexual beings.  The Hebrew text uses Elohim for “gods”, a noun that is notably used both as a plural; however, later redactors and revisionists labored at making this plural noun a singular noun (that would be El: אֱל) when it was necessary to speak of the god of Israel (cf. van der Toorn, K.; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem, editors (1999), Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible (revised 2nd edition, Leiden [u.a.]: E. J. Brill, 1999, p. 274, 352-3).  There is no linguistic justification for this absurdity (cp. Mark S. Smith (2008). God in translation: deities in cross-cultural discourse in the biblical world.  vol. 57 of Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Tübingen, Deutschland : Mohr Siebeck, p. 19).  It is but a nationalistic ploy in an effort to unite a divided people of various cultures into one.

Egyptian fertility and love temple of the goddess Hathor at Dendera

What the later Hebrews and early Christians did was to embrace fertility rites but with love added, and commitment required, following the Shema. The Shema and its accompanying blessing/ curse reveals the intent of the commandment to include love for the one, true God and not only recognition or outward observance, as seen graphically in Deuteronomy 6:4-5 (cf. Wylen, Stephen M. (2000). Settings of Silver: an introduction to Judaism.  New York, NY: Paulist Press)  This was even the message of Jesus of the New Testament (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27. Ref. “Shema”, in HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, 1996, Achtemeier Paul J., ed., New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers) and found in the canonical Gospels approved by the Emperor Constantine I before he destroyed the writings of Arius and other Gospels at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.

Cain, by Henri Vidal, Jardin des Tuileries, Paris

What is noteworthy for its absence in this reused tale of the past is that there is no reference to either Cain or Abel wearing clothes (in Arabic, Cain and Abel are always known as the Two Brothers and are cited jointly: ابني آدم, while neither one is mentioned by name).  Clothing was a sign of sin and denial, as seen in the account in Genesis where Adam sewed aprons for himself and Eve (the helpmeet, not helpmate) after they were expelled from the garden.  The absence of information indicates that both males were nude, and their body structure being different, leading Abel to parade arrogantly in front of his brother, as his name

Cain and Abel (by Titan)

indicates, and thus bring jealousy (a sin) into the scenario.  Artists have traditionally captured the two “youth” as nude (naked implies arousal and sinful acts), thus cementing the attack being upon pride, and it could have resulted in Abel’s toying refusal to worship the gods in the manner of the Babylonians (who settled the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that run through Iraq–the center of Eden) who practiced Qadesh (ritual sodomy). 

The vilification of Cain comes only with the writers who composed the various texts (letters or epistle) of Paul  (Saul of Tarsus).  In these cases the writers of the works ascribed to Paul make the landlord of Gan Eden (the garden of Eden) a vengeful, lustful and demanding people (elohim, where the word gods is regulated with temporal leaders who took on the trappings, appearance and

Cain’s offering (word cut 1701, in private collection of author)

title of gods) who played favorites.  This is clearly seen in the “offering”.  While Cain’s gift to the Great Lords was “of the fruit of the ground.” This is a direct reference to the alleged origin of Adam  (Hebrew: אָדָם‎, Arabic: آدم‎, Syriac: ܐܵܕ݂ܵܡ and found in all Abrahamic myths) is a word that translates as “red earth” or “dust” and “dirt” and even “handsome” (Gesenius, Wilhelm & Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (1893). Genenius’s Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. p. xiii.); it also has the meaning of “the one who is closest to the soil being formed from the soil” and thus the recipient of a superior person (Eve) who could induce fertility.  Paulinity, the successor to primitive Christianity, gave the story a different twice: Abel’s sacrifice was “more excellent” (it is found only in Hebrews 11:4; there were numerous questions in the fourth century church created by Constantine as to whether or not Hebrews was even authentic or significant) than Cain’s, and was accepted by God. 

The problem with Cain’s gift, by later redactors and used especially by scandalous sixteenth century scholars passionate for their own interpretations is the fact that Cain’s offering symbolized the resolute debate with the Great Advocate (the serpent: the god of wisdom, that in Babylonian languages and later incorporated into ancient Hebrew as Satan, means Advocate, and one who was favored by the gods in Job 2:1) around the Tree of Knowledge, but never a Snake.  In the earliest days of recorded history, the snake stood for knowledge and useful wisdom.  It was frequently portrayed as a woman, and represented her tongue and vagina.  Later with the advance of patriarchy, the snake became male and represented the tongue and the penis that would enter the celibate, chaste, saved, and enslaved to the gods.  To this end it must be argued that Cain was offering a challenge to the gods (elohim) and debating their monopoly on wisdom and insight, as the deities in Gan Eden were not considered to be at all omniscient (all-knowing), and even

