Category Archives: Torah

Freedom of Religion: Fact and Fantasy

1692 Massachusetts Christian Puritans saw the Devil everywhere

1692 Massachusetts Christian Puritans saw the Devil everywhere

Freedom of religion is a centuries-old expression. In most cases freedom of religion does not exist.

Freedom of religion is not accepted by the Supreme Court of the USA, as seen in Sandra Day O’Connor’s rant that the USA is a Christian nation (it is not).  The Roman Catholic majority of justices side with their faith and rule in favor of Christianity.  There is little interest in defending the rights of Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, free-thinkers and non believers. This is seen in the repeated demands for a god oath or affirmation to tell the truth.  God oath’s are distinctly religious (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1988), Vows, Virgins, Oaths and Orgies. Arlington, TX: Liberal Arts Press).   This has become the rallying cry for sectarian judges at all levels, from the traffic courts in Des Moines, Iowa, to petty courts in Louisiana and the nefarious local courts in Texas.  Most courts or jurists. It is not enshrined in the nation, nor in separate states. At best freedom of religion is a buzzword.  In reality freedom of religion is a fantasy that has enchained and enslaved the mentality and academic advance throughout the USA since its inception as American colonies.

From Maine to Georgia, the North American colonies were not founded as bastions of theological freedom or the right to disbelieve.  What came from pulpits and stages of colonial churches was the same hot loathing of predatory pastors that existed in Europe, with special condemnation of Jews, “pagan” (i.e. Muslim) slaves, and those who did not express exaltation and conviction of the Christian perspective of males who saw in Christianity justification for gynephobia and misogyny, racism and radicalization of theology that still saw Jews as “killers of the Christ” and “naked savages” (American aboriginal Indians) who did not bow before raised bibles, and later were damned as sinners by Joseph Smith Jr–one of the greatest plagiarist and ignorant speakers in USA history.

Those who came to the shores of the Eastern coastline were greedy, self-serving, and self-loathing Puritans, Pilgrims, people in quest of gold and land, and who had little interest in a truly encompassing society freed from the fetters of religion.  Instead, these colonists were determined to create a “New Salem” (Jerusalem) and bring about a theocracy led by theocrats–as with the Matthers, Willis, and other bible bleaters.  The colonists had a narrow definition of what religion was.  Their god had to be prayed to daily, Their god would appoint “ministers of the faith” who would lead congregations like a ram herding sheep into judgemental assemblies in vocal or silent prayer while calling out witches, warlocks, and disbelievers for execution as with the Salem Witch Trials.  The colonial Christians chartered congregations that would give a non-biblical tenth of their possession and production to sustain the slovenly spokespersons of the community’s god.

Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony hanging Quakers

Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony hanging Quakers

Plymouth colony (Massachusetts) was among the most intolerant colonies.  In part this was due to its Puritan background.  In part this was due to Plymouth colony’s mephistophelean misogyny of its leaders who were more prone to seduce young girls and a few boys but hushed it up under claims of clerical immunity while reading  gynophobia plastered across the pages of what copyists claimed were the epistles (or letters) of a mythological Paul written by various hands from 200-1000 CE.

When any person would speak out in favor of a different form of worship, or for the rights of women to participate in a discussion of a biblical text or a pastor’s sermon (as was the case with Anne Hutchison), the heavy hand of hardened clerics came crashing down with excruciating éclat.  Their denial of human and civil rights for women, people of color and existing LGBT people who were dispatched from the worldly life as “abominations” became routine (read my article on LGBT and Jewish people in colonial America).

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson

Mistress Anne Hutchinson was chastised, defamed, libeled and slandered for her outspokenness and denunciation of those who would not let her speak or preach. Hutchinson cited bible verses to justify her reading and speaking with other women–and some men–in defiance of the male antagonists who would keep her quiet based on wrongful readings of the letters of “Paul”.

Anne Hutchinson was better read and more articulate about the scriptures that she interpreted and commented on  far more accurately than the pretensions and modestly educated Puritan preachers who acted more like popes than presbyters within her ossified and odious community.

Born Anne Marbury (1591–1643), Hutchinson was a Puritan woman. She served as a spiritual adviser for many when not performing domestic chores and being an attentive mother of 15. Birth control was unheard, and the misinterpreted line in Genesis  9:7 was not an injunction to act like rabbits or guinea pigs/cuyes, but was an admonition to minister to others so that a group would find freedom in thought.

The controversial Anne Hutchinson was an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy.  Antinomianism is the belief that under the gospel dispensation of grace, moral law is of no use or obligation because faith alone is necessary to obtain salvation. It was in part the teaching of Martin Luther (who had a far greater impact on English theology than did the strictness of Jean Calvin of Geneva), although he qualified his rejection of good works by writing that faith is: “a living, creative, active and powerful thing, this faith. Faith cannot help doing good works constantly. It doesn’t stop to ask if good works ought to be done, but before anyone asks, it already has done them and continues to do them without ceasing. Anyone who does not do good works in this manner is an unbeliever…Thus, it is just as impossible to separate faith and works as it is to separate heat and light from fire” (Luther, Martin. Vermischte Deutsche Schriften, Johann K. Irmischer, ed. Vol. 63 (Erlangen: Heyder and Zimmer, 1854), pp. 124-125. [EA 63:124-125]).   It was Antinomianism, with its view that salvation was for the soul only and not the body, rejecting most of the Old Testament and responding to critics that it matched the debate of the Council of Jerusalem (c. 50 CE) that rejected the necessity of circumcision (Acts 15:5,  19-22, cp. Acts 10:9-16)  that was on part of the Laws of Moses, that doomed early Puritanism to play a minor role in the devolution of faith in Massachusetts.

A charismatic and popular preacher who threatened Puritan pastors, Hutchinson who was expelled from her colony in 1637.  She was walked to the border of Plymouth as her penalty for the crime of challenging the authority of the male ministers who minced words to justify good works that had nothing in common with the Reformation of John Knox, Martin Luther, John Calvin and other would-be reformers turned revolutionaries.

A woman who refused to be silent, Hutchinson exposed the subordination of women in the culture of colonial Massachusetts.  Citing scripture Hutchinson spelling out articulate arguments against the reading of the most heated passages in the Epistles of Paul.  The mother of 15 children rejected the staid sentence sourly secreted into the vastly plagiarized First Letter to the Church of Corinth.  She noted that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 claimed, wrongly, that women were to be silent.  Hutchinson called attention to the full passage as being a reference to the church, and not a permanent position in discussion of sermons or scripture solely against the preaching of women.  Women, such as Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, and Noadiah, were prophets in the Old Testament, and greeted as “sisters in the faith” in the New Testament (Romans 4:20), becoming judges, priests, and even bishops in the early Church.

1 Corinthians 14:34-35 has traditionally been linked with 1 Timothy 2:8-15. This is the mark of an addition by a copyist, that modern theologians are only now beginning to understand.  While there is no substantial evidence that the Plymouth pioneer knew of this, Hutchinson fought for the right of women to read and study scripture without the menacing mention of women being silent based on the idea that all people were like little children whom Jesus invited to visit him (Matthew 19:14).  Even the Paul of the New Testament saluted women, as in the case of Phoebe (Romans 16:1–2) Priscilla, wife of Aquila (both being tent makers; Acts 18:2) and recognized as leaders in 1 Corinthians 16:19 and Romans 16:3.

What Hutchinson did not argue is the text itself. Such an education was forbidden women by men who were threatened by any thought of equality between the sexes.  Only ennobled women, wealthy women, had any formal education, and then quietly in their homes. The transmogrification of equality is the leftover garbage of the establishment of Christianity as an official religion by the Emperor in the fourth century CE.

If Anne Hutchinson had an education in Biblical text and interpretation, she would have noted that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 is a declarative statement and the passage does not match the rest of the text. Translation and interpretation have never been strong suits in theological studies from the ancient world to this day when school pretend to teach both sciences not only in the Third World but in most schools in the First World.

A more careful study of the questionable declarative verse would note that the writers of the Pauline epistle to the church at Corinth ignored the scripture’s declaration that women will prophesy (Joel 2:28; Acts 2:17-18) and did so in the church at Corinth (1 Corinthians 11:5).  The persecutor of Christians including at Corinth, Saul of Tarsus (who later takes for himself the name of Paul that means “small”, “humble” and even a “limited gathering of scholars”.  The name Paul is a family’s surname at the time of the first century CE.  It is Roman in heritage and spelled Paulus or Paullus.  Nowhere in the New Testament considered an Apostle except by Saul, himself.  The name Paul had no Hebrew or ancient Greek equivalent.  It is introduced in Biblical Greek.  The man is a self-created legend, and the Bible says nothing about Paul’s death. Only in 2 Timothy 2, do we read Paul writing about anticipating his death. 

1 Corinthians 14 and the silence of women

1 Corinthians 14 and the silence of women

What is unique is the writers of the Epistles, especially the letters to the congregation (there was no church) is that they are filled with repetition and self-rejection.  This is seen, dramatically, in the two verses 34 and 35.  They are self-contradictory, with 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 being at best a gloss or marginalia eased into the text by a medieval monk.

The Paul of the New Testament permitted women to participate when properly adorned (1 Corinthians 11:2-16). 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 stands out in sermons of all Christian cults and creeds–and has no biblical foundation except for itself (as I tell my students, you cannot use one book to prove the validity and credibility of that same book).  It is plagiarized from Old Testament lore that justifies the murders committed by Saul who was nothing more than a poor imitation of Joshua and Gideon who launched a Holocaust quit in keeping with that pushed by Adolf Hitler.

Gideon's Holocaust of Semitic people in Palestine/Canaan

Gideon’s Holocaust of Semitic people in Palestine/Canaan

Few have had the courage of Hutchinson to strike back at the theological terrorists machinations and insipid insanity of the patriarchy that then and now controls Christianity.  This patriarchy, using select sentences that were added to a book compiled and plagiarized from far older sources and passed off by those who would control others who were denied an education.  It was submissively accepted by those who bowed before alleged superiors who threatened their lives, limbs and property in the stagnant claim of being intercessor between god and man (ignoring woman).  Like ancient priests, Plymouth pastors prattled that they controlled all in the name of fear of a wrathful demon known as YHWH who unleashed holocaust after holocaust in the Torah and Book of Prophets (Old Testament) through the mass murderers Joshua and Gideon.  The source from the beginning of the innovation and creation of Christianity claimed their authority from a deliberate misreading of Matthew 16:18-19.

The Bible has always been a sponge of blood, from Genesis through Revelation.  Its pastors dined from burnt sacrifice and were given seats at the head of tables where they would invoke their deity to look upon food and heart with a jubilant spirit while the ecclesiastics ate first.  The idea of a “burnt sacrifice” is Akkadian in origin, passing through the language of Syria. The Hebrew feminine noun qorban (plural qorbanot קָרְבֳּנוֹת) first occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Leviticus 1:2.  It is found in 80 other passages is pronounced similarly in the Arabic language (Arabic kurban قربان).  Women were allowed to participate in the sacrifices–a fact that male preachers ignored, claiming that women were to be “meek and mild like Jesus”.

There was nothing “meek and mild” (a phrase that applies only to the Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew 11:28-30.  In the original Greek (πράος) meek means “in control” and “with great power that is under control”. It defines someone who is not subject to anger) about the Mistress who rattled the Puritan community and distressed the Fathers of the Colony.  None of the male ministers had anything in common with the Jesus of the New Testament.

Anne Hutchinson heartily made her displeasure known with the fools she suffered.  This was especially the situation with witless John Wilson and his rogue interpretation of religion “of one of works”. Having enough of his prattle praising tithing that was barely substantiated within scripture, Mistress Hutchinson got up and left whenever the millstone minister rose to pray or preach parched words of damnation and demons.  Tithing, actually, refers to a bribe (Deuteronomy 12:5-11):, extortion (Numbers 28:20-32), or payment under duress or to obtain spoils of war and theft (Genesis 14:20, 28:20-22) or a forced bribe to keep god from destroying his people (Malachi 3:8-10).

Repeatedly, Goodwife Hutchinson was reprimanded to mind the ministry of men.  She was to “silence herself” as being less than a man in the eyes of a critical, cruel and wrathful god.

Expelled by the “men of god” who declared End Times was “neigh [near]” and an apocalyptic war was about to begin with Jesus (defying the law of gravity) would ride out on a horse from the clouds with sword in hand to take blood from non-believers (Matthew 10:34), Hutchinson was exiled from her original home and community.  With many of her supporters, Hutchinson established the settlement of Portsmouth (that would become the Colony of Rhode Island) and Providence Plantations.  There was no rest for the outspoken Hutchinson. As at Plymouth, so it was at Portsmouth. Hutchinson’s heroic stand for her opinions and interpretations were met with scorn.  The chauvinistic chorus of misanthropic ministers damned her, “for she is but a woman” enfeebling every effort at blind justice and direct democracy.

A feisty firebrand who insisted on faith and with no emphasis on good works, Hutchinson ultimately found a home on the ancient landmark called Split Rock in what later became The Bronx in New York City. Her aspiration to help others, including the original aboriginal population (who became known as Indians), the city fathers launched acidic arguments against her, and leagued with “forces unknown.”  In August 1643, Hutchinson and all but one of the 16 members of her household were massacred during an attack by the native Siwanoy.  Her 9-year-old daughter Susanna was taken captive. 

The travail threaded through the life of Hutchison gave a tortured birth of a hatred-inspired fear of women throughout most of New England.  It spilled its poison into other colonies with a speed unmatched since the imaginary war in heaven between the Advocate of Job 2:1 (a Babylonian tale) known as Satan, and the mythical Akkadian god incorporated into the Bible under the name of Michael.  Religious rites were galvanized, ministers obtained a near god-like authority.  Religious freedom was curtailed, and colonies settled by one group of religionists were forced out by other religionists determined to draft their own ideologies into their charters, as happened to Maryland.

18th century carricature of Pope on Guy Fawkes Night in Boston

18th century caricature of Pope on Guy Fawkes Night in Boston

Maryland was established as a colony for Roman Catholics by Lord George Calvert in 1625. Roman Catholics were quickly disenfranchised as being “papists” and too attached to the plutocracy of the Vatican and the demands of the papacy.  “Good Christians” [Protestants] of Maryland, exploded intemperate against Roman Catholic priests who were rejected as following a foreign potentate  determined to turn the New World colonies into vassal states of the Vatican.  According to broadsheets, the Pope was to rule over splintered states by bishops loyal only to the Vicar of Christ.  This Vicar was caricaturized as a diabolical demons surrounded by vipers who would grow fat on the food denied the poor.

Roman Catholics in Maryland quickly lost their freedom of religion.  They were disenfranchised in 1646. They were, however, allowed along with “all [other] Christians” (emphasis mine) to live and work in Maryland in 1649 by means of the Maryland Toleration Act.

The Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)

The Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)

The Maryland Toleration Act became the source for the First Amendment of the fledgling United States of America. It was never, originally, a popular document nor a well-received First Amendment.

Virginia’s House of Burgesses recognized the Church of England as the official religion of the colony in 1619. The tie to the Established Church in England was, however, weak, and Anglicans in Virginia frequently pursued a course different from their counterparts in London.

In 1775, the bishop of London (Richard Terrick, 1710 – 1777) appointed James Blair to represent his interests in the colony, but there was scant attention to the authority from London in matters of religion, except that all prayer books and services followed the Church of England style that were far more closely related to the doctrines of Martin Luther than those of John Calvin.

The German, a former Augustinian monk who wrote numerous tracts in defence of the papacy and Rome, Martin Luther became over time  contemptuous of Jews (whom initially he had written in defense of) and argued for a strict interpretation of the words of the Bible with little to no tolerance for apostasy or heresy. Jews were not welcome anywhere in the New World when the colonies were formed.  They were slandered as being slayers of “the Christ”–a title Jesus never used in the original New Testament.

New Amsterdam (1626 engraving)

New Amsterdam (1626 engraving)

Little is known about the first Jew to visit the colonies.  The “sons of Israel” were poorly tolerated in colonial America (cf. Warren Blumenfeld (2012), “On The Discursive Construction of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing”: Jews As “U-boats” With A Mysterious ‘Queer Light'”, Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1-28). Jews were accepted only if they could bring supplies to the colonies, as was the case with the second Jew who sailed to the New World: Solomon Franco.

Jews in Colonial America (17th century drawing)

Jews in Colonial America (17th century drawing)

Solomon Franco was a Sephardic Jew from Holland. There is scant record of this enterprising man, except it is believed that he settled in the city of Boston in 1649. 

Franco delivered “needed” supplies to Edward Gibbons, a Major General in the Massachusetts militia.  Franco quickly wore out his welcome when he demanded payment.

Gibbons was astonished that anyone would expect payment from a man of his rank–especially a Jew. A dispute broke out over who should pay Franco (Gibbons or Perada a Dutch merchant who arranged for the shipment of goods). On May 6, 1649, the Massachusetts General Court that Franco was to be expelled from the colony, but granted Franco “six shillings per week out of the Treasury for ten weeks, for sustenance, till he can get his passage to Holland”. The “sustenance allowance quickly ran out.

Jews found a home in New York (August 1654 drawing)

Jews found a home in New York (August 1654 drawing)

Five years later Solomon Pietersen, a merchant from Amsterdam, sailed into Boston. In 1656, Pietersen became the first known Americanized Jew to intermarry with a Christian. This action was deemed scandalous, being tantamount to “race mixing” that was illegal. Pietersen’s marriage to a Christian woman (referred even then to miscegenation, coming from the Latin miscere “to mix” + genus “kind”) is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, and procreation.  The same bigotry that has been the lot of LGBT people by such biblical illiterates as Bob Vander Plaats of Iowa, Timothy Dolan of New York, Francis George of Chicago, Bryan Fischer, Ann Coulter and the ever-ignorant Benedict XVI (who declared he would resign as pope on February 28–an action that has not occurred since 1415 in the Middle Ages). 

Those who spew hatred against marginalized groups painfully mistranslated and misinterpreted the universal myth of Ham {Greek Χαμ, Kham ; Arabic: حام, Ḥām, “hot” or “burnt”} in reference to skin pigmentation: Black for Africans, “dark brown” for Jews and “Arabs” {the Semitic or Abrahamic people of Mesopotamia Africa}, and so forth; Genesis 9:20-27), “force” Ham’s later generations, according to some records, to formally convert to Christianity. To this end Black slaves in Virginia and other states demanded that their slaves go to Christian churches, and if they went with their white masters, to sit either on benches in balconies or in near-by cabins (some were allowed to sit at the back of the church if it did not have a full congregation).

There are no records showing Pietersen formally converted.  His daughter Anna, however, was baptized in childhood.  The action was one of the forced/enforced requirements of that day to stay in the colony.

Jacob Barsimson arrives at New Amsterdam (1654)

Jacob Barsimson arrives at New Amsterdam (1654)

The third Jew to arrive at New Amsterdam (lower Manhattan, where Wall Street is today) was Jacob Barsimson. Barsimson was born in Holland and worked for the Dutch East India Company. He was among the refugees who was aboard the Peartree on August 22, 1654, fleeing the Portuguese Inquisition when Portugal conquered Batavia (Jakarta).

Around this time 23 more Jews (four couples, two widows, and thirteen children) arrived as refugees from Brasil (that had been a Dutch colony before it was conquered by the Portuguese. The refugees’ spokesperson was Asser Levy, primarily because he represented the legendary priestly class of the ancient Hebrews. Levy argued for Jewish rights in the Dutch Colony of New Amsterdam. Levy won for the Jews basic civil rights including admission into the House of Burghers and was also granted the privilege of serving guard duty for the colony–something no non-Christian was allowed to do, so great was the colonists fear of angering their god of wrath. Levy’s victory was not without a fight.

The Christians of the local Dutch Reformed Church, led by local merchants, appealed to the colonial governor, Peter Stuyvesant, to have the Jews expelled, on the grounds, as Stuyvesant wrote to the Dutch West India Company (September 22, 1654), that the Jews practiced usury and were “deceitful trading with the Christians … [praying] that the deceitful race—such hateful enemies and blasphemers of the name of Christ—ne [be] not allowed to further infect and trouble this new colony to the detraction of your worships and the dissatisfaction of your worships’ most affectionate subjects”.

Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam (New York)

Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam (New York)

The Dutch West India Company declined because of several influential Jews in New Amsterdam who promised to provide “the poor among them shall not become a burden to the company or to the community, but be supported by their own nation”. To the consternation of “good Christians” in New Amsterdam, the Dutch West India Company went further:

We would have liked to effectuate and fulfill your wishes and request that the new territories should no more be allowed to be infected by people of the Jewish nation, for we foresee therefrom the same difficulties which you fear, but after having further weighed and considered the matter, we observe that this would be somewhat unreasonable and unfair, especially because of the considerable loss sustained by this nation, with others, in the taking of Brazil, as also because of the large amount of capital which they still have invested in the shares of this company. Therefore after many deliberations we have finally decided and resolved to apostille [annotate] upon a certain petition presented by said Portuguese Jews that these people may travel and trade to and in New Netherland and live and remain there, provided the poor among them shall not become a burden to the company or to the community, but be supported by their own nation. You will now govern yourself accordingly.”

After New Amsterdam fell to the British, in 1737, the General Assembly, of what was renamed New York, voted that no Jew was to be allowed to vote for members of that body.  Disenfranchised the Jews spent most of their time in business pursuits.

Few Jews moved beyond New York City. There were not sufficient Jews in Upstate New York to form a congregation until 1838, and there were no rabbis to serve until 1846.

There was no recognized Jewish community or congregation in Boston before 1840, and while an occasional Jew made it into Vermont and New Hampshire, there were no congregations until 1882. While there were a few Jews in Massachusetts, there was no significant record of any Jew or of any Jewish congregation before 1800. Even fewer lived in Maryland.

Covenant of Peace (first Jewish synagogue at Eaton, PA) 1839

Covenant of Peace (first Jewish synagogue at Eaton, PA) 1839

Pennsylvania had its first Jewish emigrant, Joseph Simon, in 1730, but there was no synagogue or cemetery for Jews until 1732 at Shaefferstown.  A synagogue was established at Easton in 1839, but its rabbi was not welcomed by any Christian pastor or congregant.

Pennsylvania was carved out for Quakers. While the Quakers were far more tolerant than any other Christian in Colonial America, they were to the far left of the Church of England that was too “popery”.  Quakers’ aversion to war, violence,  and argument made them as distrusted as were the animosities between chrestianos and christianos until the Emperor Constantine I created his crated “catholic [universal] church” in 325 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini 36-37, in Greek) by decree with no reference to Matthew 16:18.  There is no biblical proof that Jesus ever anointed a pope nor called for worship centers beyond an empty field (Matthew 18:20) or prayer in secret (Matthew 6:6).  There was never, to this day, a person in the USA who ever followed the teaching of Jesus, those who claim to be Christians are Paulinists, with Roman Catholics in the USA fleeing the teaching of Jesus more than any group.

Anti-Catholic American Patriot showing hatred for the Pope

 Roman Catholicism, having been suppressed in the past (Jenkins, Philip (1 April 2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press. p. 23) throughout the seaboard colonies continued to be feared as being covert workers for a Catholic invasion and take-over orchestrated by the Pope in the Vatican.  

KKK armed to defend the USA from an invasion by Rome and its Catholic priests (19th century)

KKK armed to defend the USA from an invasion by Rome and its Catholic priests (19th century)

Americans, both colonialists and those who came with and after the Revolution, continued to arm themselves against alleged invasion of Roman Catholic Spaniards from Florida, Mexico, Cuba, and other Latin American nations.  Fear of Roman Catholics further spurred the KKK to arm themselves, seek out Roman Catholics and execute them. They were supported by legislators and laws in such hate-filled states as Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Georgia, Texas and the rest of the southern tier. Governors, Congressional representatives and senators, and state legislatures from West Virginia to California, Texas to Minnesota turned a blind eye to the carnage of many Christians who declared, like Billy Graham, Richard Land, G.Em Melchert and James Dobson, that Roman Catholics were not Christians.  The anger that rang from the roof tops of Nazareth Lutheran Church and College Hill Lutheran Church in Cedar Falls, Iowa, was matched in embittered denunciations by the cult of the Wisconsin Evangelical Synod, the Southern Baptist Convention and its Christ for the Nations ministry, buttressed by Pentecostal predators from Jimmy Bakker to Jimmy Swaggart, Scott Lively to James Dobson, with the support of born-again governors from Rick Perry (R-TX) and Scott Walker (R-WI).

Second Amendment to Constitution of the USA.

Second Amendment to Constitution of the USA.

Many of the most hate-filled people, from legislators in Iowa, Nebraska and the Dakotas, found solace only in the Second Amendment that they believed was their buttress for maintaining guns and other weapons, even though the Amendment said it was to sustain “a militia”.  The people have a right to “keep and bear arms” but for defense.  Previously arms had been housed in community arsenals at public expense. 

Irish Catholics, Jews and Blacks were considered equally evil by White "saved" Christians leadding to establishing the KKK.

Irish Catholics, Jews and Blacks were considered equally evil by White “saved” Christians leading to establishing the KKK.

Blacks and Irish Catholics were considered evil, worthless and expendable  in early USA history.  Irish and Black people were frequently drawn as being equal, with the Irish lampooned as being ape-like.

Cartoons and caricatures depicting the Pope as “the Great Whore” and priests as cutthroats and worse spread from broadsheets to newspapers and books. With the rise of the Khristian Knights of the [KKK] Klan, attacks on Roman Catholics increased along with the slaughter of Blacks and other minorities.

Even the otherwise well-read democrat and orator for human rights and civil liberties for all, Thomas Jefferson, wrote against Roman Catholicism. Jefferson argued: “History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government,” (Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813) and that “In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own” (Letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814).

"American Patriot" Anti-Catholic articles attacking Pope and End Times theology

“American Patriot” Anti-Catholic articles attacking Pope and End Times theology

By the 1840s the nightmare fantasy fable of End of Times and the invention of a physical hell spawned by ancient Mesopotamian civilizations and plagiarized by most Abrahamic religions and people throughout the Middle East, was directly linked to the influx of Roman Catholics.  Roman Catholics were viewed as being more intent on damnation than on salvation even for the most avid Puritans.  More and more the papacy was labeled the Whore of Babylon (Dante, Inferno Canto 19, drawn from the ranting of John “of Patmos” (an island where those who were determined

In Inferno canto 19 Dante rebukes pope Nicholas III in the fourth bolgia

In Inferno canto 19 Dante rebukes pope Nicholas III in the fourth bolgia

to be insane were housed, with the writer of Revelation being consider “quite mad” even by his coreligionists who thought him suicidal or prone to murder) in Apocalypse 13 and 17:1-2.  Both the Apocalypse and other renderings of End Time theology were, plagiarized from old Babylonian tales and Akkadian folklore interwoven into Egyptian records. The verses in Apocalypse 13, 17:1-2 are closely identified with the tale found in the Babylonian Book of Daniel 5, 9:27). This  lead to the indiscriminate slaughter of Roman Catholics and the burning of their property 1840-1872 (Jimmy Akin (2001-03-01). “The History of Anti-Catholicism”. This Rock. Catholic Answers).  No newspaper, no periodical, no Christian minister raised his voice against this attack on civil rights and human liberties.

Benedict XVI (resigned papacy February 18, 2013)

Benedict XVI (resigned papacy February 18, 2013)

Today’s Roman Catholic Church in the USA. the religion most repressed in early America, is the most oppressive religion within the nation–and within the world.  The Roman Catholic Church continues to deny women the right of choice and the right to be priest–a role women held in the early communities and in the congregations set up by Apostles of Jesus of the New Testament.  The Roman Catholic Church, especially with the ascent of the two most hate-filled pontiffs in modern history, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, rejects basic human rights for various groups from non-Christians (there has been token efforts to dialogue with Buddhists and Jews, but nothing on the scale of John XXIII who reached out to everyone) to LGBT and other marginalized people.  The Roman Catholic Church under John Paul II and his rottweiler cardinal from Germany, Joseph Ratzinger, made a concerted but secretive effort to protect pedophile priests and prelates from Roger Mahoney (Los Angeles) and  Timothy Dolan (New York City read here and here and here)  intones, in the ”name of Jesus Christ”. The German Pope, Benedict XVI, is chief of those who are opposed to the Constitution of the USA’s proclamation of all people being equal and afforded equality before the law.  At the same time, the pontifex maximus continued protecting pedophile priests from the Jesuits in Alaska who sexually assaulted little girls and boys under the age of 12 in tribal villages and in remote areas to secular priests in the Oregon, Iowa, Texas and throughout the USA dioceses and abroad.

Ashlynn Conner, a little Irish American girl, bullied into suicide at age 10 in Illinois

Ashlynn Conner, a little Irish American girl, bullied into suicide at age 10 in Illinois

While Colonial charters and laws contained specific proscriptions against Roman Catholics by state constitutions, atheists are openly attacked in the same way and with an identical fury as the early Roman Catholics and Jews. Atheists, however, are attacked more frequently than either of the groups of oppressed people.  Students in USA schools and universities bullying are among the rising number of self-define “soldiers of Christ” who feel “called upon” to attack atheists.  These “soldiers of Christ” are sworn to rid the USA of atheists, either by murdering them in cold blood or by “encouraging those who doubt or deny god” to commit suicide by channeling their hate on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and other means of social communication.  This vitriol is even more acute in the “soldiers of Christ” in attacking any LGBT who is either self-acknowledge and proud of himself or herself, regardless of age.  Even young children are singled out for torment that can lead to suicide, as was the case with ten-year-old Ashlynn Conner, to 15-year-old Jamie Hubley, and more.

The majority of the tormentors being parents, siblings, classmates, evangelical groups.  Most of the groups are certified hate organizations, such as Focus on the Family (Alabama), and Bob Vander Plaats’ The FAMiLY that leads the charge against women’s rights in Iowa.  Vander Plaats is sustained by the collective insanity by nine nightmare clinically insane Republican Representatives strangling democracy in the Iowa legislature (House File 153) who seek to enact legislation that would declare sperm, ova, zygote, and fetus a “person” and its “destruction” murder–a tactic used in many other states to deny women personal freedom. 

If this barbaric broadside would past, the Tea Party Republicans would many any woman who was raped stand trial for first degree murder).  This is especially true in carnivorous cults of the Wisconsin Evangelical Synod, Missouri Lutheran church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) and the Roman Catholic Church and the US Council of Roman Catholic Bishops (read here and here).  It is acceptable to abuse a child in any of these cults (my uncles sodomized me when I was younger than eight, and one was a minister in the Missouri Lutheran Church, and the other a student of theology, not yet ordained; when I complained first to my mother (who was convinced I had seduced my uncles) and to my pastor (who argued that I was the sinner), I gave up all interest and faith  in religion.

Charles Darwin on atheism

Charles Darwin on atheism

Atheists cannot hold public office in Arkansas (Article 19, Section 1), Maryland (Article 37), Mississippi (Article 14, Section 265), North Carolina (Article 6, Section 8), Pennsylvania (Article 1, Section 4, while the wording is tricky, the message that those who differ in their interpretation and belief in a god cannot be disqualified), South Carolina (Article 17, Section 4), Tennessee (Article 9, Section 2), Texas (Article 1, Section 4)—while the 14th Amendment, Section 6 technically makes it moot, the states that discriminate reject that amendment, and several contenders for the presidency of the USA have campaigned to have the Amendment overturned.

Atheism in San Diego, California (2013)

Atheism in San Diego, California (2013)

Atheists have only limited rights.  Atheists and those who do not attend churches, synagogues or private meeting houses (Quakers, Unitarian-Universalists, etc), are openly attacked from Virginia to California, Minnesota to Texas and throughout all other states.

A federal court in Indiana dismissed a claim that an Indiana law prohibiting secular celebrants from solemnizing marriages (Indiana code 31-11-6-1).  At the same time the Christian court allowed religious representatives to perform marriages in open violation the First Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the USA.  The federal court in Indiana rejected a brief submitted by the Center for Inquiry in Center for Inquiry, Inc., et al. v Clerk, Marion Circuit Court, et al (read here, pdf).  It is an overt, court consciously calculated double standard extensively covered in numerous legal cases.

Humanist ads are not attack advertising.

Humanist ads are not attack advertising.

Humanists enjoy life. They seek out the better in themselves and other people. They do not attack. Humanists teach that all things are open to questioning and debate.

To silence debate is the mark of religion that offers no freedom to the individual. Debate silenced is nothing less than mental, and physical slavery.  Socrates was the thinker who best represented humanism: questioning everything, working to change that which could be changed, and accepting fate for what was in store by being a model citizen, an educated teacher, an analytic debater, and a good spouse who made sure all debts were paid

 Aesculapius, Greek God of Medicine and Healing with serpent (Wisdom) on staff, and cock (health and ease of death) on pedestal.

Aesculapius, Greek God of Medicine and Healing with serpent (Wisdom) on staff, and cock (health and ease of death) on pedestal.

It was recorded by Plato that Socrates said:Crito, we owe a rooster (in the original, the word is cock: a male gallinaceous bird: a chicken, turkey, grouse, pheasant, and partridge, grouse, etc., while a rooster is a domestic fowl: a male chicken with no superior powers.  The god of health was partial to cocks because of their curative powers and use in ritual worship) to Asclepius. Please, don’t forget to pay the debt.” Asclepius was the Greek god for curing illness, and for Socrates the greatest cure for illness is death.  ( Plato, Phaedo 115b-118a; cp. Waterfield,Robin (2009). Why Socrates Died: Dispelling the Myths. New York:W.W.Norton and Company).  Socrates was found guilty of corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety (“not believing in the gods of the state”), cf. Plato. Apology, 24–27. 

Religion is like genitalia: don't show it off in public or shove it down your children's throat

Religion is like genitalia: don’t show it off in public or shove it down your children’s throat

Distrust in oneself and in those who admit/claim to be atheists is a prime reason for seasoned social ostracization of atheists and atheism. Several psychological studies show that results were consistent with the hypothesis that the relationship between belief in God and atheist distrust was fully mediated by the belief that people behave better if they feel that God is watching them: if you are not a believer you will suffer the pains and fires of hell. Other studies show atheists were systematically socially excluded only in high-trust domains; belief in God, but not authoritarianism, predicted this discriminatory decision-making against atheists in high trust domains (Gervais, Will M.; Shariff, Azim F.; Norenzayan, Ara (December 2011). “Do you believe in atheists? Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice”. doi: 10.1037/a0025882 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 101(6), 1189-1206).

Many people argue that atheists and nonbelievers are expressing hidden anger against a god that/who offended them or did not give them what they asked for (Exline, Julie J.; Park, Crystal L.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Carey, Michael P (January 2011). “Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer”. doi: 10.1037/a0021716 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 100(1), 129-148). This has been repeatedly been disproven, with research on why many elect atheism, being a study of 350 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism.  Those who vouched that they had no belief in a god had a wide reading of history , science and religion (75 times) that grew throughout their lifetime; disgust with religious hypocrisy (60) as seen in the case of Ted Haggard, Jerry Falwell, Bishop Eddie Long

Bishop Eddie Long's boy friends

Bishop Eddie Long’s boy friends

(whose victims Bishop Eddie Long’s boy friends call him a “monster” as the bishop had no less than four boy-toys, while Long claims the charges are false and he was the victim); influence of particular author or book (55); a byproduct of Socialist materialism (30); effects of college education (25); effects of study of sciences (25); and others in lesser numbers. Less frequently emotional factors were mentioned, such as: illness and death in family, the horrors of war, the futility of prayer, the evils and unhappiness in the world, etc. 36% of the atheists were oldest children, while only 15% were youngest children; about 9% were only children (Vetter, G. B.; Green, M. (July 1932). “Personality and group factors in the making of atheists”. doi: 10.1037/h0075273 The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol 27(2), 179-194).

Most people who reject god do so after intensive study of history, science, religion, and philosophy: atheists tend to be more educated and broadly versed than do theists (Teo, Thomas (2009), Editorial. doi: 10.1037/ a0017640 Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, Vol 29(2), 61-62). Families do disassociate themselves from members who declare their rejection of any god(s) that the family may believe in and worship, but this is a sign of paternalism and the fear of the family unit not being carried on by future like-minded generations.

States that the deny atheists and agnostics basic human and civil rights

States that the deny atheists and agnostics basic human and civil rights

By 2013, there is only an abridged form of religious freedom with many states within the union, with many states disenfranchising or denying the right to serve in a public office if the individual does not recognize a god. Even the deity is questioned as it was in the past: Jesus has to be Caucasian white, the name of the creator has to be God (not Allah), and so forth.  The act of swearing an oath is said to have religious connotations as it affirms the existence of a deity and a person’s confession of the existence of a deity, but this has no biblical support. On the contrary, the Bible expressly forbids people to swear (Matthew 5:34, James 5:12), therefore to swear “So help me god” is actually biblically prohibited since it is a rejection of YHWH and Jesus and an affirmation of a pagan god.

A Christian pastor does not mean that it is a man or a woman in a suit pounding pulpits as if he or she was/is the Wrath of Moses.  A Christian preacher is not a man in a red dress covered with delicate lace sitting enthroned in a cathedral. 

Christianity from its beginning in 325 CE meant a dictatorship over a group of semi-thinking people.  We find this in the pontifications of John Paul II and Benedict XVI, the US Council of Roman Catholic Bishop and similar church councils around the world, as well as in the proclamations of various cults from those of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Pentecostal group, Ultra Orthodox Jews, and in the estranged world of mind control of Bob Vander Plaats’ The FAMiLY in Iowa, or James Dobson’s American Family Association in Alabama, or other certified hate groups.  The teachings of Jesus of the New Testament is not Constantine’s Christianity that details that select individuals have the right to deny other people personal rights, liberties or freedoms, and have the power to require others to believe or disbelieve as predator (priest, pastor, bishop, cardinal, pope, imam, ayatollah, rabbi, and so forth) demands.  That is slavery.

Various evangelical groups reject non-evangelical groups with their own interpretation of holy books and leaders. These groups ranged from chrestianos to christianos, concerning the warrior messiah of Matthew 10:34 to the prince of peace in Isaiah 9:6.  The two were joined by Constantine who controlled the ultimate canonization of scripture.  For this reason, it can truly be written, that Christianity is among the most barbaric of religions and has been since it was created by the Emperor Constantine I for religion (the Church) claims superiority over the state throughout history, even within the USA where politicians ranging from US Senators Charles Grassley (R-IA), to Jim Inhofe (R-OK) and former (now Governor) Sam Brownback (R-KS, converted to Roman Catholicism by Opus Dei priest Rev. John McCloskey’s guidance) all reject a wall separating state and church.

The Roman Emperor at the time of the assaults on Rome and the City of Constantine, Constantine I created an ecclesia (ἐκκλησίαa: public court, political assembly of citizens of an ancient Greek state [American Heritage Dictionary] who had the obligation to do business and bring wealth to the emperor) where only his interpretation of Paulinity would be held and upheld, and the actual teaching of Jesus would be watered down, and his private life ignored.  There was no placed in the early Church for a renegade man who never had a girl friend, who never married, who never took up arms to defend the empire, who allowed a man to rest his head upon Jesus’ chest, who was followed out of the garden by a nude youth, and most likely was gay, since Jewish society all males to marry and procreate–which Jesus never did–save in one Coptic fragment.  The problem with the ancient fragment is it is too late to consult with other similar fragments that have disintegrated with time or were consigned to the first of Constantine who was busy working on creating his own church.

Coptic fragment referring to Jesus wife (or partner?)

Coptic fragment referring to Jesus wife (or partner?)

The Pauline church was Constantine’s make-believe early “church” in opposition to the brothers of Jesus who saw the movement as a reformed Judaism.  Determined to be the sole arbiter of thought and expression, Constantine’s church would be a national unit that would allow Constantine absolute control over the empire’s faiths.

The Emperor Constantine I orders books burned including gospels considered equal to the synoptic gospels and letters he did not like 325 CE

The Emperor Constantine I orders books burned including gospels considered equal to the synoptic gospels and letters he did not like 325 CE

Constantine burned all books, scrolls, records, gospels, epistles that he did not approve–a common practice especially when it comes to religion and its denial of individual freedoms and human rights. Constantine’s church [business enterprise] was not known as Christianity after the theological coup. To ensure imperial control over the newly created church, Constantine ordered the works of Arius and other “heretics” were burned, in the manner of the Coptic pope in Egypt demanding that the famed library of Alexandria be destroyed.

Hypatia killed by Christians in Alexandria, Egypt on order of the Coptic Pope

Hypatia killed by Christians in Alexandria, Egypt on order of the Coptic Pope

It was under the clerical  Catholic cannibalism of the pseudo-Christian Coptic Pope Cyril that the famed astronomer, philosopher, mathematician, scientist, librarian and atheist Hypatia was torn apart by Coptic Christian monks who shredded her skin, tearing it off while she lived, and throwing her living body onto a pyre of burning scrolls and writings of ancient thinkers in all then-known fields of academic inquiry. The death of Hypatia was planned by the Coptic monks and set a signal for all bibliolators in the conservative Christian community to rise up against the ‘learned scholars’ of Alexandria, a center of knowledge throughout the ancient world and destroy all things that were not of, from, and within the Bible. It was the beginning of the Dark Ages in Egypt that spread like a fungus throughout Europe, turning off all lights that pierced the darkness of biblical literalism and enforced belief (George F. Simmons (1992). Calculus Gems: Brief Lives and Memorable Mathematics. New York, NY: MacGraw Hill; Maria Dzielska (1995). Hypatia of Alexandria, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (Revealing Antiquity, 8), p. xi, 157).

With the message of the mythical Paul cannibalizing Christianity, the law body (the actual meaning of the word in the early centuries, first to fourth, ecclesia, changed by the fifth century when courtiers transmogrified the true meaning of the word by attaching to it the incorrect translation and title of “the Church”) gave the world the grotesque Inquisition. The bloody Inquisition did not remain uniquely Roman Catholic.  It quickly was taken up by such “reformers” as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII and his heirs, Scandinavian potentates, and the most vile representatives of man in Russia and captive provinces.  All based their “reformations” on spurious tracts that were current but did not reflect original documents designed to ensure peace or protect people. Few men, after the second century CE, realized that there never was a St. Peter, St. Paul, or Roman Popes (the first does not appear or is catalogued before the second century, not even in the first edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, with some writers arguing that there were no bishops nor a pope in Rome before the end of the fourth century).

Luther, Martin: Von den Jüden und ihren lügen Wittemberg (1543)

Luther, Martin: Von den Jüden und ihren lügen Wittemberg (1543)

The protesting reformer, Martin Luther’s war against the Jews and his books (Von den Jüden und iren Lügen, 1543, that the German ex-Augustinian monk wrote: Conversion of the Jews will be the work of God alone operating from within, and not of man working — or rather playing — from without. If these offences be taken away, worse will follow. For they are thus given over by the wrath of God to reprobation, that they may become incorrigible, as Ecclesiastes says, for every one who is incorrigible is rendered worse rather than better by correction; cf. Oberman, Heiko. Luthers Werke. Erlangen 1854, 32:282, 298, in Grisar, Hartmann. Luther. St. Louis 1915, 4:286 and 5:406; cp. Luther, Martin. Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi) that became the supporting arguments for Hitler’s extermination of the Jews.

These same arguments sprung up like weeds in the mincing of the madman Richard Land and the Southern Baptist Conventions to use them against the LGBT community.  Like slurry it has resurfaced among poorly trained Pentecostal preachers who are personally against Muslims, etc.  There is even the absurdity of the “reverend” Terry Jones of Florida who damns everything Islamic, like Fred Phelps and his cult the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, KS, that even his own granddaughters fled.

When a person is in another nation, the visitor must respect or at least obey the laws of that nation.  The visitor has no right to enforce on others his or her own views or theologies.  This happens too frequently as with the carnage called for by Scott Lively and his gaggle of evangelical goons,  flying to Africa to initiate genocide.  Scott Lively, Lou Engle, Caleb Lee Brundidge, and Don Schmierer met at the infamous C Street, Washington, DC “The Family” house that shelters US Senators Charles Grassley (R-IA), James Inhofe (R-OK), John Stennis (R-MS), Richard Lugar (R-IN), adulterers Mark Sanford (R-SC), John Ensign (R-NV) and numerous other dominionists, including Rev. Ted Haggard whose seduction and payment for homosexual prostitute to keep him “company” was forgiven “in the name of Jesus Christ”:  USA leaders who want to throw over democrcy in the USA and establish a theocracy where they would awaken a sleeping Jesus to take up sword for the New Apostolic Reformation and ride a stead from the clouds to Earth and launch an Apocalyptic war (Sharlet, Jeff (2010). C Street: The Fundamentalist Threat to American Democracy. New York: Little Brown; Sharlet, Jeff (2008).  The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power. New York, NY: Harper Perennial). Grassley of Iowa is the least well known–but the most dangerous member of The Family who planned to put his grandson in the Iowa legislature but intends for the youth to take over the USA.

Lively, primarily, is sponsoring the death call to elevate his own desperation to be seen as a pivotal evangelist in the USA and is desperately deceiving members of Parliament in Nigeria and Uganda for personal gain and fame. 

Lively is funneling money into the pockets of Speakers of Parliament to launch an unholy war against minorities.  He has the support with the great racist Benedict XVI who publicly blessed Uganda Speaker of Parliament Rebecca Kadaga when she promised a “cleanings” of all LGBT from Uganda by December 25, 2012. Repeating the words of her hero, Adolf Hitler, Kadaga promised that a “final solution” would be Uganda Parliament’s Christmas present for “good Christians”.  

Roman Catholics of Uganda, led by the Roman Catholic episcopacy: its bishops and clergy (most who are admitted pedophiles) demanded the legislation to pass quickly so that they could help the nation murder all LGBT who threatened the children of the nation.  Ugandan Roman Catholics and Anglicans also demanded the slaughter of all Jews and others who do not agree with them, claiming that they had the support of Benedict XVI.  Most were furious when they learned that their beloved pope was already named as a subject for trial for crimes against humanity.   They protested when “liberal” factions claimed that no  evangelist has a right to enter any nation and “convert” others to their insanity, and that a holy war must break out between Christians of Uganda and Muslims in Uganda.

George Carlin on god

George Carlin on god

What maintains religious officiates is the absurdity of tithing. The “tithe” was an ancient law to appease a jealous king who was also considered a god (Genesis 14:20) and came from the “spoils” [theft] of wars. Tithing became a special bribe mortals made to kings/gods (Genesis 28:20-22) and became a part of “the Laws of Moses”.  The Ten Commandments, of which there are three distinct sets in Exodus, were plagiarized from the Code of Hammurabi and other ancient Middle Eastern texts with the arrival of the Egyptian mercenaries known as Apiru (prototypes of the Hebrews) who served in the Akkadian army (Leviticus 27:30-32). The Apiru leaders declared that tithes would be the main support of temple priests (reclassified as Levites in Numbers 18:20-32) whose primary duty after appeasing a cannibal god was to guard the warriors’ wealth (Nehemiah 13:4-12).

There is nothing spiritual about tithing, as throughout the Middle East it was extortion money paid to the most unscrupulous elements of society. TIPS, however, were medieval in origin and meant To Insure Prompt Service that were given out by lords and clergy to get immediate service–it was never a wage paid at the end of a meal, nor required, but, like in the bible, was a bribe.  Only through TIPS and bribes can there be freedom of religion for the few who conform the most to the dictates of the wealthy and those in power.

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Filed under atheism, Bible, Bullying, Christian Terrorists, Church history, History of USA, Jewish history, Ku Klux Klan, Martin Luther, Old Testament, Robert Vander Plaats, separation of church and state, suicide, Torah

Benedict XVI and same-sex marriage

Homosexual marriages took place in the ancient world—far more frequently and in greater numbers than religious reactionaries wish or allow themselves to admit.  While the Bible is overwhelming with stories of incest, polygamy, wife-selling, and sexual irregularities among heterosexuals, there are few such declamations against same-sex couples that do exist (not just the accounts of David with Jonathan 2 Samuel 1:26: צַר־לִי עָלֶיךָ אָחִי יְהֹונָתָן נָעַמְתָּ לִּי מְאֹד נִפְלְאַתָה אַהֲבָתְךָ לִי מֵאַהֲבַת נָשִׁים׃).

Same-sex marriages have occurred in all cultures, at all times, and with support from various people and governments.  They have been celebrated with ceremonies, family and public congratulations, toasts with wine and beer, and showers of gifts both practical and pleasurable.

Egyptian-couple Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep (tomb painting)

We have tomb paintings from the days of the pharaohs where same-sex couples’s co-habitation was celebrated as with the union of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep as found in the depiction of the two men in a warm embrace sharing a kiss in their tomb, known as the Tomb of the Two Hairdressers, in the necropolis at Saqqara, south of Cairo.  There was no condemnation of same-sex marriages anywhere in the ancient Middle East until the invasion of the Akaddian mercenaries, known as the Apiru/Abiru. None of the recorded laws of Mesopotamia, including the Code of Hammurabi (on-line), contain restrictions against same-sex unions despite the fact that marriages are otherwise well-regulated.  There were no laws, no prescriptions, no injunctions that marriage was for the purpose of procreation (as is found in Roman regulations) and “replenishing the earth”—although later Hebrews, distant in time and knowledge from the original text, would use that concept in declaring that people were to

Rhind Papyrus (ancient Egypt)

“multiply”—but not physically or sexually, but rather mentally and intellectually, as multiplication is not a part of any vocabulary until the middle of the Middle Ages (around the eleventh century, coming from India and the mathematics invented by a subcontinent respected mathematician by the name of Brahmagupta  (598-670 CE) but found its origins in ancient Egypt. 

Moscow Papyrus (fragment with additional conjectures)

The word used (multiply) that has been transmogrified into multiply actually was “increase” and  meant to increase in wisdom and knowledge (Genesis 9:7:  וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃ ס) where multiply in the original tongue is רָבָה and is the verb rahab from the original Assyrian rabû, meaning to become great (מִן) and compare things with a longing for wisdom, as in 1 Kings 5:10-12 (וַיְהִי חִירֹום נֹתֵן לִשְׁלֹמֹה עֲצֵי אֲרָזִים וַעֲצֵי בְרֹושִׁים כָּל־חֶפְצֹו׃ 11 וּשְׁלֹמֹה נָתַן לְחִירָם עֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף כֹּר חִטִּים מַכֹּלֶת לְבֵיתֹו וְעֶשְׂרִים כֹּר שֶׁמֶן כָּתִית כֹּה־יִתֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה לְחִירָם שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה׃ ף 12 וַיהוָה נָתַן חָכְמָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לֹו וַיְהִי שָׁלֹם בֵּין חִירָם וּבֵין שְׁלֹמֹה וַיִּכְרְתוּ בְרִית שְׁנֵיהֶם׃) and knowledge as in Daniel 12:4 where we read the word הַדָּֽעַת׃.

Juvenal on same-sex marriage

While Roman law is almost altogether lacking in formal processes for legal  requirements, the fact that there are numerous mentions of same-sex weddings (although most appear as objects of ridicule and sport), there can be no doubt that they were common, and noted by Martial:

Marital on same-sex marriage 

The only challenge seen to same-sex marriage was that the two people of the same gender who married could not have babies and thus continue their lineage. There is no record that I am aware of where same-sex couples adopted children, but there are references to children raised by same-sex people who have “settled into a single life”.

In the Greek world of antiquity, the same is true for same-sex relationships as it was in ancient Egypt. Plato’s Symposium describes instances of homosexual attraction and same-sex relationships in ancient Greece without condemnation.  Over the centuries, Greece experienced an evolving cultural-religious basis for homosexual love and same-sex relationships based on ancient Greek theology. 

Zeus and Ganymede (ancient Greek urn)

In ancient Greek theological works it is common to read about “same-sex exploits” by gods as high-ranking as Zeus who loved Ganymede. While modern artists focus more on Ganymede being a child, in reality he was a young man, as classical artists depicted.

Achilles mourning Patroclus

The epics of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, contain poetic passages that underscore homoerotic love between the military leaders of the Greek city states and others (Dynes, Wayne R. and Stephen Donaldson. 1992. Homosexuality in the Ancient World. New York, NY: Garland; Ishay, Micheline R. 2004. The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).  In the Iliad the most poignant quasi-erotic story is the love felt by Patroclus, friend and lover to Achilles whose death unleashes Achilles’ wrath on Hector (Plato, Symposium 179-180; ref. Thornton, Bruce S. (1997). Eros: the Myth of Ancient Greek Sexuality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 195-196). 