Snake and temptation

omnipotent (all-powerful), nor omnipresent (everywhere). At best the gods were selfish, arrogant, haughty and vengeful, as seen in the repeated verbal ejaculatory exclamations that “vengeance is mine” (Psalm 6:1; Psalm 90:7; Hosea 13:11; Mark 9:43-48; Romans 2:8; Romans 12:19-21; Hebrews 10:30; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9).  In every case the gods are  טהומוס or θεμος (themos) and וגרה (ogre, or dragon δράκοντας), beyond contempt and frightening. If we used the most ancient interpretations of the snake and the offering, it was Abel who attempted to beguile Cain with his tongue, either by singing or using it sexually, and either inviting or rejecting anal penetration.

Hathor giving the breath of life to the pharaoh (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

As for Abel (הבל also pronounced Havel), it is from Hebhel that became Hebrew.  It actually translates as “vanity” but can be translated as “breath” and is indicative of ancient Egyptian deities who “breathed” upon dirt to create life, much in the same manner as the gods of what is today’s Iraq: ancient Babylon.  Abel also translates as “futility”: attempting to take credit for what another did thus arousing jealousy, animosity, and hatred. In the oldest Hebrew Bible, Abel translates as  “elusive” and indicates a tease or toying individual who like to frustrate others deliberately–not exactly god-like qualities nor those of a son of any god or prophet.  It is a better reference point for the myth of the slaughter of the brother.

Abel (Genesis 4:2, 4, 8-9, 25) is called a “righteous” man only in the New Testament (Matthew 23:35). His innocence appears only in a redaction (Luke 11:51).  His gift to the lords or gods of the garden were considered meritorious only in the writings of those who created the letters of Paul (Hebrews 11:4), with the absurd notion that Abel had blood equal to that of the Jesus of the New Testament (Hebrews 12:24) that had curative powers and could eliminate sin from others. None of this appears in the Torah. 

Cain’s death entering the Ark on Abel (MS in author’s private collection)

Modern translators recognize the errors in these definitions, for as I Samuel 6:18 points out, Abel is a word for a great stone on which the Ark landed (Cain, it was thought, through his wife and their descendants, were responsible for the Great Flood, but his death was allowed to enter the Ark so he could suffer so that others could live), or was put around the necks of the accused to sink into deep waters to test the gods judgment on them as to whether or not they were innocent (they would rise above the water) or guilty (they would drown)–a misuse of justice that lasted throughout the Middle Ages and even found its way into Colonial America in the form of the dunking stool.

Cain married sister Luluwa and had children

Abel was killed because of his boasting, bragging, vanity, and selfishness.  When it was first written in cuneiform the story tells us of a braggart that constantly bullied his brother rousing his brother to take his life by stoning.

What people do not know, commonly, is the first actual Biblical record of Cain and Abel and the alleged fratricide does not appear until the first century CE and then is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls (The Dead Sea Scrolls were inspected using infra-red photography and published by Jim R Davila as part of his doctoral dissertation in 1988. See: Davila, Jim R (1988). Unpublished Pentateuchal Manuscripts from Cave IV Qumran: 4QGenExa, 4QGenb-h, j-k. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University). Unfortunately over the years, and with the determination of the first Constantine (emperor of the East), many of the original scrolls were burned in an effort to “purify” Constantine’s newly established “catholic [universal] church”.  (Some scholars argue today that Constantine either had most scrolls with this fable burned or that a few escaped to the Dead Seas by various small communities of chrestianos and christianos.)  To do this required a total rewriting of approved biblical works that the Arian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea did so well years later. There is no mention of “brevity” in Abel in any early scrolls; on the contrary he was seen as a lecherous individual and who enjoyed cuckolding Cain, as an exegete in a Midrash suggests when it was written noting that Abel teased Cain about their marriage to twin sisters, with Abel demanding the most beautiful woman:  Aclima (Brewer, E. Cobham (1978 (reprint of 1894 version) and Cain having vaginal intercourse (the act of marriage) with Luluwa). The Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Edwinstowe, England: Avenel Books. p. 3). 

Contrary to Maggie Gallagher (National Organization for Marriage) and Bryan Fischer (American Family Association), marriage was never between one man and one woman who were not related anywhere in the Bible.  This was common practice in ancient civilizations, and the sexual escapades were popular in more than a few of the tribes thus Abel hastened his own death in keeping with the period of the time to become a “god” (he is referred to as a saint in the early Christian religions, and oddly enough styled a prophet in Islam).