Odysseus escapes from the Cyclops cave by hiding under a ram

There are numerous homosexual allusions in Homer’s Odyssey, as when Odysseus blinds Cyclops in his one eye with a lance, and then sneaks away with his men by riding underneath the Cyclops’ own rams (Homer, Odysseus, Book 9). The point is made that Odysseus selected the largest ram owned by the Cyclops for his journey from the cave.

 Roman statesman Cicero documented legal rights of an individual within a same-sex marriage, but was later opposed to same-sex pursuits (Cicero, 1966, Tusculan Disputations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press , 407-415; to chase after someone defied conventions where mutual interest that was pleasant and unbounded by restrictions more acceptable—becoming the foundation for Etienne Montaigne’s work and his own pursuit of same-sex love; Badhwar, Neera K. “Friendship and Sexuality” in Soble, Alan (Ed., 2006). Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Sex.New York, NY: Greenwood Publishing Group). Female same-sex unions were less common—or at least there is a paucity of records, but this is because women enjoyed less freedom in their economic and social endeavors.

Ancient Roman talisman for marriage contract

No prescribed ceremonies or formalities of any kind were legally necessary in order to create a valid Roman marriage. First, the government did not have any sort of licensing procedure, nor did it even provide a means for registering marriages. In principle, therefore, marriage was largely a private arrangement occurring outside the purview of state authority, although, of course, the government reserved the right to declare supposed marriages null and void after the fact. Second, the Roman jurists and emperors alike also emphasize that no formality or marriage ceremony of any kind was required for a legal marriage. Indeed, not even cohabitation or sexual consummation was required (Eskridge, William N., Jr. “Symposium on Sexual Orientation and the Law.” Virginia Law Review. Vol 79.7 (October 1993): 1419-1513).

Bret Hinsch, author of: Passions of the cut sleeve the male homosexual tradition in China

Such ceremonies were common as well in China and the area formerly known as Indochina and meet with approval within the community (Hinsch, Bret (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. Reed Business Information, pp. 24-25).  Same-sex marriages were equally blessed in ancient India and throughout the initial development of Hinduism, where the “union of two hearts” was far more important to the gods than the gender or sexual act (Vanita, Ruth. “‘Wedding of Two Souls’: Same-Sex Marriage and Hindu Traditions.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. Vol 20.2 (Fall 2004): 119-135.)

Theodosian Code

Same-sex marriages in the Roman world were not officially declared illegal (with the realization that no children could be born to same-sex couples) until 342 CE/AD when the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans issued a law in the Theodosian Code (C. Th.9.7.3) prohibiting same-sex marriage in Rome and ordering execution for those so married.  While the law was issued and signed, there are records that many civic leaders chose to ignore it, seeing it as a posturing to get the emerging church’s blessing and its force of arms and call for religious chaos as witnessed in the open defiance of the law and the strangle-hold of the Roman Catholic Church same-when two men, Pedro Díaz and Muño Vandilaz. 

Pedro Díaz and Muño Vandilaz: Un Matrimonio Gay en la edad media

Díaz and Vandilaz married in the Galician municipality of Rairiz de Veiga in Spain on 16 April 1061.  This fact is attested to by historic documents describing the official church wedding by a Roman Catholic priest (the documents were found at Monastery of San Salvador de Celanova (for a discussion, in Spanish read here).  

Diaz and Vandilaz were not alone in seeking and obtaining a marriage within the Roman Catholic Church.  Ancient to medieval Church liturgical documents record ceremonies called “Office of Same-Sex Union” (10th and 11th centuries) and “Order for Uniting Two Men” (11th and 12th centuries) are indicative of same-sex marriage.  This lasted until the fourteenth century in Serbia and Slovenia. 

Euchologion: id est, Rituale Graecorum – Jacobus Goar (Original book in the private library of this author)

The Dominican missionary and Prior, Jacques Goar (1601-1653), includes such ceremonies in a printed collection of Greek Orthodox prayer books, Euchologion Sive Rituale Graecorum Complectens Ritus Et Ordines Divinae Liturgiae (Paris, 1667).  We find the same sacramental blessing in the sixteenth century in St. John Lateran, the pope’s official parish church, as last as 1578.  Lesbians continued to marry in Dalmatia as late as the eighteenth century.

The Jesus of the New Testament Gospels says nothing about (neither for nor against) same-sex marriages. His only activity was to change water into wine at a wedding in Cana, as marriage was a public festival for drinking to announce that two people agreed to live together.  It does not say, anywhere in the Gospels, that the couple was neither heterosexual nor homosexual.  As for Jesus’ attitude on marriage, that has no comment in the Constantine approved Gospels; all that is known is that Jesus never married (although a

Coptic fragment that reads: “Jesus said … my wife…” (4th century CE)

Coptic document in the fourth century does proclaim that he had a “wife” but at that time, the term “wife” could mean servant or “other”.  Speculation is rising that the scroll was written to silence arguments that Jesus was gay since homosexuality and same-sex unions had been officially prohibited by the pagan Emperor Constantine I’s successors (outside of the emerging Constantine Church, there is not one contemporary record that suggests that Constantine converted to the religion he created out of sinews from the cult of Mithraism to the various faiths of the chrestianos and christianos that were enhanced with the pleasures of the gods Dionysius and the vita of Julius Cesar).

Ratzinger: pope and NAZI youth leader

Today, in the Vatican, where grown men wear long white, red, and black dresses with delicate lace and wear funny hats, as if they were coming-out transvestites or cross-dressers, hiding hatred for humanity beneath them, In an editorial this weekend, Vatican chief spokesman Father Federico Lombardi — fairy tale queen of

Ratzinger as NAZI youth (1941)

masquerading and the Vatican’s equivalent of Bryan Fischer who thinks the Church’s widespread sexual abuse crisis needs to be viewed within, in a stained screed: “the more general context of secularization” — affirmed that “monogamous marriage between a man and woman is an achievement of civilization.” And then he added, “If not, why not contemplate also freely chosen polygamy and, of course, not to discriminate, polyandry?” 

Of course this cross-dresser says nothing about the pontifical pandering and hiding of pedophile priests in the closets throughout the city that delights demoniacally as the smallest despotic nation in the world with its own currency, bank, ATM, and rowdy student population that heads into Rome for discotheques and beer.

Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger) has a long and rather sordid past.  Pope Paul VI promoted Ratzinger to the cardinalate in 1977, even though he had little pastoral experience.  In 1981, he settled in Rome when he became Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (the Inquisition) and vowed to root out heresy and discipline “staying lambs”, and became one of John Paul II’s most influential advisors (Walsh, Mary Ann (2005). From Pope John Paul II to Benedict XVI: an inside look at the end of an era, the beginning of a new one, and the future of the church. Lanham, MD and New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 135).  Under Ratzinger, the modest reforms created by John XXIII were openly attacked, nuns were silenced, and candidates for bishoprics and the cardinalate were selected for their loyalty to the past and not their spiritual growth or desire to follow the Beatitudes in the Gospel.  Ratzinger’s goal, once he became pope, has been to erase all visages of Vatican II and the legacy of Pope John XXIII.  He is against any form of objective truth or moral truth and believes that Roman Catholics must follow the teaching of the Church blindly making him more dangerous to civilization than the self-flagellant Josemaria Escrivá and his mephistophlean Opus Dei that aims at world domination and elevation of Roman Catholicism as the only true religion.  

Ratzinger has returned Latin to the Mass to calm conservatives (Gledhill, Ruth. “Pope set to bring back Latin Mass that divided the Church” The Times 11 October 2006; he accomplished this dark art on November 10, 2012, by establishing a special academy for it at the cost of millions while millions of starving and homeless Roman Catholics had their plight ignored). Far from a Holy Father, Ratzinger is an open censor, suspending the theologian Leonardo Boff of Concordia, Brasil, who has been known for his active support for the rights of the poor and excluded, having written his doctoral thesis (University of Munich, 1970), Die Kirche als Sakrament im Horizont der Welterfahrung, on how the Church can help the poor; that writing and his teaching raised the ire of a corrupt cardinalate determined to feed their own selfish interest.  Boff opposed the Iraq War for Oil that was charged by Halliburton and its CEO: Vice President Dick Cheney, and considered George W. Bush and Ariel Sharon’s leadership to be similar to that of “fundamentalist terrorist states.” 

Professor Leonardo Boff

Boff minced no words in his scathing criticism of despotic rulers in the Middle East, stating: “Those [emirs and kings] are despotic, they do not even have a constitution. Though extremely rich, they maintain the people in poverty” (the Portuguese is: “[Os USA] fizeram alianças espúrias com os emires e reis. Estes são despóticos, sequer possuem constituição. Embora riquíssimos, mantém o povo na pobreza.”  When Boff attacked the wanton misuse of Church funds, Benedict silenced him and pushed further and fired other teachers who did not fall into line with his ideology that is closer to that of Hitler than of the New Testament Jesus. Benedict’s greatest crimes are his denial of relativity (that he claims is a “prison” since it denies the acceptance of “established truths”) and raising the long-disproven theory of absolutes; the German pope rejects science and evolution clinging desperately to the discredited theory of creationism that Stephen Hawking amply proved to be false (Hawking, Stephen (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York, NY: Bantom Books) when noting that gravity disproves the necessity of a divine being intervening in the development and expansion of the universe; to Benedict’s “prolific writings” that show a mere retelling and recopying of the works of others rather than a scholarly approach of research, investigation and formulation of new theses and theories, formulae and foundation stones on which to build.  Disputation and discussion are silenced to the point that discussion and argument must be centered around past written and spoken thoughts of Father and Mothers (e.g.  Hildegard of Bingen who was not even recognized as a saint at the beginning of 2012, and was better known for her 12th century mysticism and music (she was possibly a child chantress: Michael McGrade, “Hildegard von Bingen”, in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopaldie der Musik,2nd edition, T.2, Vol. 8, ed. Ludwig Fischer. Kassel, Deutscheland and New York, NY: Bahrenreiter, 1994), and also had written

Illumination from the “Liber Scivias” showing Hildegard receiving a vision and dictating to her scribe and secretary

nearly 400 letters to correspondents ranging from Popes to Emperors to abbots and abbesses, a commentary on the gospel, two hagiographical works, and three great volumes of visionary theology: Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum (“Book of Life’s Merits” or “Book of the Rewards of Life”), and Liber divinorum operum (“Book of Divine Works”); critical editions of all three of Hildegard’s major works are in the Corpus Christianorum: Continuatio Medievalis: Scivias in vols. 43-43A, Liber vitae meritorum in vol. 90, and Liber divinorum operum in vol. 92.  She was a popular German writer in the Middle Ages, but no one considered her for sainthood (except in scattered congregations) or the rank of a doctor of the Church until contemporary culture looked past visions toward reality (Bennett, Judith M. and Hollister, Warren C. Medieval Europe: A Short History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001), 317; critical editions of all three of Hildegard’s major works have appeared in the Corpus Christianorum: Continuatio Medievalis: Scivias in vols. 43-43A, Liber vitae meritorum in vol. 90, and Liber divinorum operum in vol. 92); the last doctor (teacher) of the church was St.  Thérèse of Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897) of France, died of tuberculosis at the age of 24 and was named a doctor of the church in 1997, by John Paul II, without any traditional credentials (her single work was  The Story of a Soul, a collection of her autobiographical manuscripts consisting of poems, plays for the church, prayers and recorded conversations with her religious sisters–but again was a mystic) of the Church.  According to Guy Gaucher,

Theresa of Lisieux

one of her autobiographers, “Thérèse fell victim to an excess of sentimental devotion which betrayed her. She was victim also to her language, which was that of the late nineteenth century and flowed from the religiosity of her age” (Guy Gaucher (1987). The Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux, London, UK: Darton, Longman and Todd, p.2).  Hildegard, like Thérèse, have more in common with illusions passed as mysticism than with any form of concentrated study that could better the world, as Boffs provided and was censured for.  Their primary focus was on the Mother of God and Child, more in keeping with the worship of Isis (the original Θεοτοκος or Theotokos: birth giver/god bearer) and Horus of ancient Egypt than any legitimate tracts on the first century CE that did not accord Mary any significant place other than being the human mother of a mortal Jesus (only the canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke describe Mary as a virgin (Greek παρθένος, parthénos) while others remain silent). Mark names her only once (6:3) and John never mentions her by name nor accords her a special place in the narrative of the Jesus of the New Testament.  In Luke’s Book of the Acts of the Apostles, Mary and the “brothers of Jesus” (indicating that Mary was

Isis and Baby Horus / Mary and Baby Jesus (Theotokos)

not “ever virgin”) are mentioned in the company of the eleven who are gathered in the upper room after the ascension but only the elder brother James has any significant role in the community.  Mary’s assumed role can be dated further back to the various virgin Venuses that symbolized fecundity and fertility as the source of life and thus gods in their own right frequently surplanting male deities.

Hildegard’s “Mutterschaft aus dem Geiste und dem Wasser” (Motherhood from the Spirit and the Water), 1165

Hildegard gained the stature of being a Mother of the Church on October 7, 2012, as she found her inspiration in the Mother of Christ and saints–a common medieval movement that returns to the Great Mother of the Waters in pagan Germany who promised visions to her worshippers. To this end “Marriage and the family are not in fact a chance sociological construction, the product of particular historical and financial situations. On the other hand, the question of the right relationship between the man and the woman is rooted in the essential core of the human being and it is only by starting from here that its response can be found”–not a word that is empirically proven.  From from the antiquated and amusing humor of Benedict’s defense of “the family as being God-created”, Chris Brickell (who prefers to use David Halperin’s word “historicism” rather than social constructionism) and other sociologists (cp. Farber, Bernard (1982) “Systematic Generation of Theory in Family Sociology ” (1982). The Sociological Quarterly23 (Autumn):427-454; cf. Bernardes, Jon (1988). “Whose ‘family’? A note on ‘The changing sociological construct of the family’”. The Sociological Review  (May) 267-277; the entire issue is defined by the American Sociological Association)  have repeatedly showing the evolution and devolution of the family in social contexts, showing that Benedict is not only against the rigorous requirements of science but of all educational fields.  All of the writings and pontificating are more appropriate for the tenth century than for the twenty-first century and mark an attempt to return to the Dark Ages of Superstition and division among people, a scenario of terror hailed by conservatives and neo-conservatives who reject advances in any discipline and who long for the days bygone of absolutes and the arguably offensive innovation of infallibility of dogma.

Rod Dreher

Following the inanity of American conservatives who lament the possible future where brothers and sisters marry and have sex (Rod Dreher in The American Conservative)—while ignoring that in the Bible it was a common practice as when Abraham took his sister Sarah for his wife (Genesis 20:12) and then sold her twice (first to the Egyptian pharaoh, then to Abimelech) as a whore to raise capital and gain flocks of animals; Jacob married his first cousins constituting incest (Genesis 26-29), etc. as there is not one word in the Torah, Prophets of Gospels that state whom can marry who or for what reason.  Marriage has never been about 1 man + 1 woman in any religious or historical literature.

Dreher demonstrating his own lack of biblical knowledge and the devolving church says nothing about the 38 popes who had wives (as was common among the Apostles in the Gospels: ref. Matthew 8:14-15; Luke 4:38-39; 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Timothy 3:2, 12; Titus 1:6; etc), or the 13 popes who had male lovers with one raising his boyfriend up to the cardinalate then issuing torrents of tart tears of dismay when his bedfellow danced naked and had sex

Father Benedict Groeschel argued that children “seduced” priests into sex

with other cardinals.  There is more pedophile activity, hunger, anger, rivalry, struggle for attention and absence of basic needs (education, affection, medical attention, etc.) in polygamous families than there are in same-sex/monogamous parented families as is proven statistically and in psychological studies.  There is as much sexual depravity in the Bible as there is in the odiously opportunistic government of Uganda urged on by Scott Lively and whoring leaders who are more wretched than any Jezebel in the Bible, yet sit in judgment of the people they pretend to govern.  It is past time for all foreign humanitarian and other forms of aid be withheld from this nation, and the nation boycotted.

Roman Catholic Council of American bishops have condemned universal health care and USA democracy, reject the rights of women and moving the nation backward in time.

The most despicable crimes remain within totalitarian religions: Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, Islam, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, Missouri Lutheran Synod, and the Mormon (LDS) churches leading the way with a raw and rigid fundamentalism, the denial of equality between the sexes, the rejection of equal opportunity and choice, with the greatest hatred coming from the American Council of Roman Catholic Bishops and the Peru Council of Roman Catholic Bishops that now is rivaled by the bishops of the Mormon faith, especially the thundering of one-time Massachusetts Governor and Mormon bishop Willard (Mitt) Romney. 

NAZI youth leader Joseph Ratzinger in the Roman Catholic Church

While the seemingly brain-dead German pope Josef Ratzinger prattles on about defending the fantasy family framed in his illusions as being real, the Vatican demands that families where there is spousal and child abuse, incest, hatred and loathing remain together.  Despite the solecisms and draconian blustering BS of the predatory pontiff, Europe has the good sense to legalize same-sex marriages in most Roman Catholic and Protestant/ neutral countries: Spain, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, and even in Roman Catholic Poland (the Uganda of the north) where right-wing Roman Catholic hoodlums are out to exterminate Jews, end abortion and same-sex marriages (only 17% approved of same-sex marriage in 2005 but that has increased while 76% disapproved and that has decreased despite the denunciations of the pedophile priests pressed into pulpits to issue their sermons of hatred.  The archaic and antihuman chant against “liberals”, as it has been in every dictatorship from Chile to Peru (and its pathetic prelate Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne who denies any attempt at self-determination among the impoverished Peruvian people, with priests attempting to better the lot of the poor and disenfranchised), Burma to Poland waging conflict among their own people over individual rights, human dignity and civil charters, with archaic

Polish skinheads demonstrate against democracy and for return of Inquisition or NAZIs

chants “Wybieram życie” (Choose Life), and “Europa normalnych rodzin” (Europe for normal families)—homosexuality continues and is recognized by every medical and psychological association of doctors on this planet as normal (it occurs regularly), and natural (it exists in all species around the world), yet there is a sense that the nation must catch up with the rest of the world, with support for same-sex marriages growing each year (read here, in Polish, cp. here, pp. 36-39, in Polish).  Milan’s Cardinal Martini meticulously voiced in an interview shortly before his death that the Roman Catholic Church was outdated by no less than 200 years

Ratzinger should retire, be arrested and stand trial for crimes against humanity, the least of which is his abuse of human rights for the LGBT community. Ratzinger either has never studied the original texts or prefers the lies of the past in condemning same-sex love and marriage that was a force in the reformed Jewish communities before Constantine I created is “catholic [universal] church” in 325 CE, as the word “homosexual” appears in no Bible before 1954, as it is not even invented until the mid-nineteenth century. 

Codex Sinaiticus Syriacus dating from the 5th century

The Vatican, obviously, has only enshrined the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sianiaticus (written 1600 years ago, there was no earlier Bible), but never read either of the two bibles that the Arian bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius, wrote for the Roman emperor.  To claim that there was any Bible before Eusebius is a church lie; the Emperor Constantine I burned all copies of any religious literature he did not approve during his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.

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Filed under Bible, Bishop of Rome, Christian Terrorists, Church history, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), Homosexuality, Roman Catholicism, Torah

Charles Worley, Providence Road Baptist Church, and Leviticus 18:22

Charles Worley on May 13 called for the murder of more than 2 billion people

Charles Worley on May 13, 2012, called for the murder of more than 2 billion people

Charles Worley of Providence Road Baptist Church, Maiden, North Carolina, called for a round-up of all lesbians and “queers and homosexuals.”  Like a deranged Old Testament prophet, he demanded that gays and lesbians be dropped into genocide-like concentration camp complete with an electric fence.  Immediately afterwards, Worley sent out an invitation to “sodomites [sic] and lesbians” to join him in a reading of “Leviticus” [sic: 18:22].

Ancient pictographic representation of sacrifice of bread or animals

Ancient pictographic representation of sacrifice of bread or animals

While Worley rants about Baal (a word that actually means “husband” or “father” and Baal-worship prevailed in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4), its is the equivalent “El-berith” (Judges ix. 46, R. V.) to mean “the God of the Covenant”. B’nai B’rithmeans “Sons of the Covenant), and any ancient “child sacrifice” was replaced with animal sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews did more than any of the people of Cana, and later was done with bread declared to represent

Kessiah Young is one of nearly 2000 to picket Worley (credit Jeremy Detter for Record Photo)

Kessiah Young is one of nearly 2000 to picket Worley (credit Jeremy Detter for Record Photo)

the body of god, equating homosexuality to the murder of unborn children (he believes sperm and ova are babies), he wins the adoring praises of his congregation–a church and a people publicly protested by thousands of North Carolina citizens.

The Providence Road Baptist Church congregation, where a majority are members of the USA branch of the Nazi party or the Khristian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, wholeheartedly endorsed Worley’s plan of genocide (a definite sign of catastrophic mental illness that is shared by Worley and his congregation in Maiden, North Carolina; read: Harris, Lasana T.; Fiske, Susan T. (2011). “Dehumanized perception: A psychological means to facilitate atrocities, torture, and genocide?” Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, Vol. 219(3), 2011, 175-181. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000065) and murder, standing and applauding him as he entered the Providence Road Baptist Church in Maiden, North Carolina. 

Providence Road Baptist Church, Maiden, North Carolina

Providence Road Baptist Church, Maiden, North Carolina

The Providence Road Baptist Church building was transmogrified into a tabernacle of truculent theological terrorism with people speaking out like Germans of the Third Reich demanding death for those who did not agree with them or their Leader (cp. Mayer, Milton (1955). The Thought They Were Free: the Germans 1933-1945. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press paperback) or venerate Hitler’s plans for a Greater Germany.

Some of the more outspoken greeted the pastor with praise as “God’s own Hitler who will cleanse the earth.”  Others promised to build ovens to burn the bones of homosexuals. (Video of congregation defending Worley is here.)

Anderson Cooper interviewing Stacey Pritchard

Anderson Cooper interviewing Stacey Pritchard

Worley is uniquely unqualified to teach any verse in Leviticus, as he is unquestionably unqualified to preach or teach anything in the Judeo-Christian King James Version of the Bible.  It is beautiful literature but bad scripture, and literary quality of the King James Version (KJV) has made it especially popular among the uneducated. 

Unfortunately, Worley does not use a copy of the 1611 (first) edition, but a recent redaction that is filled with errors.  Worley claims illustrate that the KJV is his source for sanctified hate.

The word homosexual does not appear in any English bible before 1946. The Greek word that is translated as homosexual is ἀρσενοκοίτης.  It is a verb for any one taking the active role in a sexual ritual: οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι … οὔτε μοιχοὶ οὔτε μαλακοὶ οὔτε ἀρσενοκοῖται … βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομήσουσιν. The passive partner was known in the Greek world as μαλακόςb and was frequently excused or defined as “a woman.”   

In the garbled translations and retranslations of the numerous hands that created the Letters of Paul, the word ἀρσενοκοίτης is equated and used as equal to “adulterers, fornicators…liars”  as read in 1 Corinthians 6:9-10.  It has nothing to do with homosexuality but rather is a condemnation of those who do not accept Yahweh and his rules: the Decalogue found in the Book of Exodus who only references to sex are adultery (Exodus 20:14) and lust (Exodus 20:17, which is very broad: You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor: לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדֹּו וַאֲמָתֹו וְשֹׁורֹו וַחֲמֹרֹו וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ , which most clergy are guilty of committing, from Jimmy Swaggart to Bishop Eddie Long, etc.). Leviticus is a far later edition–and addition to the Torah.

The actual reference in Leviticus 18:22-23 is an obligation of the quedesh/Qadesh who were even a part of the ancient Israelite religion (then known as Kohanim or “priests”): אֶת־זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תֹּועֵבָה הִוא׃  וּבְכָל־בְּהֵמָה לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא־תַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי בְהֵמָה לְרִבְעָהּ תֶּבֶל הוּא׃ (the word for “confusion” means “distracting” and was a ritual that excited worshippers). Despite the precision of the ancient language that Worley shows no knowledge of knowing, reading, comprehending, interpreting or translating, the North Carolina Baptist preacher uses it against all male and female homosexuals (the original bibles do not mention lesbians; in other sermons Worley stretches Romans 1:26-27 to include lesbians, but this is not justified and has no foundation in the Old Testament—the Hebrew Tanakh).

The word homosexual does not enter the English lexicon until 1892. It first appears in C.G. Chaddock’s translation of Richard Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis, with especial reference to contrary sexual instinct; a medico-legal study… (7th ed. Philadelphia, PA, USA: F. A. Davis, 1895; the original that inspired the word “homosexual” is Krafft-Ebing, Richard von 1892 edition: Psychopathia sexualis: mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der contraren sexualempfindung. Eine Klinisch-forensische studie. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke) and comes as a hybrid of from homo- (form the Greek ίδιος [homos] “same”) and Latin sexualis.

If Worley, or any of those numbered as being a part of his flock, had any intellectual gift of languages or was able to read the original text (of which no one has displayed even rudimentary skills), the closest translation of Leviticus 18:22 would be “Do not have sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman” (as found in the New International Version).  Even in the NIV there is no word “homosexual” nor “homosexuality.” A truthful and actual reading is a rejection of using sex to worship the pagan goddess Asherah (Astarte: Venus) who, by common Canaanite myth married the Apiru (distant ancestors to those who would become Hebrews) nomads agricultural god Yahweh.  Yahweh, in the ancient world, and as found on potsherds and Egyptian

Yah as young bull; the Samarian inscription reads "bless you by yhwh shomron samaria and by ashrth (Asherah: Venus)"

Yah as young bull; the Samarian inscription reads “bless you by yhwh shomron samaria and by ashrth (Asherah: Venus)”

writings (hieroglyphics) is always styled as a young calf (a bull, that would become a key symbol in Mithras theology).  This gave rise to the mythology of the golden calf that the ancient “Hebrews” worshipped in the desert leading to the gods of Moses prohibiting them invading the lands of Cana and stealing the land, cattle, women and wealth of its original Palestinian occupants (Phoenicians, and other tribes; cf. Jacobson, David M. (February 1999). Weinstein, James M.. ed. “Palestine and Israel”. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (The American Schools of Oriental Research) (313): 65–74, and Herodotus, History, ). Furthermore, the text reads that what is prohibited is having “sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman.”

Leviticus 18:22 is not a prohibition against anal course between men nor even against a man and a woman as men, historically, have engaged in sodomy with women since the beginning of pictorial and recorded (hieroglyphic and cuneiform) history–going back to the 25th century BCE for male sodomy (read: Thomas A. Dowson, “Archaeologists, Feminists, and Queers: sexual politics in the construction of the past,” in Feminist Anthropology: Past, Present, and Future (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), pp. 96–98, where some argue that the two were brothers, some define the two males as twins, a few as gods) and 7000 BCE for male-female sodomy (cf. Lauren E. Talalay, “The Gendered Sea: Iconography, Gender, and Mediterranean Prehistory,” in The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 130–148, especially p. 136).

In Leviticus 18:22-23, the charge or injunction is a reference to the pretense or “mental confusion” of the quedesh (temple prostitutes) who were obligated by religious laws to have sex—basically women attempting to enter a man with a clitoris, or a male prostitute simulating coital intercourse.  Woefully ignorant of the past and ancient records, Worley exposes his lack of academic training and knowledge of both the Old Testament and the New Testament and the message of the Jesus of the New Testament as found in the Gospels.

The New Testament clearly states that those who follow the message of Jesus of the Gospels are no longer under the harsh rule of Old Testament Law (John 1:16-17, Romans 8:1-3, 1 Corinthians 9:20-21). This negates and eliminates the validity of Leviticus 18:22.

Worley’s and his congregation’s collective intellectual prowess, like that of the despicable and pathetic Christian terrorist Angie (Angela Mauney) Widener (age 46) a church member, is at the abysmal level of insipid ignorance of intolerance of Pat Robertson, Billy and Franklin Graham, William Owens and others who spew hatred, in the name of a Jesus none would recognize nor obey. Widener, like Martin Sasse, bishop of the Thuringian Evangelical Church and leading member of the German Christians movement, published a compendium of Martin Luther’s writings shortly after the Kristallnacht; Sasse “applauded the burning of the synagogues” and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, “On 10 November 1938, on Luther’s birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany.” The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words “of the greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews” (read: Bernd Nellessen, “Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und Judenverfolgung,” in Büttner, Ursula (ed.; 1992), Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich. Hamburg : Christians, p. 265).  All one has to do is substitute the word “homosexual” for “Jew” and they have the message of Worley and Widener and their supporters.

Geneva Sims supports her pastor Charles Worley and his demand for executing gays and lesbians

Geneva Sims supports her pastor Charles Worley and his demand for executing gays and lesbians

Congregant Widener is supported by the psychopathic Geneva Sims, another supporter of Worley.  Geneva Sims declared as did most German people in 1942-1943: “So he had every right to say what he said, about putting them in a pen, feeding them. The Bible says they’re worthy of death. He only preaches the word.” Worley and Sims acted as did Hitler who declared himself to be a loyal son of the Christian faith and a stalwart Roman Catholic (read: John Toland, Adolf Hitler, New York: Anchor Publishing, 1992, p. 507).  Hitler was a violently anti-atheist, as we read in a speech delivered in Berlin, October 24, 1933 by Adolf Hitler (Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, vol. 1, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, p. 378; cf. p. 371).

Clergy attending a religious Youth Rally for Jesus saluting Adolf Hitler

Clergy attending a religious Youth Rally for Jesus saluting Adolf Hitler

Following the Nazi propaganda line and the call of North Carolina KKK and Nazis, Stacey Pritchard a supporting member of Worley’s wrath told reporters, “Sometimes you gotta [sic] be scared straight.” Pritchard’s paranoid psychosis of Pritchard is aptly discussed by Gailliot, Matthew T.; Schmeichel, Brandon J.; Baumeister, Roy F. (2006). “Self-regulatory processes defend against the threat of death; Effects of self-control depletion and trait self-control on thoughts and fears of dying.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 91(1), Jul 2006, 49-62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.49) Worley has completed one of the most diabolic attacks on the sanity of an entire congregation, his own mental malaise festering into the minds of those who listen to his rants. Worley’s self-loathing has existed for decades. As he noted in one sermon in 1978: “40 years ago [gay people] would’ve hung, bless God, from a white oak tree!” The last time anyone was hung from a white oak tree was in Mississippi, when Jermaine Carter found hanging from an Oak tree on December 03,2010.  Worley’s congregation celebrated on hearing the news.

Worley’s knowledge of his seventeenth-century (1611 CE) King James Version of the Christian Bible first notes the oak tree in Ezekiel 6:13 ( וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בִּהְיֹות חַלְלֵיהֶם בְּתֹוךְ גִּלּוּלֵיהֶם סְבִיבֹות מִזְבְּחֹותֵיהֶם אֶל כָּל־גִּבְעָה רָמָה בְּכֹל רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲןָן וְתַחַת כָּל־אֵלָה עֲבֻתָּה מְקֹום אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ־שָׁם רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לְכֹל גִּלּוּלֵיהֶם׃). It was used to hang numerous self-proclaimed messiahs and those teachers who claimed they were interpreting the word of the gods of the Hebrews. The white oak tree has always been sacred to those who were not latter-day Jews, and was considered a haven from which the pagan soul could rise to heaven and join the gods of the people’s nation. The modern story that Jesus was hung on dogwood is myth, but one that further illustrates group insanity. The statement is not only pathological or psychotic but a precursor to genocide

The Southern states have a long history of lynching Black men and women.

The Southern states have a long history of lynching Black men and women.

(Green, Donald P.; Glaser, Jack; Rich, Andrew (1998). “From lynching to gay bashing: The elusive connection between economic conditions and hate crime,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 75(1), Jul 1998, 82-92. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.82). It was a fate that awaited Blacks who “got too near white people of God” and now was reserved for “sodomites and lesbians.” Hear the sermon here.

Providence Road Baptist Church teaching children to hate

Providence Road Baptist Church teaching children to hate

There can be little doubt that Charles Worley, like most of his brainwashed congregation, is mentally ill (Meier, N. C.; Mennenga, G. H.; Stoltz, H. J. (1941). “An experimental approach to the study of mob behavior,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 36(4), Oct 1941, 506-524. doi: 10.1037/h0054254). The problem is that this illness is being fostered onto the young.

What Worley and others forget is the chapter in Leviticus (18) is primarily concerned with incest, with the single exception being verse (line) 22. The quaint exception is that there is no prohibition of a man having sex with his daughter—in part because that is what Lot did when his daughters made him drunk in the caves outside of Zoar “to perpetuate his seed” since they believed they were the last of his tribe (Genesis 19:30-38).

The fact that Leviticus 18 is an inserted chapter is clear from the rest of what is considered the Torah. While Leviticus prohibits incest (except when a man is having sex either with his daughter, or with another woman and her daughter), incest was quite common. Incest rules are ignored in favor of marriage to a close relative in several cases. For example, the Genesis myth includes a vivid description of Jacob having married his first wife’s sister (Genesis 29:16, 23, 28), and Abram (who is later styled as Abraham) as having a father in common with Sarah (read Genesis 20:12; rather than having a mother in common, which would have been permitted by the list). These are not considered prohibited (or illegal) marriages as the incest laws were not given until the days of the Biblical Moses, and were not greeted with disfavor by any pre-Muhammad Arab (Muhammad would incorporate them into his bible: the Koran).

Worley deliberately ignores in his grand staging of a reading of Leviticus 18:22.  Leviticus precise delineation between the sins of sexual immorality and child “sacrifices” that frequently accompanied quedesh worship.

The sacrifice was not the bloody sacrifice as vilified in Old Testament accounts and in fact was associated with the worship of Yahweh (Ezekiel 23:39).  It was more of a rite of passage where a pre-teen would walk between “walls of fire” of Moloch and pledge his loyalty to the local god in a way identical to the confirmation ceremonies (without fire) as found in Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, Episcopalian and numerous new Pentecostal movements. Ancient texts state that the phrase employed in speaking of these sacrifices is that of dedication: “to make one’s son or daughter pass through (or by means of) fire to (the) Molech” (2 Kings xxiii. 10; but elsewhere without the words “through fire” Lev. xviii. 21).  It was a form of consecration to Molech (a word that the ancient Hebrews frequently used to mean “king” as it is a form of Baal that means “lord” or “sovereign”) by passing through or between fires, as in the Roman Palilia and similar rites elsewhere (on which see Frazer, Golden Bough, 2nd ed., ii. 40 sqq., iii. 237 sqq). 

Human sacrifice was common in Semitic religions, and at least the idea of such sacrifices was 1 In 2 Chron. xxviii. 3 (parallel to 2 Kings xvi. 3) a single letter is transposed in the phrase, changing the sense from “caused to pass through the fire” to “caused to burn with fire.” Geiger, Abraham (1857). Urschrift und uebersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer abhängigkeit von der innern entwickelung des Judenthums. Breslau, Germany: J. Hainauer, p. 305) very unnecessarily supposed that this was everywhere the original reading, These rites of initiation was what the Old Testament gods rejected, replacing them with the barbaric custom of circumcision (it is not found in either the New Testament nor the Koran) and “rendered judgment against” the native inhabitants of the land (Leviticus 18:27–28). The fact that these were proscribed ceremonial ordinances, such as dietary laws that were codified to distinguish the “children of Israel” (a term that came with the Hittite mercenaries entering Cana as followers of the Egyptian Trinity (IS[is]-RA-EL) is spelled out in the condemnation of neighbor nations (Leviticus 20:22–26; see also Deuteronomy 14:21).

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Filed under Adolf Hitler, Bible, Christian Terrorists, Evangelical Christianity, Homosexuality, Martin Luther, Old Testament, Torah

Zombies, Matthew 27:52-53, Southern Baptists and reality

Zombies (the “living dead”) have always been a part of the world’s sacred and profane literature.  Legends abound about zombies and other ghouls.  Each tale was created to keep the people passive: to oppress them with religious dogma that would put their food and wealth onto the tables and into the pockets of the priests, pastors, rabbis, mullahs and imams, and similar soothsayers. Religion has long been the yoke to harness the poor to do the bidding unquestioningly of those who would speaker for god. The quickest path to wealth is through the ministry, requiring next to no labor or thinking.

Easter Island statues memorialize a prehistoric zombie outbreak

Zombies and their depiction go back at least

Shaft of the dead man - Lascaux Cave

to 35,000 – 23,000 BCE in Romanian caves, 25,000 – 15,000 BCE, as seen in the famed caves of  Lascaux, France, and of course the more famous statues on Easter Island.  There are depictions of similar living dead that date to 60,000 BCE in Katanda, Central Africa.  There is evidence of zombiphobia in Egypt as early as 3500 BCE (Maish, A., and R. Friedman. Pondering Paddy: Unwrapping the Mysteries of HK43. Nekhen News 11: 6-7; and, Murray, M.A., 1956. “Burial customs and beliefs in the hereafter in Predynastic Egypt”. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 42: 86-96.).

There is commentary on a purported zombie attacks in ancient Egypt as early as 3200 BC.   However, most of the tales were maintained to keep the people satisfied, and there is little hard evidence that zombies existed except in the minds of local citizens.  Most of the alleged evidence for zombies is from and Hierakonpolis where some workers were stricken when their brain had been infected with the virus Solanum that was claimed to turn people into zombies: they walk upright but in a near catatonic state, have halting speech, etc. (the virus does not exist; it was made up by Max Brooks to support his book on zombies and zombification).

Solanum seaforthianum (Brasilian Nightshade)

The plant solanum was cited by Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) in a botanical essay. What is known is that only green parts and unripe fruit are poisonous to people; however, there are many edible varietals including the potato, tomato, and eggplant.

 While Solanum, as a plant, is poisonous and has been fatal, it is also used by native people as medicine but in low amounts.  This plant is known as Giant Devil’s-fig (Solanum chrysotrichum) has been shown to be an effective treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis in a scientific study. It is most commonly found in Australia.

Solanum. chrysotrichum

 The Assyrians were among the most ferocious. Ashurbanipal, king from 668 to 627 BCE, was recorded as having exalted: “I will hack up the flesh [of my enemies] and then carry it with me to show off in other countries”.  His heirs were equal to every move of the king, cutting open the bellies of their opponents “as though they were young rams” and demanding that the people see “the living dead walk among them.”

Mesopotamia was a haven for many zombie stories, including those that prelude the single reference in the Gospel of Matthew.  The issue of zombies raising from the dead, stepping out of their tombs, waiting to hear the Judgment Call (Apocalypse) is as old as recorded time, and in Sumerian and Akaddian records matches the Biblical account added to Matthew 27 (verses 52-53: καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων  ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ  εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς, compare it to 2 Kings 13:21 for a similar resurrection; cf. Isaiah 26:19, and the far older Babylonian lore in Job 42:17 that was fully plagiarized by the early Hebrews). It is found in the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld a goddess who goes to the Netherworld to see her sister Ereshkigal. Ishtar is the goddess of sex and war, and her sister is goddess of the underworld; male deities are not yet supreme.

Ishtar (Goddess of sex and war; storms Hell's Gate and wins)

The Mesopotamian Biblical account of the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld, preserved on sanctified clay tablets (the best known is the first

Gilgamesh Tablet XI recounting the Great Flood

two-thirds of Tablet XI (created c. 2700 BCE; cf. Tigay, Jeffrey H. (1982), The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 217 f.) which is the earliest record of the myth of the Great Flood, at least one thousand years older than the account in Genesis), gives the scholar two of the prime focus points for zombies that would make an appearance in the New Testament: 1) animated dead people who 2) feed on the living. The latter is not found in Matthew but in all other contemporary accounts; what is unique in the Biblical account is that the Jesus of the New

Fragment of Tablet VI (Epic of the Gilgamesh) Zombies rise up

Testament tells his followers to “eat of my flesh” and “drink of my blood”—typical zombie theology: Matthew 26:26, a self-idealized cannibalism common in all Mesopotamian cults and is found on twelve clay tablets of the Epic of the Gilgamesh; cp. Tablet VI and Ishtar’s rage:

I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,
I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down,
and will let the dead go up to eat the living!
And the dead will outnumber the living!

Perillos being forced into the brazen bull that he built for Phalaris

In ancient Greece and Italy, giving antecedent to the myth of a blood thirsty Babylonian god, saw regular brutality during the reign of Phalaris (Φάλαρις) tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 BC.  He had hollow a bronze oven made in the shape of a bull (always a symbol of a god, and nearly universally known as Yah {or Jehovah}) in which he would roast his enemies alive (Pindar, Pythian 1), and fed on suckling babies (Tatian. Oratio ad Graecos (“Tatian’s Address to the Greeks“), Chap. XXXIV; it is considered a heretical work written by a student of Justin Martyr who turned to Gnosticism as being more in keeping with the Sayings of Jesus than the emerging state controlled church), giving birth to the legend of the slaughter of infants in Egypt and Israel.  In the end he was overthrown in a general uprising headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c. 488-472 BC), and burned in his brazen bull. Both the story and the symbolism became incorporated into Hebrew lore with the invention of the myth of Moloch and the Biblical Gold Calf (עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב) in Exodus 32:4—the Egyptian god Apis—but the Hebrews would have two golden calves unlike the Egyptians (1 Kings 12:26–30; cf. Nehemiah 9:18–19).

In most cases the dead would eventually rise up to greet their sadistic saviour who commanded them to walk among mortals as testimony to the power of the demigod. In most cases the zombies were foretellers of impending doom and the destruction of the planet in a great apocalypse.  The prophet Ezekiel had his own Zombie army: Ezekiel 37: 1-14 (1) The hand of the Lord was upon me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and set me in the middle of a valley, it was full of bones. (2) He led me back and forth among them, and I saw a great many bones on the floor of the valley, bones that were very dry.  (3) He asked me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said,”O sovereign Lord, you alone know.” (4)  Then he said to me, “Prophesy to these bones and say to them, “Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord! (5) This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: I will make breath enter you, and you will come to life. (6) I will attach tendons to you and make flesh upon you and cover you with skin. I will put breath in you, and you will come to life. Then you will know that I am the Lord”:  הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיֹּוצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתֹוךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמֹות׃  וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבֹּות מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשֹׁות מְאֹד׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמֹות הַיְבֵשֹׁות שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃  כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃  וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עֹור וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קֹול כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמֹות עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמֹו׃  וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עֹור מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחֹות בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃  וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבֹוא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדֹול מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ ס וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמֹותֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃  לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ ס  וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלֹותִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃  וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ ף.  The entire story is plagiarized from ancient Egyptian military history and theology that was repeated in the records of numerous growing states including that of Persia and the Hyksos.  This may be the source for the legend of the lost army of Cambyses II. Cambyses II led a Persian army of 50,000 soldiers into Egypt and supposedly perished in a sandstorm in ancient Egypt 2500 years ago, long before any Hebrews were known or Habiru mercenaries serving the Hyksos.  It continues to this day with fantasies from New York to Albania and beyond.

Zombies are introduced in the Old Testament, in Zechariah 14:12 And the Lord will send a plague on all the nations that fought against Jerusalem. Their people will become like walking corpses, their flesh rotting away: וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָמֵק בְּשָׂרֹו וְהוּא עֹמֵד עַל־רַגְלָיו וְעֵינָיו תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן וּלְשֹׁונֹו תִּמַּק בְּפִיהֶם׃ (cp. the gentleness of a loving god in Leviticus 26:16, Deuteronomy 28:21-22, Job 18:13, Zechariah 14:15, 18).

This is the foundation for Matthew 27:52-53: 52 and the tombs broke open. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. 53 They came out of the tombs after Jesus’ resurrection and[a] went into the holy city and appeared to many people. (καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ  τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς.)

These two lines give cause for pausing in reflection on the warrior Jesus of the New Testament.  It is in error to even consider that such a ghoulish event happened.  Josephus, the chronicler of the time, does not mention it—nor do any of the apologists for what became Christianity, nor do its detractors.  It is a unique mentioning.  The tone and word choice of these two lines indicates a later addition to the text; but it has greater value.  It repeats what ancient Babylonians and Hyksos and their mercenary troops (Habiru: Hebrew) saw in the tale of the ambulant dead a promise of eternal life or immortality.  But to give full credit to those who would eventually call themselves Hebrews is a disservice to fact, as such tales appear universally. 

The ancient Scandinavians, before the intrusion of Paulanity, were an advanced people with a theology similar to what would become Christianity. Among those who were sought out for advice was the zombie Völuspá (“Prophecy [spá] of the völva”).  The Great God Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future. She was reluctant, crying out, “What do you ask of me? Why tempt me?” Since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him.  Odin was seeking information on the war of the zombies that would come when his favorite son, the God Thor, would set out to battle evil in the universal war of Ragnarök (Armageddon).  This predicted battle foretold the ultimate death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Freyr, Heimdall, and the jötunn (trickster) Loki), as gods would disappear when people gained sufficient intelligence to stop believing in them; it would also lead to the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water (a second Great Flood). Afterwards, the world resurfaces anew and fertile, the surviving gods meet, and the world is repopulated by two human survivors (gender is not spelled out).
 
The Ragnarök (Armageddon) would be fought, in part, by zombies, which in Scandinanvian Viking culture are known as draugr (draug in Icelandic; draugen in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish).  Ancient to medieval Scandinavians saw zombies as an exemplar of a continuation of a tumultuous life: carousing, drinking, fighting, wenching and generally making a nuisance of oneself (e.g. Harald Halt-foot).  A similar phenomena is found in Japanese culture where Japanese zombies reflected extreme piety such as the living mummies on Mount Yodono. Zombies even appear in Mexico, both in the past and today where it is known as the Day of the Dead.  The Day of the Dead is a celebration for the returning revenants who are welcomed and treated as guests, just as they would be if they were still alive and had returned briefly from living somewhere else, which in the eyes of ancient cultures they were.

With the invention of Christianity and the elevation of Paulinity (the writings of the legendary St. Paul) by the pagan Emperor Constantine I (Christianity tries to claim that Constantine converted to Christianity on his death-bed, but there is no proof of this happening; at the most he became an Arian Christian as his “confessor” was the Arian bishop Eusebius) at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.  Constantine’s one major contribution to Christianity was ordering all books and writings that disagreed with his church were to be burned in a manner that popes and prelates of the Middle Ages and later Adolf Hitler would follow, leading the psychotic Coptic Theophilus of Alexandria to torch the great Library of Alexandria and commission the murder of the world’s greatest mathematician and philosopher on orders of the Christian Emperor Theodosius who took, energetically, all measures including torture and murder in converting all his subjects to Christianity,with most of this coming from fourth century writers that were used by Edward Gibbons (there is a sound argument that it was destroyed earlier, by Julius Cesar).  The most illustrious of the victims was the virgin (unmarried) Hypatia whose flesh was torn off of her body while she lived by enraged Christian monks. Hypatia had served as the librarian but was singled out for martyrdom by the fatuous followers of the  phantasmagorical Theophilus because of her comments against Christianity that she equated with fantasies of small children.  Personally, I find more evidence for Theodosius as the prime instigator given his sordid record of forcing everyone to convert to a bastardized religion that had nothing in common with the original scrolls and the Sayings of Jesus, but were invented by later church councils that would even elevate the Egyptian Trinity to being a Christian concept, transmogrifying the original Isis-Ra-Horus into the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to remove the significant stature of a woman as being the primary mother of all things (the ancient Hebrews would transmogrify this by removing Horus in favor of the sun-god Ra and substituting the word lord (El) to complete their trinity.  They would ultimately abbreviate the Egyptian Trinity into Is-Ra-El: Israel). 

I do not agree with the Greek testament by Rufinus Tyrannius who continued Eusebius Historia Ecclesia (Books X and XI) as he claims that the local pagans “incited the Christian mobs” with their refusal to convert to the pagan faith out of Jerusalem.  The “local pagans” had been heavily taxed, were beaten, denied jobs, and forced to attend the “love feasts” of the early Christians and were victimized daily, having no say in their own destiny.  This is supported by  the pagan writer Eunapius of Antioch (died after 400 CE) who wrote about the sack of the Serapeum in his Life of Antonius, and, before he died in 390 CE, prophesied that all the pagan temples in Alexandria would be destroyed (not a desperately surprising contingency at the time) out of “religious fanaticism” and an effort to make the scrolls of Christianity into a god that he termed as bibliolatry: worship of the bible, predating the rise and evolving intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Constantine’s Christian Church (originally known as the catholic [universal] Church taught that the dead might return from the grave to take vengeance on the living for not saying Masses for them, and paying the priest for each Mass said.  This had little to do with piety, but was ecclesiastical extortion, one of the many ways that the Church raised revenue, and on the Night before All Souls Day (Halloween; on All Souls Day read the Bollandist Ada Sanctorum (Saec. VI., pt. i. p. 585) which requires “sacrifice”) the Church said special masses for the dead always at inflated prices—the offerings being put into gourds (similar to pumpkins) that were crafted with faces and had a candle within to illuminate the scowl or smile depending on the nature of the carver.  At each Mass the priest would remind parishioners that the faithful would soon come near a walking dead in testimony of the resurrection of Jesus and the need that the fearful faithful had to put coins in the gourd to keep the candle stable so that its light would lead the New Testament Jesus to the church where the central figure would enter the host that would be displayed upon a table or altar where the sacrifice (similar to Abram’s near-slaughter of his son Isaac) of the “Son of God” was to be executed.  Halloween, like all Christian celebrations, borrowed heavily from incorporates traditions from pagan harvest festivals and festivals honouring the dead, particularly the Celtic Samhain, especially in votives and prayers for the dead and the payment to priest to pray for the dead to stay away from the living (Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford UK and New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, pp. 11-21 sqq).  Today, Celtic Reconstructionists, pagans, and others who maintain ancestral customs, make offerings to the gods and the ancestors in keeping with their original heritage before missionaries arrived swinging battle axes and swords while preaching from Bibles (Hörandner, Editha (ed.; 2005), Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo, Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), Wien (Vienna), Austria: LIT Verlag Münster; and, Santino, Jack (ed.;  1994), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life.  Knoxville, TN, USA: University of Tennessee Press).

The ever-intolerant world of evangelical Christianity that demands that believers accept every word of the Bible as literally true has had numerous casualties in its battle for conformity especially within the Southern Baptist Convention where literacy is an article of faith and the Bible considered inerrant: Article XX of the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics states, 

We affirm that since God is the author of all truth, all truths, biblical and extra biblical, are consistent and cohere [sic: coherent], and that the Bible speaks truth when it touches on matters pertaining to nature, history, or anything else. We further affirm that in some cases extra biblical data have value for clarifying what scripture teaches and for prompting correction of faulty interpretations. We deny that extra biblical [sic: extra biblical or extra-biblical] views ever disprove the teaching of Scripture or hold priority over it.

This is matched by the in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy:

We affirm that canonical Scripture should always be interpreted on the basis that it is infallible and inerrant. However, in determining what the God-taught writer is asserting in each passage, we must pay the most careful attention to its claims and character as a human production. In inspiration, God utilized the culture and conventions of His [sic] penman’s milieu.  A milieu that God controls in His sovereign providence; it is misinterpretation to imagine otherwise.

So history must be treated as history, poetry as poetry, hyperbole and metaphor as hyperbole and metaphor, generalization and approximation as what they are, and so forth. Differences between literary conventions in Bible times and in ours must also be observed”.

Michael Licona (Facebook)

Michael Licona (Facebook)

While the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy asserts that an inattention to the culture and literary conventions in Bible times could lead to a misinterpretation of the biblical text, professors have been fired from teaching appointments for not conforming their interpretations according to erroneous English translations and codified canons, as has been the case with Professor Michael Liconawho was denounced by the twenty-first Grand

R. Albert Mohler, Jr.

Inquisitor R. Albert Mohler, Jr., president of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary — the flagship school of the Southern Baptist Convention and one of the largest seminaries in the world who wrote: The affirmation of biblical inerrancy is nothing more, and nothing less, than the affirmation of the Bible’s total truthfulness and trustworthiness. The assertion of the Bible’s inerrancy — that the Bible is “free from all falsehood or mistake” — is an essential safeguard for the Bible’s authority as the very Word of God in written form. The reason for this should be clear: to affirm anything short of inerrancy is to allow that the Bible does contain falsehoods or mistakes. The intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention has exceeded even the corrupt Councils of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages, when “evangelical philosopher” Norman Geisler,  a Christian apologist and the co-founder of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina with a PhD from Jesuit Loyola University.  