The influence of ancient Egyptian theology, practiced and written thousands of years before any Hebrew writing, brings strong bearing on the Cain and Abel myth.  According to Coptic Christianity (that was far older than either Roman Catholicism or Greek Orthodoxy, the latter two not being established until 325 CE, while Coptic Christianity actually can be dated to 100 BCE or

Part of Matthew 17-18 on a Coptic scroll

later) and the Coptic Book of Adam and Eve (2:1-15), and the Syriac Cave of Treasures, Abel’s body was placed within the cave after many days of mourning.  Most of the important Christian writings were preserved by the Coptics, despite repeated efforts of Roman Emperors, patriarchs and popes to have them destroyed.

The first parents, Adam and Eve, along with their descendants (detailed briefly in Genesis 5), offered their prayers over the unblemished and perfectly maintained cadaver of Cain whom everyone kissed from head to foot. The Sethite line of the Generations of Adam swear by Abel’s blood to

“The First Mourners” [Adam and Eve] by William Bourguereau

segregate themselves from the unrighteous, but there is no record of any blood being retrieved but only that it went into the soil (Genesis 4:10, redacted in Hebrews 12:24) but in much the same way as the blood that went to the goddess Maat attempted to summon justice.

In the extra-biblical Book of Enoch (22:7), one not sanctioned by Constantine I at Nicaea or anywhere else, the soul of Abel is described as having been appointed as the chief of martyrs.  These martyrs were neither witnesses nor saints, but zombies crying for vengeance and demanding the destruction of the seed of Cain (on zombies in the Bible, read Zechariah 14:12, Ezekiel 37: 1-14, Isaiah 26: 19-20, Deuteronomy 22:4-8, Matthew 12:11; 17:7; 27:51-53; Luke 1:69, etc.). This view is repeated in the Testament of Abraham (A:13 / B:11), where Abel has been raised to the position as the judge of the souls. It is of ancient Egyptian origin in the manner of the chief god of the Trinity: the Lord Osiris, known as Lord of Lords, King of Kings, and most importantly: God of gods (a common claim

Zombies in the Bible (and Jesus)

made by religious that claim to be superior to others or who have the only way, but here it was the pharaoh who was also murdered by his brother: the god Seth.  Seth cut him into fourteen pieces and scattered them to the winds.  Osiris’ sister-wife (much like the sister-wife Sarah joined with Abram/ Abraham) ultimately found all fourteen pieces and bound them up thereby creating mummification (but only after impregnating herself with Osiris penis (that had to be rescued from the stomach of a crocodile) so that she could give birth to a savior son: Horus (text is in the Egyptian Book of the Dead)

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Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Church history, Genesis, Language, Old Testament

Cain and Able: from bad translations and interpretation to evangelical fundamentalist distortions

Adam and Eve (Sistine ceiling by Michelangelo)

Cain and Abe (Hebrew: קין ,הבל, and in Arabic: هابيل قابيل) are the mythic “sons of Adam” (ابني آدم).  Adam is an ancient word, pre-Canaan in origin that means “red earth”, while Cain means “farmer” or “crop farmer”, and Abel it means “shepherd”). Mythology has “Adam” marrying “Eve” (Hebrew: חַוָּה; Arabic حواء:a word meaning “life” but also “helpmeet” (Book of Tobit viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6): being someone who helps the overseer, and is a reference to a worker and is gender neutral, although canonical texts is referred to as the “first woman”—who if she was that, she was cloned, being taken from the “rib” of Adam and thus having his identical incest; a best she would have been his sister and their “marriage” {a word for sexual union} was incestuous (Genesis 2:21–22), which is common throughout the Old Testament among the legendary progenitors: from Jacob marrying his first cousins Leah and Rachel, etc.). Her “name” is quite late in Biblical lore, coming for the first of five times in Genesis 3:20. 

Eve was none less than Babylonian creatrix Tiamatwhose biography matches that of El/Eloi/Elohim in the Bible.  The cuneiform read:

The goddess Tiamat said: "I walked on the land, and I saw it was good."

Tiamat is Goddess of the primeval saltwater sea. In the beginning there was only Tiamat and Apsu, God of the freshwater. Tiamat surrounded Apsu, and their waters mingled to produce Lahmu and Lahamu,  produced Anshar and Kishar. Anshar and Kishar mated to produce the God Anu, who was the father of the Gods Enlil and Ea [Enki in Sumerian].

The noise of all of her descendants bothered Tiamat, and Apsu wanted to kill them.  Tiamat said no. Ea had overheard their plans, and he plotted to kill Apsu.

Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat

In vengeance, Tiamat created an army of giant snakes and dragons to attack the younger Gods. Ea’s son, Marduk, engaged in combat with Tiamat, and he used the four winds against her. When Tiamat swallowed the winds, her belly became very distended, and Marduk shot her with an arrow, slicing her in two.

Ancient Babylonian map on the separation of the sky from the earth (it matches Genesis 1, 2)

Marduk used Tiamat’s body to form the sky and the earth. Her eyes were placed as the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and her breasts became great mountains. Her last breath was transformed into the clouds.

Tiamat evolved from the Hurrian Goddess Kheba was derived from Kubau, a woman who reigned as the first “king” of the Third Dynasty of Kish (Munn, Mark (2004). “Kybele [Cybele] as Kubaba in a Lydo-Phrygian Context”: Emory University cross-cultural conference “Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia” cp. http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronicles/abc19/weidner.html; Cybele appeared long before the sixth

Cybele pulled by liona to sacrifice to the Sun god (Afghanistan 2d century BCE)

century BCE and was the protector goddess of the Syria Carchemish on the upper Euphrates, in the late Hurrian – Early Hittite period: 20th to eighth century BCE—long before any Hebrews had entered the Middle East (cf. Graf, Fritz (1985). Nordionische Kulte : religionsgeschichtliche  und  epigraphische  Untersuchungen zu den Kulten von Chios, Erythrai, Klazomenai  und Phokaia (Roma: Schweizerisches Institut in Rom, p. 111; ref. Strabo, Geographia, Bk X, 3:18; Vassileva, Maya (2001). “Further considerations on the cult of Kybele. Anatolian Studies 5.1, pp. 51-63.  An online article on the Hittite civilization is at http://history-world.org/hittites.htm.

Hittite bull god (at the Metropolitan Museum of Art) photo by Mark Dawson

Hittite Empire in ancient world

The Hittites were a people who worked with iron and bronze.  They made statues of bulls and cows.  It is recorded that their industry and worship influenced religion throughout the known world–with the exception of Egypt that had developed its theology thousands of years earlier.  The Hittites and Egyptians gave to world theology the concept of the bull as a god (in Egypt the name for the bull was Apis, although some were known as Yah; later invading Hebrews would change the gender of Yah and create from it Yahweh.  The worship of the bull played a predominate role in early Hebrew religion as seen in Exodus 32:4.  However, rather than the bull being a “golden calf” (עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב ‘ēggel hazâhâb) it most likely was fashioned from bronze after Apis. This is discussed in the early Christian Constitutiones Apostolorum  (Apostolic Constitutions, vi. 4 (c. 380) with full text translated into English at http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Ante-Nicene_Fathers/Volume_VII/Constitutions_of_the_Holy_Apostles/Book_VI/Sec._IV).

Egyptian worship of bull-god Apis

The citation  mentions that “the law is the decalogue, which the Lord promulgated to them with an audible voice, before the people made that calf which represented the Egyptian Apis”),  For further information on the cult of Kybele, see the article in Anatolian Studies 5.1 (2001), pp. 51-63.  Cp. Roller, Lynn Emrich (1999). In Search of God the Mother: The Cult of Anatolian Cybele. Los Angeles: University of California Press; cf. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Cybele). Kybele/Cybele  ultimately became Asherah in the first millennium BCE (she was Chawat, Hawwah in Aramaic, and Eve in English.  Early Egyptian theology had her married  to the Egyptian god Yah (a cow, from which the myth of the Golden Calf appears in the Book of Exodus and most likely was made of solid gold; cp. http://www.bibleorigins.net/EgyptianOriginsGoldenCalf.html). 

”]”The worship of Yah and Asherah required  ritual sodomy of and/or by Holy (a word that comes from the Hindu Holi (पवित्र) meaning a spring festival celebrated sexually) quedesh priests and quedeshah priestess (temple “dogs” or prostitutes; see Fuchs, Esther, review of Keefe, Alica A. (2001).  Woman’s Body and the Social Body in Hosea by Alice A. Keefe (Sheffield: Sheffield: Academic Press, 243pp.) and Shields, Mary E. (2004). Circumscribing the Prostitute: The Rhetorics of Intertextuality, Metaphor and Gender in Jeremiah 3:1-4: (London and New York: T & T Clark, 2004, 184pp; the review is at http://www.relegere.org/index.php/bct/article/viewFile/63/49; cp. Ide, Arthur Frederick (1991). Yahweh’s wife: sex in the evolution of monotheism: a study of Yahweh, Asherah, ritual sodomy, and Temple prostitution. Las