Norman Geisler

Norman Geisler has argued that creationism be taught in public schools, affirms the existence of UFOs but claims that they are “a satanic manifestation in the world for the purpose of deception” (San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, December 12, 1981), and has publicly been accused of plagiarism (Danel W. Bachman, “The Other Side of the Coin: A Source Review of Norman Geisler’s Chapter,” FARMS Review of Books, 12/1 (2000): 175-213).  Geisler , who argues for an early dating of the New Testament going against every other learned scholar and advocating certain actions are absolutely right or wrong regardless of other contexts such as their consequences or the intentions behind them thus destroying free will, addressed two open letters to Michael Licona, charging him with violating the inerrancy of Scripture in making his argument about Matthew 27:52-53. Geisler is the problem, for he has little comprehension of interpretation in the first century.

Licona, Geisler argued, had “dehistoricized” the biblical text. As Geisler made clear, this was a direct violation of biblical inerrancy. Licona’s approach to this text, Geisler argued, “would undermine orthodoxy by dehistoricizing many crucial passages of the Bible.”  This is the approach of all tyrants who will stifle dissent: from Martin Luther to Pius IX, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI and Opus Dei cardinals and bishops such as Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne of Lima, Perú, destroy the freedom of inquiry, and rule as theocrats without a conscience.  No one should ever accept any word, any document, any message sola fide (on faith alone) as it degrades the individual, destroys education, and makes a mockery of free will. Geisler is more like the Dominican monk and

Tomás de Torquemada

Spain’s Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquema (the son of a Jewish rabbi), than he is a Christian on the order of the New Testament Jesus.  It is most likely that this pulpit parasite is totally unfamiliar with Matthew 7:1 or Acts 10:24, for he, like the member congregations of the Southern Baptist Convention, has placed his Bible before god and made himself and other theocrats into gods as exposed by his own words, using the cryptic psychology of unwavering obedience to authority. To accept such a command and obey with unwavering obedience can lead to catatonic withdrawal, suicide, and self-doubting of actuality and personal work completed or in-progress (Zisselman, Marc H, and Jaffe, Richard L. (2010). “ECT in the Treatment of a Patient With Catatonia: Consent and Complications” American Journal of Psychiatry. 167:127-132; cf. “Replicating Milgram: Researcher Finds Most Will Administer Shocks to Others When Prodded by ‘Authority Figure’,” December 19, 2008; American Psychological Journal; the same demand for acceptance infallibility of anyone or in anything was used successfully by Nazi Germany in containing and eliminating dissent and questioning: Joyce, Nick (2009). “In search of the Nazi personality; The Nazi Rorschach responses have captured psychologists’ imaginations for decades.” Journal of the American Psychological Association Vol 40, No. 3; cp. Gilbert, G.M. (1950). The psychology of dictatorship; based on an examination of the leaders of Nazi Germany. New York, NY, USA: Ronald Press Company). Geisel has done himself, the Southern Baptist community, and Liconia an unparalleled disservice. Geisel has put the Southern Baptist Convention, its churches, and its members, directly in line with Nazi thinking and actions, as the churches (Roman Catholic and Protestant/Lutheran) and their adherents and ministers directly supported what Hitler did (with a few minor opponents: read Ericksen, Robert P. (1985). Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch. (New Haven, CT, USA and London, UK: Yale University Press; for unpublished material, consult the Landeskirchlichesarchiv in Hanover).

Geisler called upon Michael Licona to change his position on this text and to affirm it as historical fact without reservation. But Geisler, a member of the Evangelical Theological Society [ETS] for many years, made another very important point. He reminded Licona that such arguments had been encountered before within the ETS, and it had led to the expulsion of a member.”  This matches, identically, the heresy trials of Arius before the Emperor Constantine I leading to the bonfire of burning Arian books.”

St. Paul overseeing the burning of scrolls at Ephesus

This evolved from the mythical St. Paul (there is no record of a Saul or Tarsus or a St. Paul outside of the New Testament; he is not named nor discussed by Josephus, Tacitus, or other contemporaries, not even among the early church presbyters) and his order for the burning of books in Ephesus (Acts 19:19: A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly: ἱκανοὶ δὲ τῶν τὰ περίεργα πραξάντων συνενέγκαντες τὰς βίβλους κατέκαιον ἐνώπιον πάντων, καὶ συνεψήφισαν τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν καὶ εὗρον ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε.) and elsewhere as “instruments of evil”.  I am surprised that Geisler has not called for an auto-de-fé to rid the world of Licona, for his overt public psychology shows him to be dictatorial with illusions of grandeur.  The same intolerance for dissenting opinion, for revision of corrupt writings, and for the clarification of texts that led to the burning of books throughout history became a furnace of hate by the Roman Catholic confessing Adolf Hitler, testified:

My feelings as a Christian points me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter. It points me to the man who once in loneliness, surrounded by a few followers, recognized these Jews for what they were and summoned men to fight against them and who, God’s truth! was greatest not as a sufferer but as a fighter. In boundless love as a Christian and as a man I read through the passage which tells us how the Lord at last rose in His might and seized the scourge to drive out of the Temple the brood of vipers and adders. How terrific was His fight for the world against the Jewish poison. To-day, after two thousand years, with deepest emotion I recognize more profoundly than ever before the fact that it was for this that He had to shed His blood upon the Cross. As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice… And if there is anything which could demonstrate that we are acting rightly it is the distress that daily grows. For as a Christian I have also a duty to my own people.

-Adolf Hitler, in a speech on 12 April 1922 (Norman H. Baynes, ed. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, Vol. 1 of 2, pp. 19-20, Oxford University Press, 1942)

To say that the biblical literalists are misguided is most generous of their own insanity demanding absolute obedience to a work of fiction. Albert Mohler, Jr., is totally incorrect—as there is no non-biblical historical proof for a Jesus, nor any of the mythology surrounding the Jesus of the New Testament: the birth (born in a rock similar to the god Mithras, of a virgin), found by wise men seeking the star of the apocalypse (magi), to the death by crucifixion on a pillar (not a cross tree as the gods Odin and Thor were crucified, nor any common thief on a crux).  The alleged proof in Tacitus (the “proof of Jesus” is allegedly in Annals xv.44, but the original was “lost” (burned?) and there is no existing “copy” until the eleventh century CE; Tacitus was born 25 years after the alleged death of Jesus, and was age 7 at the time of the Great Fire of Rome—he was no eye-witness; on the insertion being a “pious fraud” see: Henry Furneaux, ed., Cornelii Taciti Annalium ab excessu divi augusti libri. The annals of Tacitus with introduction and notes, 2nd ed., vol. ii, books xi-xvi. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1907. Appendix II, p. 416f., 418; the most that can be said for Tacitus’ account of Jesus of the New Testament is that he was merely repeating what he heard as he had no eyewitness accounts and did not do what today is considered investigative reporting: France, Richard Thomas (1986). Evidence for Jesus. London, UK: Trafalgar Square Publishing. pp. 19–20, also released by London, UK: Hodder and Stoughton, and Downers Grove, IL, USA : InterVarsity Press) and Josephus (Guignebert, Charles Albert Honoré (1914). Le problem de Jesus. Paris, France: Ernest Flammarion, 1914; reissued under the title Jesus, New York, NY, USA: University Books, 1956, p. 17; cp. Mitchell, Logan (1842?) Christian Mythologies unveiled: a series of lectures…. London, UK: Cousins, who noted:

“Mattathias, the father of Josephus, must have been a witness to the miracles which are said to have been performed by Jesus, and Josephus was born within two years after the crucifixion, yet in all the works he says nothing whatever about the life or death of Jesus Christ; as for the interpolated passage it is now universally acknowledged to be a forgery. The arguments of the ‘Christian Ajax,’ even Lardner himself, against it are these: ‘It was never quoted by any of our Christian ancestors before Eusebius. It disturbs the narrative. The language is quite Christian. It is not quoted by Chrysostom, though he often refers to Josephus, and could not have omitted quoting it had it been then in the text. It is not quoted by Photius [9th century], though he has three articles concerning Josephus; and this author expressly states that this historian has not taken the least notice of Christ. Neither Justin Martyr, in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew; nor Clemens Alexandrinus, who made so many extracts from ancient authors; nor Origen against Celsus, have ever mentioned this testimony. But, on the contrary, in chap. 25th of the first book of that work, Origen openly affirms that Josephus, who had mentioned John the Baptist, did not acknowledge Christ. That this passage is a false fabrication is admitted by Ittigius, Blondel, Le Clerc, Vandale, Bishop Warburton, and Tanaquil Faber.'”

p. 47; and, as the Rev. S. Baring-Gould remarked:

This passage is first quoted by Eusebius (fl. A.D. 315) in two places (Historia Ecclesiae, lib. I, c. xi; Demonst. Evang., lib. iii); but it was unknown to Justin Martyr (fl. A.D. 140), Clement of Alexandria (fl. A.D. 192), Tertullian (fl. A.D. 193), and Origen (fl. A.D. 230). Such a testimony would certainly have been produced by Justin in his apology or in his controversy with Trypho the Jew, had it existed in the copies of Josephus at his time. The silence of Origen is still more significant. Celsus, in his book against Christianity, introduces a Jew. Origen attacks the argument of Celsus and his Jew. He could not have failed to quote the words of Josephus, whose writings he knew, had the passage existed in the genuine text. He, indeed, distinctly affirms that Josephus did not believe in Christ (Contra Celsus I).

The absurdity of turning to Josephus or Tacitus has long been disproven, and the New Testament not only found saturated with errors but statements that contradict (or “enhance/explain”) Old Testament fantasies from the gods (elohim) “creating” the world in six days (Genesis 1, 2) to Peter’s notation that a mortal day may be equal to one thousand years (2 Peter 3:8). 

Mohler fulfills page 13 of the Southern Baptist affirmation of the literal infallibility and correctness of the texts:

“Since God has nowhere promised an inerrant transmission of Scripture, it is necessary to affirm that only the autographic text of the original documents was inspired and to maintain the need of textual criticism as a means of detecting any slips that may have crept into the text in the course of its transmission. The verdict of this science, however, is that the Hebrew and Greek text appears to be amazingly well-preserved, so that we are amply justified in affirming, with the Westminster Confession, a singular providence of God in this matter and in declaring that the authority of Scripture is in no way jeopardized by the fact that the copies we possess are not entirely error-free.

“Similarly, no translation is or can be perfect, and all translations are an additional step away from the autograph. Yet the verdict of linguistic science is that English-speaking Christians, at least, are exceedingly well served in these days with a host of excellent [sic] translations and have no cause for hesitating to conclude that the true Word of God is within their reach. Indeed, in view of the frequent repetition in Scripture of the main matters with which it deals and also of the Holy Spirit’s constant witness to and through the Word, no serious translation of Holy Scripture will so destroy its meaning as to render it unable to make its reader “wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 3:15)” [emphasis mine in bold italics]

The Southern Baptists of today have nothing in common with the eighteenth century Danbury Baptists who petitioned Thomas Jefferson to help them maintain a separation of state of church.  Today, the Southern Baptists openly endorse candidates, contribute to “tearing down the wall” separating church and state (an invocation by Roman Catholic Rick Santorum), and to creating a theocracy of their own making.  The people will become the zombies in their army as witnessed by the generation of the New Apostolic Reformation.

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Serpent in the Garden

Even before recorded time the serpent has been a symbol for wisdom, fertility, creativity, and creation.  It was prized for millennia.  Few civilizations saw the serpent as evil.  Those civilizations that viewed the serpent as a sinister miscreant were generally patriarchal and patrilineal.  The other cultures and societies viewed the serpent as benevolent, intelligent, a teacher, a doctor, and a caregiver.

The serpent in the Genesis myth is not new.  It had many previous Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Babylonian, Hittite, Hurrian, etc.) antecedents and ancestors among the gods and goddess of the Fertile Crescent and from Egypt and beyond.  These included (1) Anu/An; (2) Dumuzi/Tammuz; (3) Ningishzida/Gishzida; (4) Ea/Enki; (5) Enlil/Ellil; (6) Marduk/Merodach; (7) Inanna/Ishtar; (8) Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell; (9) Shamhat (Ukhat).  The emerging Hebrews merely recast the characters and changed their names, as they also did for such fictional beings as Adam, Eve, Cain, Abel, Seth, Noah, Moses, and even Yahweh.

Anu ("Lord of the Great Above") the God of Heaven (Sumerian) son of the first pair of gods, Ansar and Kisar

Anu/An is a Sumerian god of the sky.  Anu/An is known as the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, Consort of Antu and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions.  Anu was believed to have come from “the great void” (the Milky Way star system in quest of gold and ore).  Anu is a very old god, and he is a part of the Sumerian Trinity that became a foundation stone for the Christian invention of Three-Persons-in-One.  Joining Anu in this theological triad are Enlil, god of the air and Enki, god of water: the basic elements that make up the planet and became bricks in the wall dividing civilizations by Habiru scribes millennia later.

Like all Mesopotamian and Mediterranean deities, Anu is especially dedicated to sexuality.  Sex plays as big a role in his religion as it does in that of the tribal Habiru agricultural god Yahweh.  While Yahweh was more like Zeus, having sex and then abandoning his temporary mistresses (with the one exception being the boy Ganymede whom Zeus flew to Olympus to be with him) to return to his wife Hera, Anu had several consorts.  His most important temporary affair was with the goddess Ki (earth), Nammu who was technically Anu/An’s mother (and the only creatrix of the universe in Babylon) who was goddess of the primeval sea (Engur) that gave birth to An (heaven), Ki (earth) and the first gods: among whom would be Abram (Abraham from the Ur of the Chaldees–the mythological father of Isaac and Ishmael who would ultimately propagate the female deities known as the “Satanic Verses”), and Uras (another goddess of earth, primarily red soil, and mother of the goddess Ninsun and a grandmother of  the Babylonian hero Gilgamesh (Kramer, Samuel N. (1998). Sumerian Mythology: a Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press).

Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi (a sex ritual)

Dumuzi/Tammuz was another Sumerian deity who was god of food and vegetation, who died each year at autumn to rise again as a new crop.  He was especially popular in Syria where his name  ܬܡܘܙ (Dumuzi) meant faithful and true son: the prototype for Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem; in Sumeria,  Tammuz  (תַּמּוּז) was known as the Good Shepherd, and like many other gods, he was the consort of his mother (in Akkadian: Ishtar (Astarte or Asherah in Canaan; marriage occurred when sex was enacted, as became the foundation for marriage in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), the most prominent Mesopotamian female deity) and rescue Ishtar/Inanna: the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility and warfare.  Tammuz is recognized by the prophet Ezekiel (Ezekiel 8:14-15; cp. Edwin M. Yamauchi, Edwin M. (1965). “Tammuz and the Bible” Journal of Biblical Literature 84.3 (September, pp. 283-290), Kramer, Samuel Noah (1980). “The Death of Dumuzi: A New Sumerian Version” Anatolian Studies 30, Special Number in Honour of the Seventieth Birthday of Professor O. R. Gurney (1980:5-13), and, Wolkstein, Diane and Kramer, Samuel Noah editors/translators (1983). Inanna, Queen of Heaven & Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer. New York, NY, USA: Harper Colophon).

Ningishzida as a Hydra serpent

Ningishzida/Gishzida is either another name for Dumuzi, or a similar Sumerian god who was lord of the underworld, much like Pluto and Hades.  He is commonly depicted as a serpent with a human head and is considered the son of Anu (Ira Maurice Price, Ira Maurice (1900) Notes on the Pantheon of the Gudean Cylinders, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 17, No. 1 (October, pp. 47-53) and an ancestor to the Gilgamesh and also the son of Ereshkigal, but in those days there were no definite chronologies or genealogies. Ningishzida’s symbol of two serpents or snakes twining (possibly copulating) predates the Caduceus of Hermes, the Rod of Asclepius and the staff of Moses by more than a millennium.  In the Adapa myth the serpent deity is a male god, not the female being the later Hebrews create (Turner, Frederick (2006). Natural Religion.  New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Transaction Publishers).

Ningishzida/Hydra is portrayed as serpent-dragon with the forepaws of a lion, but no hind legs.  This image is preserved on an early Persian clay tablet  Langdon (1931) but Black and Green (1992) date it to the Greek Seleucid period, the successors of Alexander the Great. (cf. Langdon, Stephen Herbert (1931). The Mythology of All Races: Semitic. Boston, MA: Archaeological Institute of America, vol. 5, p. 190, fig. 159; cp. Black, Jeremy, & Green, Anthony (1992).  Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, An Illustrated Dictionary.  Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, published in cooperation with the British Museum Press of London).

Ea or Enki in Mesopotamian religions: both a god and a goddess who could change gender at will

Ea/Enki was originally a Sumerian god but was adopted into Akkadian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Hittite and Hurrian theology where he was a creator god associated with water and was among the earliest deities to be associated with numerology (his sacred number was 40). His image is a double-helix snake, or the Caduceus, very similar to the Rod of Asclepius, and is often shown with a horned crown of divinity dressed in the skin of a carp.  Dating from the third millennium BCE, Ea/Enki is considered the god of wisdom, semen and magic (leading to fertility and fecundity; cp. Leick, Gwendolyn (2001), Mesopotamia: the Invention of the City. London, UK: Allen Lane/The Penguin Press, p. 20), his delight was to engage in discussions with women known to be superior to men in theological debate (Kramer, Samuel Noah (2007). Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC. Charleston, SC, USA: Forgotten Books). It is from the Enki story that the writers of Genesis were able to create the myths of Adam and Eve walking in the Garden, as after Ea/Enki completed his/her conversation they would make the mortal(s) into slaves for the gods.  Ea/Enki were the background for what would become the myth of Noah and the Great flood (see the carvings on the rock sanctuary of Yazilikaya near Bogasköy).

Relief from Susa . Enlil to the left, Ninlil to the right. Tree of Knowledge is the symbol for the erect phallus.jpg

Enlil/Ellil and Ninlil were the gods of creation (as recorded on clay tablets in the third millennium BCE, long before any Torah or Bible was even thought of), and the account of the birth of Nanna is the foundation for Genesis 1-3 (cf. George Aaron Barton (1918). Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press, p. 52).  The conception took place in a “heavenly city” never occupied by mortals–who were later introduced to work for the gods on 22,000 square feet of cultivated fields.  The goddess Nun-bar-ce-gunu warns her daughter Ninlil not to approach the river, fearing that she would want sex with Enlil. She disobeys her mother, goes to the river and is raped by Enlil.  This violence conceives

Nanna conceived

Suen-Acimbabbar, the moon-god in a “ritually impure” manner–which lead to the arrest and exile of Enlil (completing the myth of the exile of Adam and Eve from the Garden). 

Marduk/Merodach is from the third millennium to the eighteenth century BCE and the era of Hammurabi (Jastrow, Jr., Morris (1911). Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria, G.P. Putnam’s Sons: New York and London. pp. 217-219).  Originally, Marduk was considered the sun of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and connected with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic (C. Scott Littleton (2005). Gods,

Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal

Goddesses and Mythology. Tarrytown, NY, USA: Marshall Cavendish. Vol. 6, p. 829).  Literally, Marduk means “bull calf of the sun-god Utu”, giving rise to the cow deities of India and Egypt, and to the golden calf fantasy of Exodus. Marduk is historically pictured with his dragon-snake Mušḫuššu, and is commonly found on Babylonian cylinder seals.  By 1000 BCE, Marduk’s name becomes a title: Bel (Lord; it would in time be synonymous with master and husband).  As Babylon’s power grew, the Enûma Elish was written, culminating in an apocalyptic battle between good and evil, giving rise to the Babylonian myth of Daniel and His Companions and laying the foundation for John of Patmos’ nightmare, the Apocalypse.

Mesopotamian Goddess Inanna/Ishtar

Inanna (a Sumerian goddess; the name means “Queen of Heaven”) / Ishtar (the Akkadian counterpart) is the goddess of sexual fertility, love, and warfare and was the most prominent and popular female deity in Mesopotamia 4000 – 3200 BCE. The famous Uruk Vase (found in a deposit of cult objects of the Uruk III period; Ralf B. Wartke, “Eine Vermißtenliste (2): Die “Warka-Vase” aus Bagdad”, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 26 April 2003, Nbr 97, page 39; it was stolen from the Bagdad Museum during the April 2003 invasion of Iraq and broken into fourteen pieces by three unidentified young men on motorcycle determined to steal it; it was more than 5000 years old; from then on looting has been regular, including by allies (UK and USA soldiers and contractors), so the museum has been bricked up and covered over with cement) depicts a row of naked men carrying various objects, bowls, vessels, and baskets of farm produce, and bringing sheep and goats, to a female figure facing the ruler.  The

Uruk vase (3000 BCE; partially restored) Iraq

nudity of the men, abhorrent to contemporary Christian conservatives and Islamic fundamentalists and has been signaled out as a “devilish corruption” of the individual, signified their place in purity and subservience to the ruler in the same way that the mythological Adam and Eve were nude until the gods of Gan Eden.  It was for this reason that the Hebrew gods of Genesis took time to sew for the first people on earth aprons before expelling them from the garden.  The unique aspect of the Hebrew gods terror at seeing the nudity of the first people was that there were no other people in the Garden (according to Genesis). This indicates that either the gods were afraid to look at the nude bodies that they had “created in their own image” or that the penis and vagina/clitoris had not been created by the gods and that they were the invention of the serpent who knew that without the sex organs full knowledge would not be obtainable or useable.  Knowledge in the ancient world was equated with sex.  To this end all early religions had “sex priests” (the Hebrews referred to them as “dog priests”: kedeshah (קדשה)‎ meaning “to set apart” from mortal to perform rituals for the [pagan: non-Hebrew] gods; they were never homosexuals; cf. Thus Deuteronomy 23:18-19, but this practice continued into the fourth century CE: Eusebius, Vita Constantini, 3.55, 58) to perform fertility rituals in honor of the gods and goddesses of creation where creation was the result of sexual orgasm.

Nergal: Patron God of Kutha/Cutha

Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell is the son of Enlil and Ninlil and ruler deity of the city of Cuth (Cutha): “And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal” (2 Kings 17:30). Nergal was sometime god of the sun, but primarily god of war, fire and pestilence, thus earning him a place in Hebrew and Christian mythology as being the Satan of Hell. 

Tablet of The Deluge in the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian (2000 - 700 BCE)

Shamhat (Ukhat) was a temple prostitute in the age of Gilgamesh (Dalley, Stephanie (2000).  Myths from Mesopotamia, Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and others.  New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, revised edition,  p.137.).  Shamhat appears on Tablets I/II and VII of the Epic of Gilgamesh from which the Hebrews found the legend of the Deluge (the Great Flood). On Tablet I she plays the integral role in taming the wild man Enkidu, who was created by the gods as the rival to the mighty Gilgamesh by tempting the wild man and civilizing him through continued sexual intercourse that he enjoys “six days and seven nights” until his former companions, the wild animals, turn away from him in fright, at the watering hole where they congregated. Uncertain what to do, and wanting to be with his friends, Shamhat persuades him to follow her and join the civilized world in the city of Uruk, where Gilgamesh is king.  Enkidu rejects  his former life in the wild  become the best of friends with Gilgamesh with whom he has many adventures.  Because Shamhat used sex to entice Enkidu, women from that time on in Hebrew lore were considered devils and temptresses and purity laws (Leviticus) were written to help man avoid the evils of women.  

Margiana silver plate decorated with snakes (Early Bronze Age) Metropolitan Museum New York

In the Middle East, from which the Abrahamic religions spring, serpents were considered senior deities, and are found with favor among the ancient Canaanites/Palestinians (Rosen, Arlene M. (1995). “The social response to environmental change in Early Bronze Age Canaan,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14(1):26-44) in the Bronze Age—who would be transmogrified by later invading mercenaries known as Habiru/Hebrews as שרף meaning “burning” and originally as a term for an enlightened being/god. While Canaan (כנען; Oswalt, John N. (1980). “כנען,” in R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke (eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago, IL, USA: Moody, 1980.  Pp. 445–446) had a highly advanced and sophisticated society; the invaders were at best mercenaries and more precisely barbarians (Redford, Donald B. (1993) Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press).

Ouroboros serpent with arms, hands, legs, feet swallowing its tale (fertility and eternity symbol) at Ptuj castle

Only in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) does the serpent represent sexual desire, as in other religions that are far older the serpent (or snake) is seen as the ouroboros:  a symbol of eternity and continual renewal of life as found in Buddhism.  The ouroboros is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail and was a common motif used for rings, handles, dishes, and so forth.  The word/term originates from within Greek language; οὐρά (oura) meaning “tail” and βόρος (boros) meaning “eating”, thus “he who eats the tail” (cp. Plato, Timaeus, 33: πᾶν ἔξωθεν αὐτὸ ἀπηκριβοῦτο πολλῶν χάριν. ὀμμάτων τε γὰρ ἐπεδεῖτο οὐδέν, ὁρατὸν γὰρ οὐδὲν ὑπελείπετο ἔξωθεν, οὐδ᾽ ἀκοῆς, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀκουστόν: πνεῦμά τε οὐκ ἦν περιεστὸς δεόμενον ἀναπνοῆς, οὐδ᾽ αὖ τινος ἐπιδεὲς ἦν ὀργάνου σχεῖν ᾧ τὴν μὲν εἰς ἑαυτὸ τροφὴν δέξοιτο, τὴν δὲ πρότερον ἐξικμασμένην ἀποπέμψοι πάλιν. ἀπῄει τε γὰρ οὐδὲν οὐδὲ προσῄειν αὐτῷ ποθεν—οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν—αὐτὸ γὰρ ἑαυτῷ τροφὴν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ φθίσιν παρέχον καὶ πάντα ἐν ἑαυτῷ καὶ ὑφ᾽.  According to the second century Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1.82, “The divine power, Kundalini, shines like the stem of a young lotus; like a snake, coiled round upon herself she holds her tail in her mouth and lies resting half asleep as the base of the body”).

The serpent of Genesis 1-3 is of recent vintage, and the concept that the serpent represents evil is an invention, as found in linguistic studies. Nahash (a word that means “serpent” in Hebrew, comes from the root nshs and it should be translated as “to find out” or “discover” by conversing with more intelligent gods and goddesses, especially the Mother of All Gods (it appears in all languages: Θεοτόκος, Աստուածածին, Богородица, ღვთისმშობელი, and so forth; it is not reserved for one language, religion, or people) in the ancient Jewish world: Eve.  Technically she was a helpmeet (not a helpmate): one who guided those subservient (“created from dust” to her, as was the inferior Adam who was Kohen (officially this word denotes a descendant of Aaron and a

Egyptian God Thoth as a bearded man-serpent "Wisdom-bearer"

Jewish priest. However, long before the fable of Moses and Aaron appeared, it meant “serpent priest”) who in ancient Egypt was Sato (“son of the earth”).

The figure of Eve is based upon much older mythology and is traceable to the ancient Mother Goddess or World Mother and the serpent cults of the pre-Biblical period before there were Jews, Hebrews or Israelites—people of a later invention. Closer examination of the name ‘Eve’ revealed her serpent origins, for the Hebrew for Eve is havvah (חַוָּה‎, Ḥawwāh in Classical Hebrew, Khavah in Modern Israeli Hebrew, and in Arabic: حواء‎) meaning ‘mother of all things.’ Outside of the Abrahamic use it also translates as ‘serpent’ as found in the Egyptian Book of the Netherworld. Likewise, the Arabic words for ‘snake,’ ‘life,’ and ‘teaching,’ are closely related to the word or name “Eve’ (cf. Gardiner, Philip; and Osborn, Gary (2005). The Serpent Grail: the Truth behind the Holy Grail, the Philosopher’s Stone and the Elixir of Life. London, UK: Watkins, cp. Philip Gardiner (2007). Secret societies: Gardiner’s forbidden knowledge: revelations about the Freemasons, Templars, Illuminati, Nazis, and the serpent cults. Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA: New Page Books).

When discussing the serpent that appears in Genesis 1-3, who is not a disfavored nor a disfigured being, but an equal with the gods as shown in the dialogue with Eve. According to CE translations of Genesis, the serpent was “cursed” (actually “blessed”) by the senior deities (a plural noun in the original) who allowed it to debate the Mother of All Creation (it must be remembered that Genesis is a work of recent vintage—coming at the end of the Torah—not at the beginning; it is placed at the beginning of the Hebrew and Christian bibles only because of its name, which means “First” or “In the Beginning”). 

Genesis is a series of short stories that were plagiarized from far older works from India (Śrī Brahma-samhitā 5:1: īśvarah paramah krsnah, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahah anādir ādir govindah, sarva-kārana-kāranam), Mesopotamia (Enûma Eliš).   Egypt predating Genesis and the arrival of Habiru/Hebrews, being written 2780 – 2250 B.C.E (Hart, George (2004). Egyptian Myths. Austin, Texas: University of Texas. p. 9.), Ethiopia with the god Wak being the creator and throughout Africa, and so forth—showing that communication by people was in progress and only when education ceased was there the need to fantasize the fable of the Tower of Babel in an effort to explain the lack of dialogue.  This can be seen in a drawing by Colonel Coombs, of a sculptured column in a cave-temple in the South of India, representing the first pair of mortals at the foot of an ambrosial tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavily laden boughs, presenting to them some of the fruit from its mouth (cf. Jackson, John G. (1988). Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth.  Austin, TX: American Atheist Press). I use the pronoun its to denote the position but not the sex, as the drawing, now in the British Museum Department of Oriental Antiquity, has the serpent portrayed as a woman and heralds a distinct Babylonian influence.

Samothrace neophytes initiated into the Cabiri (pre-Grecian mystery religion)

In other cultures, the first people were not Adam and Eve (male and female) but rather two males (compare the Norse legend of two male gods creating the first two people out of two pieces of wood: with genderless beings in the religions of India and Asia).   The serpent is seen as the wise god giving them knowledge, and accomplished this by swallowing them (feet forward, indicating fellatio), so that they could be “born again.”  As noted by Mircea Eliade: the ritual swallowing by the Snake is to be interpreted as a return to the womb- on the one hand because the Snake is often described as female, on the other, because entering the belly of the divine also carries a symbolism of return to embryonic state…It represents not so much a ritual death followed by resurrection as a complete regeneration of the initiate through his gestation and birth by the Great Mother.

Serpent "re-birthing" man

Mircea Eliade (1983). Rites and Symbols of Initiation: the Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth New York, NY, USA: Harper & Row, an abridgement (chapter 2)

An ithphallyic male sky god and Nut with a snake-headed god under her (Egypt)

from the 1958/1959 edition Naissances mystiques; essai sur quelques types d’initiations. [Paris, France]: Gallimard. A Romanian and Italian translation exists. This was found to be the situation everywhere; outside of Abrahamic religions, as the serpent/snake represented wisdom and knowledge as was the ultimate symbol of wisdom and salvation: being born again (reincarnation) or being allowed to enter a garden of delights.  (cf. Bushby, Tony (2003). The Secret in the Bible.  Maroochydore, Qld: Stanford Publishing Group).

Gerald Massey wrote:

…it was the Serpent of Wisdom that first offered the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge for the Enlightenment of Mankind; whether this be Egyptian, Akkadian, or Gnostic, it is the Good Serpent. And as Guardian of the Tree set in Heaven it was the Good Serpent, or intelligent Dragon, as keeper of the treasures of Astral knowledge. It was the later Theology, Persian and Hebrew, that gave the character of the Evil One to the Serpent of Wisdom, and perverted the original meaning, both of the temptation and the Tempter who protected the Tree; which has been supplemented by the theology of the Vitriol-throwers who have scarified and blasted the face of nature on earth, and defiled and degraded the starry Intelligencers in heaven…

 Massey, Gerald (1887). The Hebrew and Other Creations Fundamentally Explained. London, UK: privately printed, a second edition was printed in London by Villa Bordighiera of New Southgate as a response to Archibald Henry Sayce’s Hibbert Lectures, an annual series of non-sectarian lectures on theological issues. (1–see footnote below).

A careful reading of the “Eve” story in Genesis does not show an ignorant, haughty nor prevaricating evil woman.  On the contrary it shows a wise woman capable debating a god, citing scripture (that later day Hebrews would rewrite, indicating that Eve’s story of being a wise sacerdotal priestess was impossible) while debating the fine hermeneutic (διερμηνεία: interpreting) points of Genesis 1-3, theologians for centuries deliberately or ignorantly misunderstood.

There are many problems with current (mis)translations of the original scrolls.  Even worse is the plethora of misinterpretations of the narrative.  “Eve” was created last so that she could be first, as was the custom in ancient civilizations: the servants arrived first to herald the ruler. Woman was the crowning glory of the narrative.

The Hebrew narrative is poorly written and can easily be exposed as fraud.  According to the contemporary era story of Genesis, the gods (אֱלהִים: a plural noun) “created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without shape and there was nothing on it except for darkness … so the gods said ‘let there be light’…” (Genesis 1:3).  No where does the scroll tell us where the light comes from–the gods would not create the sun and moon and stars until much later (Genesis 1:16-17). 

There is also the contradiction between the earth “bringing forth living creatures” (Genesis 1:24) and then the gods creating living creatures (Genesis 1:25).  The “creation” of man appears at Genesis 1:26.  One verse later “man” is “male and female”.

Creation of mortals (Epic of Gilgamesh) in Mesopotamian theology

In the second story (Genesis 2), the gods create woman from a rib (verse 22). This does not appear in the first story (Genesis 1). The omission is significant.  A rib is decidedly stronger than dust: woman is created of a superior substance, and is the stronger person, and the story actually comes from the Gilgamesh that tells of the creation by the gods of a genderless earth creature, Enkidu. Originally destined to be the nemesis of the semi-divine King Gilgamesh of Uruk, Enkidu becomes Gilgamesh’s companion on a great adventure, travelling the length and breadth of the known world. In one particular encounter on that journey, Enkidu beds a woman and is transformed into a human male when the gods grant Enkidu a penis.  From that penis the mortal race is conceived.  The writer(s) of Genesis 2 are in open conflict with the author(s) of Genesis 1. 

Neither school of writers seem to have been aware of the work of the other school. The accounts are dramatically different; the unity is broken. Genesis 1 and 2 were not only written by different people, but during different time periods.  They were spliced together only as the community of scribes approached the impending work required for the Septuagint bible.

Celtic goddess Hekate Goddess of Wisdom (symbolized with snakes), Wild Creatures, the Moon and the Crossroads

Order is made out of this chaos only with the advent of wisdom (the Tree of Knowledge and its fruit, being reserved only for the gods, a copy of ancient Sumerian theology).  The serpent/ snake of Genesis 2:3 is heralded as subtle/ crafty–having the power of speech (third account, Genesis 3:1; the New American, English Standard, and New International translations use the word “crafty”, while the New Living Translation uses “shrewdest”, while the King James, American Standard, and Douai-Rheims uses “subtle” [in various spellings] the original meaning was “skillful” or “ingenious” and understood as mental acuteness and discernment) and thus interpolated as a woman (although it is woman who is in control of the serpent/snake). 

Minoan (Crete) Serpent Goddess

The serpent (נחש or nachash, which means to “observe attentively”; modern mistranslations use the word as if it signified “brazen” or “chains” “fetters of brass” and other attributes of slavery, but this does appear in the Genesis fable; those terms appear only in 2 Samuel 22:35, Job 20:24, but in Job 26:13 it is further misused as נחש ברח, or nachash bariach, as something that passes through a gate or door or through rings, as with the Norse and Babylonian concept of the serpent swallowing its tale, but in each case it is a symbol of eternity of being and eternal life, and Psalm 18:34, with it being considered filthy or a form of fornication in Ezekiel 16:36; Ecclesiastes 10:11) is marked as “the babbler”: an old Hittite concept brought to Mesopotamia from Egypt.

Black-lored Babbler (Turdoides melanops) of Africa

The “babbler” was a bird Egyptian in origin that reiterated “everything good and pure” at the time a person died and stood to be judged on whether or not he or she deserved eternal life. The babbler later became a crocodile that was also Egyptian in origin.  It can be seen in Isaiah 27:1 and 65:25.  In these references it is clearly the god crocodile (the Egyptian god Sobek who offered power, protection, and fertility who in the Middle Kingdom was associated with the sun-god Ra; he would destroy sinners but debate the just and good who sought or obtained wisdom having come out of “the waters” (the ocean) of chaos and created the world; read: Harris, Geraldine and Pemberton, Delia (1999). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.Lincolnwood, IL, USA: Peter Bedrick Books, pp.142-143.  From 1991 – 1650 BCE, Sobek’s influence extended far and became one of the foundations

Worship of the crocodile God Sobet, Temple of Kom Ombo

for the Genesis myth that dropped his depiction with the ankh, representing his ability to undo evil and cure illnesses, so as to degrade him from his divine status as if he were inferior to the gods of the Garden) or alligator who swallows the hearts of unbelievers.

In the Hall of Judgment in ancient Egyptian theology

In the Hall of Judgement Ma’ at weighs the hearts of the dead against her feather. If the heart weighs heavier it is thrown to the crocodile-headed Ammut to devour as it holds numerous sins that weigh down the heart. If the heart weighs lighter than the feather the soul that is not burdened with many transgressions may cross into the kingdom of Osiris, into paradise.

Isaiah’s use of the crocodile exposes the Isaiah account as plagiarised.  In spite of its many flaws, this tale is picked up and used later in Amos 9:3 where the serpent (נחש hannachash) rests at the bottom of the “seas” and remains the primal/primordial source of knowledge: נחשתי nichashti.  It is erroneously translated in the Septuagint, or Greek version of the Old Testament, as οφις; it has greater wisdom than the gods of the garden, as the serpent states “the gods know that on the day you eat of the fruit, your eyes shall be opened [you will have acquired knowledge] and you shall be equal to the gods.” (Genesis 1:5).  This happens two verses later.  The serpent walks erect and has feet, reaching out, for it has arms and hands–it does not “slither” on its belly (meaning “all four members) until the unmerciful garden keeper casts an evil spell upon it (Genesis 3:14b), but only after the serpent engages the mortal (female) in theological discourse.

Tree of Knowledge and its gods/priests (Assyrian cylinder)

The evil demon gods who damn the serpent and “man and woman” expose their draconian nature by admitting the truth of the serpent’s judgment, wisdom, and words. Genesis 3:22 condemns the gods of Eden without hesitation: “And the gods said, ‘Behold’, mankind has become one of us [this is a direct indication of the plurality of unity that is inherent in the Eternal Spirit and is a reference to personal distinction]—to know good and evil—for that reason, now, lest they put forth their hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat [its fruit] they will live forever [and be gods like us]”. 

Egyptian Tree of Life

The Tree of Life is found in all civilizations and in all of the world’s religions, but it is nourishing and to be sought out for food and wisdom.  For example, in ancient Egyptian theology, Isis Herself also appears once as a holy tree with a breast in its branches, nursing the king, found in the grave of Tuthmosis (Thutmosis); sexuality was affirmed, and breast milk was considered the milk of the gods–the milk of life for all future and present generations.  The breast was bared to receive

Goddess Isis as Tree of Life (Thutmosis tomb, Egypt)

petitioners who sought knowledge, food, and drink.  This motif  appears in most artistic expressions everywhere throughout the ancient world that was not plagued with the false modesty of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. It was natural–without the forced modesty of putting on an apron to cover the sexual organs as the gods of Genesis compelled its people to wear once they stopped following orders that came without a reason (Genesis 3:21) one line in the Torah that has no equal in any of the world’s older and more enlightened religions.  In other instances, the Tree of Knowledge is also the Tree of Life, as without Knowledge there is no life. This was equally the case in ancient India and Greece, where people came, the gods who were serpents rejoiced, and bade them take

Hesperides (the golden apple) Tree of Life with the serpent as a doctor (ancient Greece)

from the Tree its fruit and eat.  The serpent surrounds the tree to offer advice, medical care, compassion, and education.  This is true everywhere from the frozen Northern regions and states, to the Buddhists in Tibet and monks moving into China and East Asia.  It occurred everywhere in every scripture–except in Genesis and among the Habiru mercenaries working for the Akkadians and Hittites until they set off for their own series of conquests: Palestine, Canaan, and tributaries that were never their own property by right, but became their land by might: force of arms and brutal battles and open genocide forays (Genesis 34:25-29; That Palestine/Canaan was never the property of Israel is attested to in Genesis 37:1, cp. Deuteronomy 2:25, 3:3-6, 18; Joshua 6; the Old Testament gods are equal to Set of Egypt: blood-thirsty and vengeful, sparing no one who would cross them. 

Nagarjuna (Buddhist Tree of Life) Tibet

In Genesis the intent is clear.  The gods of the Hebrews did not want mortals (who were “fashioned in their image” and would have been most likely demigods) to live forever for such a situation could lead to a revolt against the gods, or the rejection of the gods in favor of knowledge.  If this were to happen the gods would disappear and no longer exist.  The fate of all fantasies when people stop believing in them and think for themselves (cp. Revelation 2:7).   

The gods of the garden were not omniscient (all-knowing).  They had to ask Adam where he was (Genesis 3:9).  This is the mark of an overseer, who calls out for a worker by name.

The gods of Gan Eden were not omnipresent.  They were not with the “woman” when she debated the serpent. 

The gods of paradise were not omnipotent.  They had no power to stop woman and her debate.

The eleventh verse of this ancient tragedy opens more questions about the omniscience of the garden god—questions that any gifted deity would not have to ask. This is found repeated in verse thirteen.

“Adam” proves himself to be weak: of fashion, creation, and courage. The man blames the woman as would any cowardly bully. 

Woman asserts herself.  She responds affirmatively.  Eve cites her source (2–see footnote below).

Far from being loving, merciful, forgiving, and generous gods, the deities are harsh, cruel, vengeful, unrelenting, and evil. They insist that the mortals suffer and glory in their suffering (Genesis 3:15-19). 

Only once the woman suffers is she given a name–and then by the mortal who caused the suffering by pulling back and putting the full blame on the woman. The name Eve does not appear until line 20, with the scriptural notation that she is “the mother of all living things”: the title given to goddess throughout Sumerian history and theology, a theology carried over to Mesopotamian nations and Egypt, and only of late used in the emerging writings of Hebrew scribes.  It is a title identical to that bestowed on the Goddess Isis of ancient Egypt—and, yet, there is the surprising confession that Eve is Isis in part as she is the creatrix who gave life to all things (Genesis 1:11-25 ff, 2:9-19) making Eve the creating deity over any other deity (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1982). Woman in ancient Israel under the Torah and Talmud: with a translation and critical commentary on Genesis 1-3. Mesquite, TX, USA: IHP).

The destiny of the Mother of All Things, however, changes in the fourth tale, (Genesis 4:1-2) as she no longer has the power to spontaneous create, but must regenerate laboriously: giving birth.  This is quickly masked over by the scribes who created the fifth account–obviously unaware of the other records, for there are numerous generations from a single mother who had but three sons.  For Cain to marry (Genesis 4:17), he would have had to marry a daughter of Seth (in Egyptian theology his name is Set and he was the god of evil and darkness, but definitely patriarchal with no respect for women), his niece, while Seth would have had to have had sex with his mother as Oedipus did in Greek lore.

Sumerian Tree of Knowledge and Serpent God 2025 BCE

While “Eve” is essential to the Abrahamic religions’ plagiarism of far older world fables on creation, the serpent in the garden is the central figure, especially concerning the Temptation beside the Tree of Knowledge.  The words of the serpent are critical to understanding the significance of the “fall” (or rise) of males and patriarchy that did not exist for millennia. Nearly the serpent’s entire message is in the Third Tale (Genesis 3, which Batto, Bernard F. (1992). Slaying the Dragon, Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition. Louisville, KY, USA: Westminster/John Knox Press, p. 60: “The Yahwist’s Primeval Myth.” rejects as original or authentic).  It is the serpent-god who begins the dialogue:

vs. 1b: “Yes, [have not] the gods said, ‘you shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” The full text is: וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃. In vs. 2b-3,

the woman points out “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden, but the fruit of the tree that is in the among/amidst/in the center of the garden, the gods declared ‘You all shall not eat of it, neither shall anyone touch it or you will die’.” The full text reads: וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתֹוךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בֹּו פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ .

The serpent retorts (vs. 4b=5): “Surely you will not die. For the gods know certainly that on the day that you eat [of the fruit of the tree], your eyes shall be opened and you shall be equal to the gods: knowing good and evil.” The full text reads: וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מֹות תְּמֻתוּן׃ כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיֹום אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טֹוב וָרָע׃  

Dispute Between Emesh and Enten (Sumerian cylinder)

The serpent is recognizing different forces.  The serpent is not the betrayer, nor is the serpent an enemy of gods for the woman is a god (the creatrix) and the serpent is working to increase her knowledge.  This knowledge led to sex with the “first man” and from their union came Emesh and Enten (Cain [literally it means “the Shining One” and was later accorded to Lucifer; in the Greek New Testament, Cain is referred to as ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ: “the evil one” 1 John 3:12] and Abel, which in Hebrew means “breath”, “vanity”, and “waste”, but in Akkadian, Abel means “son”, and in Arabic Abel translates as “herdsmen” of camels, while Cain translates as “metal smith” indicating their professions: farming and industry and their “battle” was between the two professions, not between two men: Richard S. (1993).  Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Kevelaer, Germany: Verlag Butzon & Bercker ; Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany: Neukirchener Verlag, pp. 24-25) two Mesopotamians who fit into Sumerian theology.

The serpent demonstrates that it (since in fact there is no actual reference to the gender of the serpent as male or female) is in fact a deity.  It is not a demon as demons at this time in history did not recognize the existence of good but, like Marduk of Persia, were preoccupied with murdering messengers of light

Shiva (Pashupati terracotta seal) excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated c. 2000 BCE

(Ahura Mazda) in a great (and final) battle for control of the earth. 

Lord of cattle holding a snake of wisdom (India)

In India, the serpent-god was the guide to heaven, his erect phallus a symbol of peace and love and direction toward god.  This is seen graphically in the Shiva Pashupati (“lord of cattle”) seal, a famous terracotta seal excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated approximately 2000 BCE depicting a horned (divine) yogi figure in lotus position with an erect phallus:  a symbol of the way to heaven.  Shiva, frequently depicted in yogi form, is commonly venerated in

Shiva lingam in 10th century temple of Sri Brihadeswara Thanjavur (India)

the form of the male organ of procreation or lingam. The lingam, upon which devotees focus their prayers that is usually located at ground level, the vertical configuration of the icon symbolizes ascent, pointing to heaven. Shiva lingam is usually found in the innermost sanctuary of Shiva temples. Reference to the Shiva lingam (लिङ्गं in Sanskrit) is noted in ancient Hindu scriptures, including the Puranas and Mahabharata.

Yoga practices rest on awakening the “kundalini,” a Sanskrit word meaning “serpent power.” Only when the “coiled serpent” (the phallus) is awakened the real (subconscious) Yogi becomes the creator and destroyer of the universe, like God. Yoga is motivated by a spirit that inspires self-deificationin the practitioner with a promise of

Shiva Lingam and Yoni (India)

reincarnation through regeneration (sexuality and sexual active intercourse).  As Hindu theology ebbed into Mesopotamia, with an intensive emphasis on the divine qualities of the phallus and phallic worship that had long played a role in Canaanite and other Palestinian religions, the Habiru began to fight the innovative ontology and form schools to battle it by inventing evil to be the hallmark of the Celestial Advocate (Satan).  The reality of human sexuality was repressed by the ignorance of a few that such activity, if left unguarded and unchecked, would lead to transgressions against the laws of the deities they worshipped

Shiva lingam (Hindu, India)

and such transgressions would become unforgivable sins unless punished to the ultimate extent.  Thus stoning for adultery or effeminacy was demanded by the numerous authors of Leviticus, and from there carried to other tracts that never existed.  While the Hindus, Canaanites and other Palestinians had no problem, and in fact rejoiced in the display of the phallus as a symbol of the deities love for mortals, such a display was forbidden among the early emerging Habiru who considered the organ to be a work of the serpent that they would in time refer to as The Devil.  All images of the phallus would be forbidden among the wandering nomads/mercenaries, and any reference was prohibited under pain of offending the tribal god Yahweh–who would avenge himself by causing those who dared mention it to suffer.  All symbols, common in Hinduism, Asherahism of the Canaanites, and others, were destroyed.  Religion had become the warlord over choice and wisdom was denied.

Single serpent entwined around a pole (Egypt 3000 BCE)

All religions have stories of serpents that become staffs, rods, pillars, and even the phallus.  The ancient Egyptians created legends of magicians (magi) who turned serpents into rods (cf. Exodus 7:10-12) to warn pharaohs of impending dangers, mass famine and pestilence, leading ultimately to the invention of Moses, from the tale of the priest On (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1992).  Moses : making of myth & law : the influence of Egyptian sex, religion, and law on the writing of the Torah ; with an introduction by Decherd Turner; cp. Loud, Gordo,  Megiddo II: Plates plate 240: 1, 4, from Stratum X (dated by Loud 1650–1550 BC) and Statum VIIB (dated 1250–1150 BC), noted by Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult” Journal of Biblical Literature 87.3 (September 1968:245-256) p. 245 note 2.),

Moab serpent-god with feathers and horns of divinity (date unknown)

a symbol that even appears on Moab and Mesoamerica cave walls (cp. Exodus 7:9-12).  Scholars have found this iconography regarding the serpent going back to the legend of Kukulcan/ Quetzalcoatal (first documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BCE or first century CE), represented   as a feathered serpent. Quetzalcoatl was associated most intriguingly with legends of a white bearded hero arriving by boat from the sea, teaching the people, and then leaving, with the promise to return again in the future. This long-lived legend permitted the quick and easy overthrow of the Aztec Empire by Spanish invaders, who troops encouraged by their clergy quick martyred the Aztecs to steal their gold and claim their land for their pagan god and king.  The brutal atrocities committed by the clergy far outdid the carnage capped by the soldiers in service to their kings: secular and divine (cp. Matthew 10:34).

Feathered, with horns, serpent deity (Moab cave art)All ancient religions, including that of the Habiru/Hebrews saw the serpent is co-equal with the gods.  The serpent is the source of wisdom (the Levi, or priestly class, had to destroy that concept, even though Moses had the serpent on his staff as did all medical practitioners, educators, and even priests and royalty). With that the conversation is finished, and the diminishing of woman initiated–to be made complete with the rise of “Christianity” and Islam–both that demand that mortals submit to cruel gods and their priests and prophets.

Papyrus _Oxy VI 932 A private letter on papyrus from Oxyrhynchus written in a Greek hand of the second century CE The holes are caused by worms

Paulinity, the usurper of initial community of believers in Jesus of the New Testament and the actual root of what would become confessional Christianity that had nearly nothing in common with the Sayings of Jesus (referred to by Papias of Hierapolis in Anatolia (c. 60-130 CE): fragmentary logia texts appear on two Oxyrhynchus papyri discovered in 1897 and 1904; cf. Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, read articles Logia and Sayings of Jesus; Papias, Exposition on the Oracles of the Lord survives only in quotations made by Irenaeus and Eusebius; Oxyrhynchus was a city in Egypt (in ancient Egypt it was Per-Mejed the capital of the Upper Egypt Nome and rebuilt after the conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE and renamed Οξυρρύγχου Πόλις : “town of the sharp-snouted fish”) on the

Bronze statue of Oxyrhynchus fish (date uncertain)

west of the Nile.  From this site came an enormous collection of papyrus texts dating from the time of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history were found.  It was also the trove for Gnostic writings, especially the Gospel of Thomas, which many sawn as a threat to the emerging Paulinity church and sacerdotal priests committed to Saul of Tarsus) or any original text (most of which were destroyed by Constantine I and his subservient bishops determined to weed out heresy, deliberately, in the fourth century CE, further twisted the story as recorded by the schools of scribes in ancient Israel, to make the serpent appear as evil: “like sheep (a word that is both singular and plural, here used in the plural format; those that were found at Oxyrhynchus were written, or copied from older originals, between the third and fourth centuries CE.  Many were written on the back of old government and accounting records as papyrus and paper were expensive) among wolves” (a symbol of evil) in Mathew 10:16.  2 Corinthians 11:3 actually admits, reluctantly, that inquisitiveness is a virtue yet one that could lead to “being led astray” from blind obedience to the madness of the creators of Paul (“pure devotion to Christ”: a title Jesus of the New Testament never claimed). 