Mesopotamian fertility priestess

Colinas: Monument) and had sex with numerous species.  Early Hebrews were as involved in ritual sodomy as were their neighbors, for it was seen as an act of petitioning the gods for bountiful harvest, rains, and regeneration; only later was it condemned, and then because of the establishment of a priestly class (Levis) who wanted to control all people so that they would gain wealth for their god.  To this end, the tithe was invented:  a tithe being one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a levy for religious purposes, beginning with Abraham (Genesis 14:18-20) whose grandson, Jacob, reaffirmed his willingness to “give back” to the deities one-tenth of his wealth in grains, flocks, and other works of the hand (Genesis 28:22).  There is only one reference to direct tithing (ἀποδεκατόω) in the New Testament: Hebrews 7:5, although it is found four times in the New Testament: Matthew 23:23, Luke 11:42, 18:12 (the first two are but copies of each other), and Hebrews 7:5 which repeats the Leviticus code and refers to the tithe Abram paid to Melchizedek, meaning that tithing really exists only twice in the New Testament.  For most people, studies show, they tithe in terror that not doing so will bring evil upon them and their families from a vengeance-riddled deity (see: Bailey, Ronald (October 7, 2008), “Does Religion Make People Nicer? Only if they think Sky Big Brother is Watching” at http://reason.com/archives/2008/10/07/does-religion-make-people-nice).

Samash Babylon's Sun God

Tithing is not Jewish nor Christian in origin but comes from ancient Babylon where it was known as esretu being demanded by the sun-god Shamash and even paid by other Babylonian gods, such as Bel, Nabu, and Nergal.  The purpose was to show superiority over other things, gods, and people and allow the senior god or ruler to live lavishly while the poor suffered and went hungry and without common necessities. No where in the Bible does tithing require one-tenth of money or any form of currency or script.  (In Islam, tithing, known as Zakat (Arabic: زكاة‎) is to be given to the poor, the deprived, and those unable to help themselves.  Tithing in Islam is based on wealth, production, and animals, with wealth “taxed” at 2.5%, production at 5%, the rate on animals varies according to the animal, and on found treasure the tithe is 20%.  For additional material, read Ghamidi, Javed Ahmed (2002).  Meezan, Lahore, Pakistan: Al-Mawrid; cp. http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM-1377).

While Adam sleeps Eve is taken from one of his ribs (12th century icon)

The issue of Eve being created from the “rib” of Adam is at best spurious and more realistic it is propaganda, for the word appears only in later mistranslations: where, for example, the King James Version, is that אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו means “one of his ribs” (Genesis 2:21; but men and women have the same number of ribs: 24) being a cognate to Assyrian êlu “rib”.  Opposed to this is the ancient Jewish position is that the term צלע ela, occurring forty-one times in the Tanakh, is most often translated as “side” in general.  The early Greek version of the Bible, the Septuagint, has μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ, with ἡ πλευρά choosing a Greek term that like the Hebrew ela may mean either “rib”, or, in the plural, “side [of a man or animal]” in general.  The origin of this motif or fable is distinctly from the Sumerian myth in which the goddess Ninhursag (not a male Lord or Lords. Elohim: אֱלהִים, which can be both male or female) created a beautiful garden full of lush vegetation and fruit trees, called Edinu, in Dilmun, the Sumerian earthly Paradise (Kramer, Samuel Noah (1944, 1988, republished 2007), Sumerian Mythology: A Study of the Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press).

Horus and Seth/Set struggling to control world

The problem with Adam and Eve is within the Book of Genesis itself (see: Ide, Arthur Frederick (1981), Woman in Biblical Israel 2nd ed; Mesquite: IHP [1st ed. 1980], and Ide, Arthur Frederick (1982), Woman in ancient Israel under the Torah and Talmud: with a translation and critical commentary on Genesis 1-3; Mesquite: IHP; and Ide, Arthur Frederick (1981), Woman in the civilization of the ancient Near East, Mesquite: IHP; Ide, Arthur Frederick (1982), Woman in the ancient Near East, Mesquite: IHP).  The order of their creation differs dramatically.

Genesis 1:27 reads: says male and female [God] created them” at the same time; but in Genesis 2:18 ff, the account differs persuasively: Eve was brought of Adam’s rib because Adam was lonely, according to the Genesis record. 