Shri Anantasayana Vishnu , Lord Vishnu sleeping on the cosmic serpent

The universality of the serpent as a part of the waters and ring of life, as in Hindu theology it is affirmed that Lord Vishnu sleeps while floating on the cosmic waters on the serpent , and antecedent to the Torah is found in Babylonian and other texts where the serpent is a prized and wisdom giving god is found in Revelation 12:15.  It is not until Revelation 20:2 that a mysterious saviour (not named Jesus) seizes the serpent and at that point calls it a devil, and then adds the name “Satan” (that does not mean “evil” but translates as “celestial advocate” and was a Babylonian son of the gods: Job 2:1).  The Babylonian Satan, sourced from the Sumerian Satan (“Divine Advocate”) was a god in mortal shape.

Gadd Seal (Ur III period, 2380-2360 BCE, ancient Sumeria) foundation for SatanNaramsin with horns of divinity, fully armed (Sumeria) (c. 3000 BCE)

The BM 122847 cylinder seal shows a humped bull standing before a palm-tree (Tree of Knowledge), feeding from a round manager (or a bundle of fodder symbolizing the promised birth of a warrior [“messiah”: מָשִׁיחַ meaning “anointed”; cp. سيح that is translated in the Greek Septuagint as  Χριστός (Khristós), cp. Book of Enoch (xxxvii.-lxxi.) of the first century BCE]; behind the bull (a god, called Apis in Egypt where the calf was known as Yah, Marduk is the “bull of Utu”.  Shiva’s Hindu steed is Nandi, the Bull.various names in Mesopotamia; Aurochs are depicted in many Paleolithic European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon in France, while the earliest survivals of a bull cult are at neolithic Çatalhöyük: southern Anatolia (Turkey), which existed from approximately 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE and while most agree it was a matriarchal society, there are those who argue it was gender-nuetral: Hodder, Ian. “Women and Men at Çatalhöyük,” Scientifi  American Magazine, January 2004 (update V15:1, 2005) and Hodder, Ian (2006). The Leopard’s Tale: Revealing the Mysteries of Çatalhöyük. London; New York: Thames & Hudson), is holy scorpion and two snakes; above this scene is a human figure (placed horizontally) who has long arms and legs and rays (“horns”) about his head (antedating Moses of the Torah) who is the overseer.  The serpent is the one who imparts knowledge, discusses Truth with “creatures” and is the senior aid to the human figure (cuneiform Gadd Seal 1). The serpent is the prototype of “all things good” and wisdom.

"Everything good and pure" (Egyptian hieroglyph)

The strangest part appears in verse 15b: “it [the serpent] shall bruise your head, and you both shall bruise his heel.”  This has met little discussion, but the fact that the serpent had a head, arms, hands, and legs, and walked upright (it is only later it crawls on its belly: Genesis 3:14) is indicative not that it was necessarily a person shaped, formed, and endowed like a mortal, but rather that it had a head indicating that it had a brain and was wise—there is no record within the Third Tale that the gods had a head (none is mentioned), nor were the omnipresent or omnipotent as was the serpent who displayed both characteristics (Matthew 10:16, John 3:14-15; the Torah devolution of the serpent was slow and only transmogrified to separate Israelites from other mortal communities: Kelly Satan: a biography, p. 360 “However, the idea of Zoroastrian influence on the evolution of Satan is in limited favor among scholars today, not least because the satan figure is always subordinate to God in Hebrew and Christian representations: Kelly, Henry Ansgar (2006). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press), for the serpent was

Devil Man (Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 CE)

“subtle” (Genesis 3:1).  Furthermore, the serpent was not a traditional snake, for the text reads that “you shall bruise his heal” and only non-serpentine (not snakes) have heels, the passage reminiscent of Achilles whose heel was unprotected in combat (a final combat: an apocalyptic End Time); the Satan, allegedly, created the genitals.

To protect the Abrahamic religions, and after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, a concerted attack on the recognition and worship of the serpent as a source of knowledge broke out with ferocity.

Constantinus II with Licinius Crispus (coin, 4th century CE)The Emperor Constantinus II in 356 CE ordered the Egyptian temples of Isis-Osiris closed and forbade the use of Egyptian hieroglyphics as a religious language while stealing Egyptian gold for his own use. The Emperor Theodosius in 380 CE declared Christianity to be the official Roman state religion, forbade the existence of all pagan cults with especially attention to destroying the records of ancient Egyptian culture and religion, attacking the Egyptian language and the writing systems of Egyptian priests, destroying manuscripts in a way similar to the burning of Arian records by Constantine I, in favor of an illiterate emerging priestly class that changed Christianity into Paulinity favoring a few over the many.

Theophilus and the Serapeum

In 391 C.E. the pandering, predatory Patriarch of Alexandria, Theophilus (d. 412 CE), one of the most evil and illiterate patriarchs in Church history: “Seiz[ed] this opportunity, Theophilus exerted himself to the utmost … he caused the Mithraeum to be cleaned out… Then he destroyed the Serapeum [the greatest library in the world of that day]… and he had the phalli of Priapus carried through the midst of the forum. … the heathen temples… were therefore razed to the ground, and the images of their gods molten into pots and other convenient utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church” (written by Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History 16) having summoned his venal and blood-thirsty monks to arms and sent them as a barbaric horde against the city of imperial Memphis, which had a reputation similar to today’s Vatican and its libraries, and the great shrine of Serapis, the Serapeum, the main temple of the Osirian-Isis religion where more records were kept than could be found in any Christian church or convent. The object, an open secret, was to steal all gold of non-Christians to adorn the Christian churches and starve the masses. 

This violence and carnage was repeated by the Christian community  when the female philosopher Hypatia (350/370 – March 415), a noted mathematician and librarian who was head of the Platonist school at Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy, was lynched and flayed by a mob of Alexandrian Coptic monks who acclaimed Theophilus’s nephew and successor Cyril as “the new Theophilus, for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city”, as recorded in the Chronicle (only a translation in Ethiopian in 1602 survives) by John of Nikiu, an Egyptian Coptic bishop, in the seventh century (“La Chronique de Jean de Nikioû”, ed. and translated into French by H. Zotenberg in Notices et Extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale, t. XXIV, I, pp. 125–605 (Paris, 1883) and also separately (Paris, 1883).  The death of Hypatia ( Toohey, Sue (2003). “The Important Life & Tragic Death of Hypatia”. Skyscript.co.uk.) marked the beginning of the decline and end of education in the Christian world, that substituted memorization of myths for learning and the conduct of inquiry, more interested in turning out bigoted clerics than producing intelligent leaders, scientists, mathematicians and inventors (Wider, Kathleen (1986). “Hypatia”, Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle.  Indianapolis, IN, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 49–50).  Schools were closed, libraries destroyed, and the mythology of Paulinity became the only acceptable religion until Islam took over Arabia and began its march to conquer the world.

USA soldier Lynndie England holding a leash attached to a Abu Ghraib prisoner in Iraq

More violent than the armies of the legendary Joshua, more bloodthirsty than the Cossacks (Казаки) of Imperial Russia, and more deadly than Lynndie England and her gaggle of goons at Abu Ghraib prison (2004-2005; for her role in and torturing Iraqis England was indicted on of one count of conspiracy, four counts of maltreating detainees and one count of committing an indecent act, England received only a three-year prison sentence), the Christian terrorists from Alexandria massacred Egyptian priests in their shrines and in the streets. The ferocity of the violence consumed priests, followers, and the Egyptian intellectual elite of Alexandria, Memphis, and other cities of Egypt who were murdered and their temples and libraries destroyed and a motley crew of scribes were assigned to rewrite (“revise”) history and create a fiction supporting Alexandria’s concept of Christianity that would be buttressed by the Arian bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius, who was commissioned by Constantine to create and write a Bible in 385 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini, IV,36-37). The institutional structure of Egyptian religion, then more than four millennia old, was demolished in less than two decades (cf. Gabriel, Richard A (2005).  Jesus the Egyptian: the Origins of Christianity and the Psychology of Christ.  [S.I.] Iuniverse Inc).

The conclusion in the nineteenth century, and not ignored until the rise of evangelical fundamentalism among the new emerging sects, was that the serpent was neither demon nor devil, but a god sent to educate and elucidate wisdom.  This came from a study of serpentine figures from all ancient civilizations that used the image of the serpent to hallmark medical corporations, technical and educational institutions, and government think tanks employing the symbol of the serpent on their emblems and logos.

FOOTNOTES

(1) Sayce was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist who held the chair as Professor of Assyriology at Oxford University (1891-1919), publishing transcriptions and translations of cuneiform texts for the Society of Biblical Archaeology (see vol. 3, part 1). Sayce argued that the Hittites existed centuries before the age of Old Testament patriarchs, debunking the common thought that the Old Testament was the earliest history of the region; it was but a plagiarism.  His Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian religion and showed how it was far older than any Jewish writing or the Torah (cf. Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). The Hibbert Lectures, 1887. Lectures on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by the religion of the ancient Babylonians. London, UK: Williams & Norgate).  Sayce’s goal was to find the Rosetta stone to unlock all ancient languages. Cf. Archibald Henry Sayce (1875). An elementary grammar: with full syllabary and progressive reading book, of the Assyrian language, in the cuneiform type. London, UK: Samuel Bagster and Sons, I have a copy of the second edition, but no date was printed on the book; Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the ancient Babylonians. London: Williams and Norgate; and, Sayce, Archibald Henry (1888-[1892].  Records of the Past: Being English translations of the ancient monuments of Egypt and Western Asia. New Series; 6 vols. London: Bagster & Sons).

(2) Although contemporary versions read that she claims “the serpent beguiled me” meaning to “suggest” or “impose upon” (James 1:22) even “lecture” but the concept of  “deceit” is of later origin and at first was understood to me “to cheat” from giving full details as in Romans 7:11, 16:18 (where it is to “encourage” or “offer”, and 1 Corinthians 3:18; as a verb transitive, “beguile” means “to make time pass without notice” indicating that the dialogue lasted for some time and various points debated).  In 2 Corinthians 11:3, it is the offering of serious scholarship to the exclusion of accepting “the simplicity that is in Christ”—or accepting the least complicated answer in favor of ignorance, also inserted in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; it is a commandment to obey the priests (Isaiah 37:10) who work for the good of their particular god(s) and not for the good of people, as noted in Jeremiah 29:8.

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Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Christian Terrorists, Church history, Genesis, Homosexuality, Old Testament, Roman Catholicism, Torah

God so loved the world that he gave the world…

AIDS

HIV sufferer, Menginggal Karena, immortalized in the Museum of HIV-AIDS in Thailand

While more women contract Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), since 1980 it has been labeled (beginning with Jerry Falwell and certified national hate group Focus on the Family) as the “gay” [homosexual] disease. 

AIDS in Africa where it was first identified in the 19th century

It is not.  AIDS is a disease that has been charted since the 19th century and has been  analyzed ever since then.  We can find records of similar health condi-tions in the ancient world that saw it as a “sleeping sickness”.  The symptoms of AIDS all point to the fact that it is  an equal opportunity virus that strikes women, babies, fetuses, as well as elderly.  This has been pointed out by the University of Iowa Medical College and other Medical institutions and the American Medical Association (cp. Ide, Arthur Frederick (1986). AIDS Hysteria. Dallas, TX, USA: Monument Press; second edition 1988).

AIDS in Hong Kong

AIDS affects the entire world.  No area is immune, no individual nor group can claim that it is not within the community or country–even Iran

Iran HIV / AIDS adult prevalence

(which officially declares that it has no homosexuals livingin Iran) has AIDS.

Unite for Children / Unite Against AIDS (Iran campaign poster)

The citizens are not listening to the ayatollahs, mullahs, or imams who tell them to walk away from AIDS sufferers and those who are HIV+, for the strikes families as well as individuals.  To this end, the people of Iran have united behind a call to fight the disease and issued posters to warn of infection.

Honor Killings

Honor Killing (Photo by Maryana)

god, especially in Pakistan, requires human sacrifices (known as honor killings) to avenge any infraction of the will of the deity: dating someone the parent(s) do not approve, rejecting the faith, having premarital sex, and more.  Honor killings of three teen-age daughters by Afghan parents have sent an avalanche of protests throughout in Canada while the parents protest it is their freedom of religion to deny others the freedom to live. 

Zainab Shafia cell phone several days before she was murdered (from CBC/Screengrab)

Polygamist (it is allowed in the Qur’an/Koran 4:3 (and in the Hadith Bukhari (62:2) for a man may have up to four wives and as many concubines as he can support; but he must deal justly but not equally with all of his wives, as Muhammad allegedly did: Bukhari (5:268) as his 7-year-old bride (Aisha) was his favorite above all others and considered by legend to be a Muslim scholar, and a disobedient wife can be replaced and displaced: Quran (66:5) without remorse as Muhammad had eleven wives at one time, and his successors had harems of wives)  Muhammad Shafia is accused of four counts of premeditated murder  (drowning the victims, whose bruised bodies were found piled inside a car at the bottom of the Rideau Canal) on June 30, 2009, along with his 20-year-old son (Hamad) and his second wife (Tooba Mohammad Yahya), the mother of the three dead girls: Zainab, 19, Sahar, 17, and Geeti, 13, their crime against Islam, the parents and family, and god was that they dressed in short skirts (which led her parents to declare she was a whore) and flirted with boys.  Zainab had been previously beaten, scratches, isolated in her bedroom, and attempted suicide by swallowing pills.  Shafia responded to the accusations bitterly: “They betrayed humankind, they betrayed Islam, they betrayed our religion and creed, they betrayed our tradition, they betrayed everything.”  The father concluded: “May the devil shit on their graves.”

Honour Killing (2003) a worldwide epidemic for the glory of god

Every year there are more than 5,000 honor killings to appease god.  Canada has at least twelve honor killings each year and always hears that such barbarities are in the name of a pathetic predatory god (Allah) who is unable to defend his own laws and is subject to human intervention to carry out his will (cf. Qur’an / Koran 4:15).  It is estimated that a little under 700 women are killed by their husbands or male relatives in the first nine months of 2011 in Pakistan always with the claim that it is the will of god/Allah.  In the United Kingdom, babies born out-of-wedlock to a Muslim female, are prime targets for honor killings by Islamic fundamentalists.  Islam rules that it is always the female’s sin–a throwback to the ancient Iraqi myth of Gan Eden and a “woman” named “Eve.”  Since a woman created the evil, it is not uncommon for the mother of the woman to pay an assassin to kill her own daughter “for the love of Allah”.

Sami Sarwar gunned down by assassin her mother paid for and watched

One particular case is highly descriptive of fundamentalist Islam: Samia Sarwar, 29, mother of two boys aged 4 and 8, was shot dead today in lawyer Hina Jillani’s office by a bearded man accompanying her mother and uncle. “He’s my helper, I can’t walk,” said the mother, when Hina told the two men to get out. As the mother went to sit down in front of Hina’s desk, and Saima stood up from her chair, the bearded man whipped out a pistol from his waistcoat and shot Saima in the head, killing her instantly.

Banaz Mahmood executed by father and uncle

Every two weeks, a woman is killed in Jordan to redeem “family honor”.  Most assassins are parents, brothers and/or sisters, other relatives, or Imams.  It is a frequent argument that the killing is for honor especially if the woman executed refuses to wear a hijab (face/head veil), or is “immodest” in her walk and creates “gossip among the neighbors.”

Sati (widow murder / suicide) in Hinduism

Honor killings go beyond Islam.  A woman is expected to set herself on fire (or will be thrown on her husband’s funeral pyre) in a Hindu ritual known as Satī (सती).  This is most common in India, but also is found in other countries where Hindus have moved, or have been minorities (as in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and other nations).  It was first known around 400 CE (coming from ancient legends of widows of sea captains who died would jump onboard a ship set aflame and pushed back onto the ocean to chart a course to a nautical afterlife; cf. Strabo 15.1.30, 62 and Diodorus Siculus 19.33 who argued that the custom was started to discouraging young wives from murdering old husbands; it was later recorded in 912 CE by Ibn Fadlan in describing Bulgars and Vikings), and not outlawed in India until 1829, but is still practiced as a religious act of faith.  Satī is a term derived from the name of a goddess who was also known as Dakshayani.  She self-immolated being “unable to bear her father Daksha’s humiliation of her husband Shiva who was presumed dead but

Junshi in Japan

was alive.  By self-immolation, the dying woman would rid her husband of any sins he had committed, and the women who took their lives were revered as saints, while those forced to die (were murdered) were seen as only being partially pure.  This led to the concept that the term Satī was tantamount to “chaste.”  It  bear a slight resemblance to the later tradition of junshi (literally: suicide through fidelity, where the vassal kills himself to follow the lord to the other world) in Japan, but was prized in India as a means of preserving endogamy (marrying within a particular group or caste; cf.  Singh, Nagendra Kr. (2000).  Ambedkar on Religion.  New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications, p. 214).

Sharia law

Woman stoned to death for marrying a man not accepted by her parents

Sharia law (شريعة‎) is the moral and religious law of Islam (قانون إسلامي), and is based on the Qur’an that was, by legend, delivered by an angel to an illiterate camel driver by the name of Muhammad who had wandered the desert for forty days and nights.  Few Muslims agree as to what the law means, and the law has divided Islam for centuries (Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries – Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy – Law, Governance, and Development. E-book: Amsterdam University Press. p. 7), and devout Muslims believe it to be original with Muhammad and his successors.  The truth is it is a combination of various Mesopotamian and Bedouin laws and each can be found antedating the legendary life of Muhammad.  

Tortured and disfigured Muslim girl (Time magazine)

Sharia is especially harsh towards women and petty thieves.  A woman who commits (or is accused of committing) adultery is to be stoned to death, while her male partner has his ears and nose sliced. 

A small child who stole “something that is useless” can have his arm bones crushed or his hands cut off (this does not include a series of photos that are inaccurately described on the internet as being the penalty for a boy stealing bread).  A trial is required and the crime must be witnessed–and the witnesses must testify in an open court.  The penalty is proclaimed by the judge that sets the penalty that the penalty is the will of a loving god.

The most extreme form of Sharia is among fundamentalist Muslims, with the prime nation being Saudi Arabia.  Under Sharia, and based on the Qur’an, a man can divorce his wife (she cannot divorce him) provided he does it in front of four witnesses.  While there does not have to be a specific reason for a divorce, apostasy, on the part of the husband or wife, ends a Muslim marriage.  A divorced woman with infants is allowed a “subsidy” until the age of weaning the infant–when all payments stop. 

Crimes are considered sins against god, and include

  • adultery (zina), which includes adultery, fornication, incest/pedophilia, rape, and pimping (based on a concept of theft)
  • apostasy/blasphemy
  • defamation (meaning false accusation of any of these things)
  • sodomy/lesbianism (or sodomy rape)
  • theft
  • use of intoxicants (alcohol/drug use)
  • “waging war against God and society” (hirabah, uniquely known as moharebeh/mofsed-e-filarz in Iran: armed robbery, terrorism, armed violence); this does not include jihad (originally it meant “internal” or “spiritual cleansing”)

Each of these crimes/sin against god can lead to execution, whipping, or torture–in the same way that the Roman Catholic church made itself supreme in medieval Spain. Among the most common cases where Sharia law is enforced is in the area of human sexuality.  Adultery is considered to be the theft of property (the woman is seen as belonging to the husband), and homosexuality is thought to be against the plan of god even though it happens in nature among all species.

Executing suspected homosexuals in Iran

To solve both crimes, death is mandatory, with executions public (as with stoning a woman until dead, decapitating a witch (as occurred recently matching the scandal of 2005 when one old illiterate woman was forced to fingerprint a confession that she could not read), or hanging sodomites (male or female; ref. Qur’an/Koran 4:16).  Once accused, there is little and frequently no excuse or evidence that is allowed to be admitted to clear the individual.  The age of the individual is irrelevant, especially in Iran, where execution of pre-teenage youths are carried out as quickly as accused teenagers or men and women over the age of twenty.

Public execution of gay men in Iran takes place anywhere

Homosexuality, like other crimes/sins, brings out hatred in fanatical Muslims. This hate is justified as being  a testimony of love, devotion, and dedication to god/Allah and is exemplified throughout the world with marches, protests, threatens to kill those who do not adapt to or adopt Islam and its precepts

Muslim protesters (Today 16/10/09, picture by Tal Cohen) outside Geert Wilders press conference in London

(even though, one of those precepts forbidding images of living things has been regularly circumvented and avoided), especially in the depiction of Muhammad (who appears in illustration format in eighth century and later Qur’ans/Korans). 

Cartoons on Muhammad that Muslims found to be offensive

When a Danish newspaper  group, known as Jyllands-Posten,  began a cartoon festival to emphasize free speech on the prophet of Islam, to high-light the abrupt differences between reality and rhetoric, Muslims were outraged.  Taking to the streets, the Muslims throughout Europe and the Middle East began shouting for death of the offending cartoonists and vowing to bomb the newspaper group.  The Muslims chimed that no one should be allowed to “insult The Prophet” and there should

Muslims protesting against free speech in London UK

be no freedom of expression or press, demanding a theocracy on the order lusted after by Congressional representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN) and heavy metal drummer Bradlee Dean Smith of Minnesota.  The newspaper published the cartoons when a Danish author complained that he could find no-one to illustrate his book about Muhammad.  On December 4, 2005, it was reported that Flemming Rose, the cultural editor at the newspaper said. “Religious feelings cannot demand special treatment in a secular society,” and added. “In a democracy one must from time to time accept criticism or becoming a laughingstock.”  The Pakistani religious party Jamaat-e-Islami and its youth branch promptly offered a bounty for anyone who murdered the Danish illustrators who drew cartoons of Muhammad.  Face with Islam’s religious intolerance and bigotry, France and other nations newspapers reprinted the offending cartoons (as I have done, see above). Under the headline “Yes, we have the right to caricature God”, France Soir ran a front page cartoon of Buddhist, Jewish, Muslim and Christian gods floating on a cloud. It shows the Christian deity saying: “Don’t complain, Muhammad, we’ve all been caricatured here.” France Soir editor Serge Faubert wrote in a commentary explaining why his newspaper had printed the cartoons: “Enough lessons from these reactionary bigots! … Just because the Koran bans images of Mohammed doesn’t mean non-Muslims have to submit to this.”

Germany’s Die Welt  daily printed one of the drawings on its front page, and it was followed by Berliner Zeitung daily that printed two of the caricatures as part of its coverage of the controversy.

Clergy sexual abuse

Roman Catholic

Vatican gay prostitution at the highest level of the church

Angelo Badalucci—a member of a group of ceremonial lay ushers of the papal household called the “Gentlemen of His Holiness”—can be heard on the wiretaps discussing the physical details of the men he wanted brought to him and asking what time one man needed to be back at the seminary.

Ireland severed diplomatic ties with the Vatican because of rampant sexual abuse among the clergy (monks, priests, bishops, and nuns) who preyed on underage youth of both genders.  The abuse had gone on for decades before it was uncovered, having been hidden by clergy and police. One priest admitted abusing more than 100 children.

Primate of All Ireland Cardinal Sean Brady at St Patrick’s Cathedral in Armagh, Northern Ireland

Another said he had committed abuse every two weeks for more than 25 years. Others detailed how they would pass a youth between themselves.  The Irish Commission, known as the Murphy Commission of Inquiry, concluded every bishop’s primary loyalty was to the church itself, and many followed Opus Dei that argues that a lie told to protect the church was not a sin against God nor an evil act of a believer.  The papacy attempted to deny the findings of the report, and only when Roman Catholics began to demand justice and leave the Roman Catholic church did a reluctant pope begin to apologize, although he is also under suspicion of sexual irregularities. 

Bishop Reilly

Similar problems surfaced in the USA: not just sexual assault that had been a regular fare for many friars, fathers, and faithful, but the coverup of pedophilia by bishops, priests, and cardinals: many who were themselves the predators. Chancellor of the Catholic Diocese of Providence, then later for 27 years serving as bishop of the Norwich, Connecticut, and Worcester dioceses, Daniel P. Reilly has been named in more than 30 lawsuits alleging sexual misconduct by priests under his charge and claimed that he was not consulted about sexual misconduct of his priests, even though some of the victims committed suicide.  J. Kendrick Williams, bishop of Lexington, Kentucky, was named in a lawsuit claiming he had unwanted sexual contact with a student (David Hall) at St. Catherine’s High School in New Haven in 1969.  Bishop Anthony O’Connell (then of Palm Beach, FL) and  Bishop Robert Brom (then of Duluth, MN, now in San Diego, CA) admitted to their molestation, but continued serving the church, while Bishop Matthew Clark of Rochester, NY, who wrote in 1990 that pedophile clergy were afflicted but not sinful allowed pedophile priests to preach and practice their rituals. Cardinal Edward Egan (then of New York, NY) allowed Rev. Walter Coleman to “stay on the job” for more than a year after the Bridgeport diocese concluded in early 1994 that he had abused the son of a woman with whom he had an affair and bought a house. The sacerdotal with the record of maintaining pedophile priests to continue to teach and preach is Boston, MA, Cardinal Bernard Law.  When bishops are accused of this crime, they are transferred to the Vatican, where the current pope, Benedict

Faked advertisement with the Pope kissing an Imam

XVI, is more upset over a Photoshop advertisement by Bettenton of ad featuring a fake picture of Pope Benedict XVI kissing Ahmed Mohamed el-Tayeb, imam of Al-Azhar mosque, a prominent Muslim house of worship in Cairo, Egypt than of rampant pedophilia in the priesthood.

Evangelical Protestant

Swaggart’s prostitute: Rosemary Garcia

Jimmy Swaggart paid prostitutes, including Debra Murphree who worked the red-light district of New Orleans, for sex while married.  He required one prostitute to have her daughter watch (cp. Ide, Arthur Frederick (1988). Heaven’s Hustler:  the rise & fall of Jimmy Swaggart. Dallas, TX, USA: Monument Press).  Swaggart’s son, Donnie, took over the family business of faith selling, before he also fell from grace.

Ted Haggard exposed in Denver, CO

Ted Haggard confessed to having at leasttwo homosexual affairs (although 

Mike Jones exposure of Ted Haggard

others have been reported). Ultimately, the fervent anti-gay pastor confessed to have lifelong problems with his sexual orientation. Mike Jones, his primary accuser, claimed Haggard paid him for sex over a three-year period on a monthly basis charging $70 – $90 an hour.  Most of this tab was paid for by Haggard’s spiritual flock and the church that he controlled as a “shepherd”.  The IRS has never investigated this misuse of church funds, and nothing has been said or written about it. 