Lilith

[Genesis is not the only source for the story, for there are other accounts that give Adam an earlier wife: Lilith (לילית), who was rejected and became an evil spirit in the Babylonian Talmud (but this Talmud was not completed until an unknown date between 500 and 700 CE.  It was written that she had numerous children, but each child became more evil than his or her mother, and led to tales of vampires and ghosts and goblins, more in keeping with medieval European superstition (that actually controlled the Christian church) than with

Malleus Maleficarum (1520 ed)

sound reasoning; read: Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger, James (1486), Malleus Maleficarum; the sole purpose of the book was to denounce witches, but in 1490, the Inquisition denounced Kramer]  Eve was an afterthought of a landlord who was not omniscient nor cognitive and only brought “woman” into being to comfort “man”, two whom she gave children (Genesis 5:4).  However, in apocryphal texts there is the claim that

Cain and Luluwa and children

Cain had a twin sister and Abel has two twin sisters (Jubilees 4:1-12) who later “Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bore him Enoch” (v. 10), and in even more spurious works that Eve gave birth to 36 sons and 23 daughters (nothing appears before the eighth and ninth centuries CE and then as a way to explain away the more obvious incestuous pattern of sex between Seth and Eve that was from the ancient Greek story of Oedipus and his mother by whom the king gave birth to children who would rival him for his throne. 

Since the only “mortals” on the planet were children of Eve, all of Eve’s children committed incest to populate the world—and this was with the blessing of the lord or the guardian of Gan Eden who needed workers.   Eve, however, gave birth to more daughters

Nephelim by James Lyon

than to sons, so the daughters seduced the Nephilim (נְפִילִים from which come the word “fall”, “to cause to fall” and “to kill, to ruin” but the “fall” is not of the Nephilim/angels (they are frequently portrayed wings as a sign that they can cover great ground at a rapid speed) but of their enemies whom they slaughter), or angels, (Genesis 6:4).  The Nephilim moved to Canaan to be with their wives, giving faux-justification for later Habiru migrating from India to conquer the land of a far more advanced civilization, that of the Palestinians/Canaanites, and force the creation of Judaism (Numbers 13:33) in order to conceive demigods (Ezekiel 32:27 refers to these as dead Philistine soldiers or warriors; Ezekiel argues that the “giants”/Nephilim had to fall since they were uncircumcised: gibborim nophelim, גִּבֹּורִים נֹפְלִים). 

Grave in Turkey; hormonal imbalance can account for accelerated growth

Like all other passages in Genesis, this tale is plagiarized from a far older theology: with the Nephilim particularly being from Aramaic culture, with the term niyphelah referring to the Constellation of Orion, and thus nephilim to the offspring of Orion in mythology: they were divine and could transcend time and distance: space travelers (cp. Missler, Chuck and Eastman, Mark (1997).  Alien Encounters: The Secret Behind the UFO Phenomenon Coeur d’Alene, Idaho: Koinonia House, but this has little support among scholars). Only in The Qumran (Dead sea) scroll fragment 4Q417 do we find the “giants” or “big men” mistranslated as “angels” (at best it would be messengers) judged as descendants of Seth (see my article on Seth).  A more realistic reason for these “giants” is hormonal imbalance.  The pituitary gland is known as the master gland of the endocrine system. It produces growth hormones or GH which stimulate and regulate the body’s growth. When it produces too much growth hormones, it can cause gigantism in children while it manifests as acromegaly in adults.  Today there are records from various nations where people have reached 8 feet to 9 feet in height–the size of a Nephilim (Giant) in Genesis (see: http://community.guinnessworldrecords.com/_Sultan-Kosen-The-Worlds-Tallest-Man/blog/718461/7691.html for male {Sultan Kosen} and unnamed woman at http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/2921708240/ with a list and confirmation status of height at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tall_people).

While Job 38:7 argues that the angels were known as “morning stars”, giving rise to the thought they were extra terrestrial, were “Sons of  God”, theologians today attempt to argue that Jesus claimed that angels do not have sex.  Jesus’ claim, nonetheless, is about angels in heaven and not those who come (mistranslated as “fall”) to earth (Matthew 22:30). 

Woman with long neck (considered a mark of beauty)

Nephilim appears only once in the Bible (Numbers 13:33) and it clearly refers to the descendants of Anak (the word meaning “long-necked”, with Anak being the son of Arba, father of the Anakim, in Joshua 15:13; 21:11) similar to Nimrod in Genesis 10:8; spelled as both ענק and as הענק depending upon the reference), who were big people, but still people.  The “Sons of God” actually refers to the Hebrews (Hosea 1:10) although it is plagiarized from Babylonian beliefs that were pre-Habiru.

All three names, Cain, Abel, and Seth (who I shall discuss in a separate article), and all three characters (although they are not always male in all or part in each account) are found in numerous different stories of antiquity.  The Eastern Greek has styled Cain as εκ του πονηρου (from the Evil One: or the spawn of the serpent matching the Hebrew idea: nahash נחש) with the earliest account of Cain not found in an original Book of Genesis, but in a first century CE Dead Sea scroll (4QGenb = 4Q242).  This has been accepted by most serious biblical scholars (but not by biblical literalists who have had little to no education in exacting translation and interpretation; with most evangelical fundamentalists only reading contemporary versions of the Bible that appeared after 380 CE) since it fits in with the thinking of Genesis apologists. 

Research shows that Dead Sea scrolls are a guided interpretation to prove what many want the material to read—not an historical record of what really happened, nor even a redaction as the scribes’ livelihood and even life depended upon pleasing the clergy who paid them to record the myths that the faithful were to be taught. There is, however, a Sumerian story representing the conflict between nomadic shepherds and settled farmers that is more in keeping with the alleged murder of Abel by Cain than there is in the Old Testament or Torah which can be read in the transliteration of original language version of Dumuzid and Enkimdu at Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) that was established by Jeremy Allen Black from Oxford University. (Read the translation at “Chapter IV. Miscellaneous myths: Inanna prefers the farmer”. Sacred Texts at http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/sum/sum09.htm.). 

Abel, as a word (הבל), and not as a name means “wasteful,” “elusive,” and “vanity” (Brown Driver Briggs (BDB) a standard reference for Biblical Hebrew; its chief editor was Francis Brown, with the co-operation of Samuel Rolles Driver and Charles Augustus Briggs, p. 210 that is at http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Page:A_Hebrew_and_English_Lexicon_(Brown-Driver-Briggs).djvu/210&action=edit&redlink=1) and agrees with Strong—and does not indicate the love of any deity but the elevation (breath) of the self: arrogance. 

Cain murders Abel

Cain or Qayin (קין), literally meant “son of the Serpent” who was a rival god to the lord of the garden: Gan Eden (a dualism that appears in Job 2:1).  Cain was a crop grower, and in Sumerian theology he took a stand to repel the onslaught of shepherds who were trespassing across his fields with their flocks—a mark of vanity (“abel”). Far from being a murderer, Cain is pictured as a farmer protecting his lands, a hero for those who settled down to work the soil and make crops grow.  It was Abel who was the thief and criminal who entered his flocks without the permission of the farmer—but this was discounted when flock tenders were subject to overlords who had no respect for individual gardens or the working poor as continued even in Russia until the Revolution of 1917.

"The First Mourning" (Death of Abel) by Bouguereau

The names of both Cain and Abel are but descriptive words indicating their roles in the story, but do not necessarily reflect real people and has a far older history, at least to Akkadian mythology (Schrader, Eberhard (1872). Die Keilinschrift und das Alte Testament, 1872, cf.  Schrader, Eberhard (1872) Die assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften. Kritische Untersuchung der Grundlagen ihrer Entzifferung … Nebst dem babylonischen Texte der Trilinguen-Inschriften in Transcription sammt Uebersetzung und Glossar. Mit einer lithographirten Tafel, Leipzig). 
 

Man shaped on a potter's wheel

The creation and future actions of Cain and Abel and all who follow is far older than the Genesis account, and carries a greater reasoning than the simplistic idealization of the writers of Genesis. The creation of man (mortals), in fact is far older in ancient Egyptian theology, with the goddess  Khnemu shaping the new Pharaoh’s son upon the potter’s wheel while inspecting every detail save the for required ritual of circumcision that came after the youth was created.  At the same time the god Thoth marked the new mortal’s span of life (as all things, including one’s life span, was considered predetermined and predestined), as seen in the Ptolemaic Papyrus, British Museum, London.

Adam and Eve expelled from garden

While the Genesis account suggests that the “murder” was over the jealousy of and for the gods of Eden, The Midrash Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan but this book does not even appear before the fifth-sixth centuries CE.  It claims that the attack came from a conflict over women: Abel was given the most beautiful woman (a sister probably although there is no biblical account of an “Aclima” that indicates climate and literally means “water on demand” that was necessary since the “original parents” were expelled from the Garden and left to work on barren ground; Abel was to marry Aclima but refused as he found it better to illegally herded his flocks on his brother’s land with an arrogance that would outrage his brother who took steps deemed necessary to protect his property (this indicates that there were already property rights and the right to protect property: the introduction of law into a once lawless paradise; an unofficial biography is at http://www.dcuguide.com/who.php?name=aclima; more details are in my article “Abel”) than was Cain and Cain became enraged and thus a “murderer” (to seek vengeance; cp. The Holy Koran Surat Al-Ma’ida verses 27 – 32). The Church of the Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) goes even further with this tale than any other religion and beyond any existing ancient text.  Mormons argue in their extra-Biblical scripture, the Book of Moses (originally published in 1851 CE by Joseph Smith), that Cain murdered Abel as a result of a covenant of murder with Satan. 

Following the “murder,” Mormons claim, Cain exclaimed, “I am free; surely the flocks of my brother falleth into my hands” (Pearl of Great Price, Moses 5:33 [Pearl of Great Price is a selection of materials touching many significant aspects of the faith and doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. These items were produced by Joseph Smith Jr. who divined them by looking through stones and were published in the Church periodicals of his day]) indicating that coveting Abel’s possessions was another motive for Cain’s action. All of this comes from purloined pseudepigraphic literature that has been rejected for enumerable centuries (a biased but factual {it cites the sources} is at http://www.pleaseconvinceme.com/index/Did_Joseph_Smiths_Doctrine_of_God_Change).

While the Book of Enoch (22:7), describes Abel as the “chief of Martyrs” and the “first of martyrs” in an effort to reconcile ancient pagan, Hebrew, and Christian sources, the passages actually note a blood-thirst by Abel to wipe out the entire House of Cain.  The story suggests that the “murder” was a feud between families one that would last for centuries.  The Testament of Abraham(at A:13 / B:11; while some argue that it was written around the second century CE, among the earliest fragments there are Vienna, Theol Grec 333 (ex 337), ff. 34r-57r, 11th century and the Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Grec 770, ff.225v-241r, dated 1315), reconstructs the scene plagiarizing from ancient

Maat with symbolic feather of eternal life

Egyptian theology with Abel replacing the goddess Maat to become the judge of souls, transmogrifying the goddess into a man to fit into Hapiru mythology that became the weak spine of the Book of Genesis.  The original account of Maat is found in Old Kingdom pyramid texts (ca. 2780-2250 BCE) where she is portrayed as the essence of justice and fairness.  The pyramid texts are the oldest known religious texts in the world, and much has been copied from them into later religions, including Hebrew, Christian, Islam, Zoroastrian, Taoist and even Confucianism thought and theory or theology. (On the value of the words in the text, consider F. Schmidt Le Testament grec d’Abraham, introducion, edition critique des deux recensions grecques, traduction TSAJ {Texte and Studien zum antiken Judentum}11, Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck., 1986)

Weighing of the human heart containing the soul with Ammit nearby to devour souls

Maat (symbolized by a feather that was the measure that determined whether the soul that was considered residing in the heart) made the final Judgment in Duat and determined the destiny of the dead and whether or not the dead would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully or was devoured by the goddess Ammit who was a female demon with a body that was part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile— the three largest “man-eating” animals known to ancient Egyptians.

Goddess Ammit

A funerary deity, Ammit’s titles included “Devourer of the Dead,” “Eater of Hearts,” and “Great of Death.” The most common depiction is in the scene from the Papyrus of Hunefer (ca. 1375 B.C.) that shows Hunefer’s heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis. The Ibis-headed Thoth, scribe to the gods of ancient Egypt, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If Hunefer is found to be unworthy for any misdeed, he would forfeit his heart and thereby his soul as the goddess Ammit would be waiting to eat both and damn Hunefer from the afterlife. Vignettes such as these were a common illustration in Egyptian books of the dead.

Much of what would become the foundation of Christianity came from the worship and literature written on the sayings of the goddess Maat: (2062 to c. 1664 BCE) text the Creator declares “I made every man like his fellow” (cp. Acts 10:24). Maat called the rich to help the less fortunate rather than exploit them, echoed in tomb declarations: “I have given bread to the hungry and clothed the naked” and “I was a husband to the widow and father to the orphan” (ref. Matthew 5:3-12, and Luke 6:20-22 which paraphrases Matthew; they are not found in John (the oldest gospel that exists) nor in Mark which is the primary source for Matthew and Luke; cp. “Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs“, James P. Allen, p. 116, Cambridge University Press, 2000, and Allen, James P. (2005) The ancient Egyptian pyramid texts by James P Allen; Peter Der Manuelian; ACLS Humanities E-Book (Organisation); History E-Book Project.; American Council of Learned Societies; Publisher: Atlanta, GA : Society of Biblical Literature). The fact that the “Sons of Adam” come from Egyptian theology of the gods should be of no great surprise, as even Sigmund Freud, in his book Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion (Moses and Monotheism) Amsterdam de Lange 1939, claimed that Adam was just a rewriting of Akhenaton of Egypt

Akhenaton of Egypt (Freud saw him as prototype for Moses)

(cp. Rice, Emanuel (1999). “Freud, Moses, and the Religions of Egyptian Antiquity: A Journey Through History,” in Psychoanalytic Review, Apr; 86(2):223-243).

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