Haggard’s situation is not at all unique.  Other Pentecostal pastors, many who run for and win sits in state legislatures seeking to erase the wall separating state and church find their own needs met by using money from their congregations for their own personal interests and pleasures, as was the case with Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker of the PTL (Praise the Lord) Club, Pat Robertson and his 700 Club, and similar televangelists.

Mainstream Protestant

Lutheran, Methodist, and Baptist ministers have been accused of having nonconsensual sex with underage males and females.  This is surprisingly the case with conservative politicians who use religion as a base to win  election, as occurred in 1994, led by the four-time married and repeated adulterer Newt Gingrich, and talk show pundit Glenn Beck who, like Bill O’Reilly while on the air and off, has a difficult time with the truth

 

Two groups of mainstream Protestantism that keeps the media busy are the conservative Lutherans and Baptists.  Child molesting and prostitution are especially interesting after listening to those who feed on the young and poor complete pounding their pulpits as if they were an enraged Martin Luther or other reformer.  Lutheran pastor Robert L. Slegel has been accused by twenty men in Brick, New Jersey of having sexually molested, and sodomized, them over a period of years, and are now demanding over $30 million in restitution payment.  The lawsuit against St. Thomas Lutheran Church in Brick, alleges “It was and is the policy of (the church) to tolerate and keep secret the identities of pedophiles and other sexual offenders as functioning pastors/ministers in the Lutheran Church.”  However, in a statement issued by the church’s congregation council said: “St. Thomas Lutheran Church does not tolerate inappropriate sexual behavior of any kind.”  BishopAccountability.org claims that there have been several similar settlements against Lutheran pastors in various other states, citing the website of ChristianityToday.org. 

Terah Rawlings (top left), Raymond "Allen" Knight (top right), Franklin "Wayne" Knight (bottom left) and Jan Ocvirk

Terah Rawlings (top left), Raymond “Allen” Knight (top right), Franklin “Wayne” Knight (bottom left) and Jan Ocvirk

Southern Baptists are equal craven and carnal in thoughts and actions as can be seen by the sexual molestation  perpetrated by Terah Rawlings,  Raymond “Allen” Knight, Franklin “Wayne” Knight, and Jan Ocvirk of Hilltop Baptist Church, when former teacher, Terah Allyn Rawlings, 32, allegedly had sex with the then-15-year-old boy during the 2007-2008 school year and during the following summer in a “Christian school” in Colorado Springs.  The administrators and the coach (Rawlings’ uncle, Hilltop Baptist Church senior pastor Franklin “Wayne” Knight, 63; her father, former school athletic director and associate pastor Raymond “Allen” Knight, 57; and former principal Jan Ocvirk, 51) knew about the trysts but neither said a word nor acted to stop the child abuse.  

Heather Daughdrill

A similar case occurred in Louisiana where Heather Daughdrill, a 28-year-old Bible school teacher/aide was charged Monday with repeatedly having sex with a 13-year-old boy she met at Bible school camp, according to Calcasieu Parish Sheriffs.  She was booked into the Calcasieu Correctional Center on 4 counts of carnal knowledge of a juvenile, 8 counts of sexual battery, 3 counts of second degree kidnapping, contributing to the delinquency of a juvenile and indecent behavior with a juvenile.  Heath Daughdrill, of Westlake, is accused of initiating the relationship while acting as a teacher and aide at a June religious retreat, where virtue was taught.  Similarly, Melissa B. Jones, 29-year-old woman from Decatur, Illinois,  has pleaded guilty to criminal sexual abuse of a 16-year-old boy who attended the Salem Baptist church where her husband was a youth pastor; the  youth initiated sexual intercourse.

Political leaders

17-year-old Karima El Mahroug becomes mother was prostitute hired by Italy’s Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi

Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi admits he paid a young exotic dancer at the center of a prostitution scandal $60,000 – but he swears it wasn’t for

Silvio Berlusconi and Ruby

sex! At least two of his mistresses were underage prostitutes, one who became an underaged mother who had sex with a nightclub owner more than twice her age.  Karima El Mahroug was an illegal immigrant from Morocco who was an exotic dancer – nicknamed Ruby Rubacuori (Ruby The Heartstealer) – and later was accused of trying to extort money from Berlusconi after she’d been arrested on suspicion of theft.  She was freed after Berlusconi intervened on her behalf.

US Senator Larry Craig (mugshot) (R-ID)

US Senator Larry Craig (R-ID) propositioned an undercover Minnesota police officer for sex in Minnesota. Before his arrest, he had been among the most outspoken foes of gay rights, and worked to ensure that LGBT military were denied all civil and human rights.

US Senator David “John” Vitter (R-LA) regularly kept prostitutes (including the “Washington DC Madam”: Deborah Jeane Palfrey, who brought prostitutes to The Family on C Street where evangelicals were planning on

Sen. Vitter (R-LA) and DC Madam

Armageddon and End Times) while running on “family values” and “sanctity of marriage”–and won reelection in 2010.  The prostitute who was to testify against him was murdered and it was ruled a suicide.  Most of the women that Vitter has paid have “disappeared” and The Family of C Street says that a member of the sacred group can commit no sin but is anointed to help rule the world at the time of the eminent Second Coming.

Domestic Violence

Rape, assault, and coercion are at an all-time high, worldwide.  They are especially noticeable in nations that claim to be highly religious and are controlled by church, mosque, temple, or synagogue.

Like Bible-based Christian women, women of Islam are required to submit to a man

In Afghanistan (and other Islamic nations) where the Taliban is a strong force or the Imams (religious leaders) are in control, it is common for males to throw acid in the face of  pre-teenage or teenage girls who go to school.  In Indonesia, Imam Sheikh Taj el-Din al-Hilali argued that women should see themselves as “rotting” and “uncovered [spoiled] meat” and by not wearing the hijab they were inviting and soliciting rape.  For that reason, the Islamic cleric ruled, women must keep themselves covered from head to foot. The female form is considered hideous, and a woman who exposes herself to others is labeled a prostitute. 

Acid attacks on women in Saudi Arabia

Morality police from Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan are ordered to whip with any weapon any woman who does not submit, for the common thought is that a woman has no intelligence to determine her own destiny–she is the property of a man. 

Death of a Princess (Saudi Arabia) charged with sorcery

Even a princess royal cannot escape from the morality police who can determine whether or not she was guilty of sorcery.  This was the modus operandi of Saudi’s guardians of virtue, as a television crew discovered when filming–and ultimately entitling their exposé Death of a Princess.

Acid attacks on women in Pakistan

Education for women is rejected by males in Islamic society. They will take every opportunity to keep a woman from studying.  No step is too severe.

Strict religious fundamentalists argue that a female was born to give birth to other children–that knowledge is unimportant, and all a female should do is memorize the Qur’an and encourage her children to fight and die for Allah.

Rape and disfigurement are equally common in the USA, Canada, United Kingdom and what are considered more civilized nations.  In an effort to curb this problem, Women’s Shelters are built, but enraged males are able to break through security and attack their wives, girlfriends, and daughters or other females they feel betrayed them.

Homosexuality

While homosexuality has always existed and for many cultures was considered a special grace that was the function of priests to perform to ensure fertility of land and people, religions have made it a crime while, wrongly, claiming it is against their scripture.  The word “homosexual” is not invented until the end of the nineteenth century, yet it is the word that justifies Islam to execute numerous young males (from age 4 and upward) in public, usually by hanging.

In traditional rank hypocrisy, evangelical Christianity led by self-styled ministers such as Bradlee Dean Smith, claim that homosexuals are damned to hell for even thinking about homosexuality. Documents and icons, however, show that not only did the early Christian community/church sanction homosexual marriages, but that homosexual partners were elevated to

Saints Sergius and Bacchus

sainthood, such as Saints Sergius and Bacchus, third century Roman soldiers (in the ancient text of their martyrologies they are called εραστές (“erastai” in the Greek, or “lovers”; cf. Ed. I. van den Gheyn (1895), “Passio antiquior SS. Sergii et Bacchi Graece nunc primum edita,” Analecta Bollandiana 14 pp. 373-95, and Halkin, François (1957).  Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca [BHG], Subsidia Hagiographica 8 (Brussels: Societe des Bollandistes, 1957) text is in Latin), Saint Sebastian in the third century, Juventinus and Maximinus who were martyred in 363 after being publicly paraded wearing women’s clothing (cp. Walter, Christopher (2003). The Warrior Saints in Byzantine Art and Tradition. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT. : Ashgate, and Saint Aelred. Homophobia develops quickly in the eleventh century in Western Europe.

Protestant reformers denounced “the secret vice” (that was not secret), yet many had homosexual lovers.  The most notorious was King James VI [Scotland] & I [England] who paid for a new translation of the Bible (King James Version) while having regular “encounters” (Kagan, Donald; Ozment, Steven; and, Turner, Frank M. The Western Heritage: from the earliest time to the present, Eighth Edition, Princeton, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, chapter 13, page 420; this work, considered a standard, should be read carefully as it ignores the Byzantines and Ottomans as well as giving short shrift to Russia and Poland and offers nothing concerning Islamic states, advances of women, children, minorities and LGBT are nearly non-existent; serious scholars will avoid this work. A better source would be Aldrich, Robert; Wotherspoon, Garry (2001), Who’s Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II, New York, NY, USA: Routledge, pp. 226–7, and like most homosexuals, James VI & I denounced “sodomy”: a “crime” the king committed regularly: Bentham, Jeremy; Crompton, Louis (1978), “Offences Against One’s Self”, Journal of Homosexuality 3 (4): 389–405; continued in v.4:1(1978), Jeremy Bentham’s essay on “Paederasty,” written about 1785; cf. Bergeron, David Moore (1999), King James and Letters of Homoerotic Desire, Iowa City, IA, USA: University of Iowa Press) with George Villier (1592–1628), Duke of Buckingham assassinated at Portsmouth by the renegade officer John Felton).

In the twentieth century numerous clergy (a sizeable number of Roman Catholic priests in Ireland, USA, UK, and other countries have been indicted for pedophilia, although the majority had male-female affairs), have been indicted for illegal homosexual activity, including Pentecostals Ted Haggard, bishop Eddie Long of Atlanta, GA, and others who had wives but paid or coerced males for sex, denying they are gay and even working to stop homosexual civil and human rights.

Pollution

Water

Georgia-Pacific paper spills toxic waste into Coffee Creek and Ouachita rivers in Arkansas

Koch Industries has long polluted the earth, its water and air in quest of obscene profits, especially with its Georgia-Pacific paper products industries in Crossett, Arkansas, that destroyed Coffee Creek, and Mossy Lake, Arkansas river and tributaries. Discharging 45 million gallons per day of paper-mill waste, including ammonia and chloride, and metals such as zinc, copper, and mercury, this toxic stew spewed from Koch Industries’ Georgia-Pacific paper plants combines with the town of Crossett’s sewage in Coffee Creek, the stream below the plant.  Fish die and pile u to rot along the river banks.

Koch Brothers

The Koch Brothers (headquartered in Wichita, KS) fight against pollution regulation by funding the neo-conservative Tea Party and openly buys politicians and pundits not only in the Arkansas legislature, but governorships from Iowa and Wisconsin, to Indiana and New Jersey. The Koch Brothers biggest coup was buying enough votes to put Scott Walker (R-WI) into a governorship to make broadsided attacks on organized labor, a fête that was matched in Indiana with Mitch Daniels.  At the same time the Koch Brothers own US Senator Jim Inhofe (R-OK) and the majority of climate-change deniers in the Congress of the USA. 

Global warming

Global warming and disappearance of clean water

While more than 82% of all US Republican Senators reject global warming, Al Franken (D-MN) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI) have passionately argued that science is the best basis for public policy, and with former Vice President Al Gore, presented conclusive proof of global warming, global ecological and environmental destruction, and the loss of irreplaceable natural resources.

Satellite Image Photo: San Quintin Glacier Northern Patagonia Chile (2002)

The ice cap (glaciers) on the Andes Mountains in South America are evaporating at a rate faster than anticipated.  Scientific predictions now state

Peru, where glaciers once existed

that Perú will have no water by 2030, and with the glaciers in Chile receding at a rate of one-half a mile a year, it is likely that Chile will also be without water before 2040. 

Dramatic retreat of the Chacaltaya glacier in Bolivia

Bolivia has lost most of its glaciers.  Bolivia depends on glaciers for most of its drinking water.

Arctic warming at increasingly rapid rate

The lost of glaciers and pure drinking water even affects the polar regions.  Antarctica is slowly disappearing, as is the Arctic.  Global warming is real.

Strip-mining

Strip mining: showing the impact the tar sands have on land

Strip (or surface) mining does more ecological damage than most other man-made attacks upon the planet.  It began in the sixteenth century and is now worldwide, although North America has the greatest role in the rape of the land.  Strip/surface mining is becoming increasingly more frequent in South America, where corrupt congresses allow foreign investors to denude their lands in exchange for currency that lines their pockets but seldom benefits their poor.

The greatest problem of strip/surface mining is not merely the removal of vegetation that is seldom replaced, but unless the tundra is reclaimed, surface mining can leave behind large areas of infertile waste rock, as 70% of material excavated is waste.  This waste is compounded when rain causes further erosion.  Valley fills frequently bury headwater streams causing permanent loss of ecosystems.  Large tracts of deciduous forests has threatened several endangered species, especially in Perú and throughout the Amazons, and led to a loss of biodiversity, never to be recovered (M.A. Palmer et al. Mountaintop Mining Consequences, Science, 8 January 2010, Vol. 327, p. 148).

What little water exists is being wasted on strip-mining and washing ore for exportation as the congresses in poor/illiterate nations have short-sighted goals and little concern for the common people.  The mines are shoddily prepared, frequently collapse burying miners alive, and national and local governments in South America do nothing but wait for foreign currency to filter in. 

Water pollution

Tires span across ocean floors

Water pollution is especially critical as clear water supplies dwindle.  It is not even viable to try to attempt to turn salt water into drinking water, as the oceans and seas are already polluted by dumping.  Tires line large spans of

Coastal pollution in New Delhi, India

ocean floors.  Debris exists floating along ocean and lake coastlines from Perú

Pucusana (Lima, Perú) beach front

to Santa Barbara, from Spain to Libya.

Homeless

Homelessness in the USA

Homeless in the United Kingdom

Homelessness in the UK is equally exhausting with no end in sight.  This is true everywhere, and religious groups encourage those unfortunates who suffer through this to “offer it up in prayer”.  This “celebration of suffering” was the backbone of one of the world’s greatest frauds: Mother Theresa of Calcutta, (born Agnes Gonk Bojaxhiu: born August 27, 1910, died September 5, 1997), Bharat Ratna, OM, was an Albanian Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity in India, drained off millions of dollars, allegedly for the poor of India, but instead built retirement homes for priests and nuns: a charlatan who built death houses called “hospitals” but where no medicines were dispensed, no doctors admitted to attend to the suffering, and a “hotel” with cots not fit for an adult with basic comfort.

World hunger (map)

The real cost, worldwide, is hunger, homelessness, and illness: each benefiting organized religion.

Hunger

Hunger a sign of sin?

Hunger is rampant everywhere: the USA (sharply rising in 2000 so that by 2011, over 2 million new people joined the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program — SNAP, formerly known as food stamps — between January and September, with more than 50% of all retired people receiving less than minimum social security benefits daily debating to buy medications or  food for their one meal of the day; 48% of all USA citizens are living at low income or poverty level while child homelessness has jumped 38% since 2007), UK, Asia, India, Russia, the Middle East as a few become enriched while the Middle Class disappears into the folds of poverty.  In many religions, it is said that those who have been saved will not suffer but will benefit from their faith as an Elect of God. In others, as noted by Mother Theresa of India, suffering on earth will assure the faithful of a place in heaven and eternal life (Hitchens, Christopher (1995). The missionary position : Mother Teresa in theory and practice.  London, UK and New York, NY, USA : Verso). Mother Theresa was neither loved nor considered a saint in India, especially among the poor and those who suffered or the medical community who considered her miracles fraudulent inventions (read Shields, Susan. “Mother Teresa’s House of Illusions: How She Harmed Her Helpers As Well As Those She ‘Helped’,”  Free Inquiry magazine, vol. 18, no. 1)Those who spoke out against Mother Theresa were not just secularists nor people of means and education in India, but condemnations came from within her order of sisters, and the husband of the woman who allegedly received a miracle by praying to the diabolical dead nun who told reporters that the cure came with medicines not prayers.  The husband originally, it is reported, told reporters: quoted as saying: “This miracle is a hoax. It is much ado about nothing. My wife was cured by the doctors.” He later changed his mind, however, once he was paid handsomely by Theresa’s order, and told an interviewer: “It was her miracle healing that cured my wife. Our situation was terrible and we didn’t know what to do. Now my children are being educated with the help of the nuns and I have been able to buy a small piece of land. Everything has changed for the better.” (Emphasis mine, as additional documents saw the Sisters of Charity offering large amounts for those who would testify to the Albanian nun’s piety.) The Sisters of Charity are colleagues in crimes committed by Mother Theresa of Calcutta that an Alzheimer’s disease (a form of dementia) and Parkinson’s disease-suffering pontiff raised to the ranks of Blessed while those placed in her care were starving for food and thirsting for drink.

Homicide rates worldwide

With soaring rates of hunger and homelessness comes crime, which most religions consider to be a sin, yet is the result of social injustices. They work together.

World statistics on homicides

War

Sin, and social injustice, are the products of god.  In the end, god is praised for war, as with Hitler’s Gott mit unus that was sewn on NAZI uniforms, was the

Enlisted Prussian man’s belt buckle (front view)

motto used by Germans in World War I where it was inscribed on the soldiers helmets, and was the battle cry in the Roman and Byzantine empires (Nobiscum deus ), but has an ancient history, returning to the Hebrew word Immanuel. God has always been seen and hailed as the father of war and on this legend came the ancient apocalypses of ancient Egypt, Akaddians, and Mesopotamian nations.

USA and UK torture of Iraqi prisoners (2001-2008)

From George W. Bush’s claim that his god had selected him to be president, and to call for a “crusade” (a word that Muslims interpreted from its medieval counterpart to mean the slaughter of women and babies), the religion of Bush crystalized in unbelievable USA military tortures (many heinous acts were performed by women in the USA army, while others were done by UK combatants)–surpassing the great cruelty of the Spanish Inquisition where waterboarding (justified by law professor John Yoo) was a standard device.  Waterboarding is not new in torture methods, as it was a favored way of wringing confessions out of the accused by the Spanish Inquisition and even by later-

Illustration of Madame de Brinvilliers Being Tortured (c. 1847) to confess to poisoning several family members. She was beheaded in 1676.

day Protestant troops who attacked Roman Catholics in the Wars of Religion that culminated in the Thirty Years War in the belief that it was a holy act since prayers were said and the water was blessed.  It was first used in 1478 and called “tortura del agua”, consisted of introducing a cloth into the mouth of the victim, and forcing them to ingest water spilled from a jar so that they had the impression of drowning.”  It made a return into theological terrorism 1556-1559 as the Flemish Inquisition, used in the brutal persecution of Anabaptists in Belgium.  In the 1800s, waterboarding was known as “the common scold”. Scolding was a common punishment for antisocial women in early Europe and America. Water-based tortures were used to identify witches or inflict suffering on suspects as a trial by ordeal. Religious leaders argued that God would help the innocent by performing a miracle on their behalf (allowing them to live), as Satan would let them drown.  It was

Negro convict “showered to death” (Harper’s Weekly, Dec. 18, 1858)

used in 1858, at Auburn State Prison (New York) “to execute negros [sic] slowly”.  In what Harper’s Weekly called a “fearful picture of the mismanagement of our public institutions … a convict named More was, imprisoned in the State Prison at Auburn, was showered to death by the prison officials. … all the water that was in the tank — amounting to from three to five barrels, the quantity is uncertain — was showered upon him in spite of his piteous cries; a few minutes after his release from the bath he fell prostrate, was carried to his cell, and died in five minutes.” 

What the Bush-Blair administrations did surpassed even the diabolic dictates of Germans serving Hitler and brought severe penalties from the Nuremberg

Tony Blair (left) and George W. Bush (right)

Court–but the USA has repeatedly refused to recognize and join the World Court, as George W. Bush and his administration, like that of UK’s Tony Blair and his administration, having already been found guilty of crimes against humanity, fear a trial in an open court.

But GW Bush was not unique.  Wars have only

Torture of Iraqis by USA military

become more “sophisticated”, cruel, and more destructive with little concern for “collateral damage”: the loss of human life or property.  The military of the USA in Iraq and Afghanistan, following prayer sessions, were encouraged by military chaplains to “spread the Gospel” and to “harken” to the words of Bible messages stamped on their military weaponsand minds. Their

JN8:12, reads, “Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”

mission was to “serve the Lord” in the same style as Hitler’s troops were encouraged to be emissaries for the new Reich.  Most of the chaplains come from fundamentalist groups, and at the USA Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, dissent is not allowed, those who do not accept a rigid reading of scripture are ostracized and hounded, with many attempting suicide to get away from the daily indoctrination that haunts them.  Agnostics and self-proclaimed atheists are battered verbally and occasionally assaulted with the US military leaders doing nothing to protect the abused or to silence the indoctrination program. 

USA Air Force nuclear war over Japan

From the dropping of the atomic bomb on two Japanese cities filled with civilians and with no military in sight, Nagasaki and Hiroshima, leading to the loss of un-numbered tens of thousands or uncounted millions of innocent civilians to napalming innocent citizens in Vietnam and throwing “noncooperatives”, from helicopters. The greatest atrocity occurred at Mai

Mai Lai Massacre (published in Mother Jones)

Lai on March 16, 1968, committed by United States Army soldiers of “Charlie” Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the American Division whose victims were women, children (including babies), and elderly people.) 

Agent Orange, a herbicide, that was sprayed like a mist over villages where

Vietnamese children affected by Agent Orange

Vietnamese “Cong” fighters or sympathizers were thought to be hidden, was more popular among the USA military, as it not only incapacitated but killed, and those who survived were disfigured and would be unable to give birth to healthy children.  What was unknown at the time (or a well-kept secret) was its adverse affect on USA military personnel who continue to have health problems because of it. This diminishing of the value of human life continued in future armed conflicts, usually over oil, as seen in the barbarities committed by drones in Afghanistan (one spy drone was brought down over Iran)–these wars exceed that of the Third Reich when six million Jews and millions of other citizens (White Russians, Poles, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and

Israel’s holocaust against Muslims in Gaza

others) were openly slaughtered–a holocaust repeated by Israel against Palestinians of all ages. This is not anti-Semitism, as Palestinians are also Semitic.  The word, well-known by linguists, means “a subfamily of Afro-Asiatic languages that includes Akkadian, Arabic, Aramaic, Ethiopic, Hebrew, and Phoenician.”  For Israel to claim that any exposure of its holocaust of the Palestinian people is anti-Semitic demonstrates clearly that Israel has neither a conscience nor an education in linguistics and is fanning the flames of hate as sharply as is Islam.  The Torah and the Qur’an/Koran equally show that the two Semitic people had a common source: Abraham (מָעֵאל or  إسماعي for Ishmael in Genesis 16:3 from Babylonian and Minæan cognates, with a covenant established in Genesis 15, cf. Qur’an/Koran  XIX: 54 and XIV: 35-41; and, Isaac: יִצְחָק  that is a 13th century BCE Ugaritic word for “He laughs” that was the name of the Canaanite deity El–which would ultimately be transmogrified to mean “husband”, “lord,” and “master”, but the individual in Genesis 11-25 is not clearly defined any more than he is in Qur’an/Koran XII:6, 38 or XXXVII: 12).  Abraham is questionable, especially in the Qur’an/Koran where the plural pronoun is used:

And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to practise regular charity; and they constantly served Us (and Us only).

—Qur’an, sura 21 (Al-Anbiya), ayah 72-73

The statement “god is love” is equal to “god is great” (الله أكبر: Allāhu Akbar).  In each case god is the tyrant and demonic power behind the designs of mortals who would be gods.

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Filed under Bible, Christian Terrorists, ecological catastrophes, Galcier melting, Global Warming, History of USA, Homosexuality, Islam, Doctrines, Koch Brothers, Muhammad, Nazis, Perú, pollution, Roman Catholicism, Torah

Palestinians are an “invented” people, Newt Gingrich?

Newt Gingrich in Iowa in 2011

Newton Leroy (surname McPherson at birth, his father was Newton Searles McPherson but the parents divorced within days) Gingrich (born June 17, 1943) was raised a Lutheran, but converted to the Baptist faith while at Tulane.  Newt received an MA (1968) and a PhD (1971) from Tulane University in European history.  His dissertation was entitled “Belgian Education Policy in the Congo: 1945–1960”.  He never studied neither Middle Eastern nor Arab history but in 2011 proclaimed that he is knowledgeable about Palestine and the Ottoman Empire.  

In 1970, Gingrich joined the history department at West Georgia College (now University of West Georgia; today it is ranked 16th out of 48 universities in Georgia) as an assistant professor.  Four years later Gingrich moved to the geography department and was instrumental in establishing an interdisciplinary environmental studies program. He was denied tenure and left the third-rank college in 1978.

Callista and Newt discuss debt of up to $500,000 owed Tiffany's (AP Photo)

With a penchant for luxury jets and expensive jewelry (bought at Tiffany’s in New York City where he owed more than six figures without any interest charge), he demands that he be treated and toasted as if royalty, regardless if it

Newt Gingrich home in McLean, VA (2011)

is giving a speech at a small college or on the campaign trail (on public disclosure forms, politicians must only give an approximate figure on what is owned or owed).  Gingrich is known for excessive demands such as luxury hotel accommodations plus two bathrooms in any hotel suite.  At the same time Gingrich likes to style himself a friend of the Middle Class tracing his roots back to his childhood.  His five bedroom, 4.5 bath house was worth $995,000 in 2000 and is 5,206 square feet that he finds to be painfully small on a cul-de-sac in McLean, Virginia and today is marked down to the price of $1.275 million.

Gingrich and current wife (Callista) say they live frugally but buy jewelry at Tiffany's

Nearly a puritan in proclamations Gingrich is a vocal critic against sexual infidelity. While in Congress, the Georgia Republican led the charge against President Bill Clinton for the Lewinsky scandal, while at the same time keeping a mistress, Congressional staffer Callista Bisek, secret from his colleagues.  He demands objectivity of others, but at the same time taught a politically motivated course and took public money

While arguing against health care Newt took millions of dollars from the health care industry.  He has been on the side of the large insurance companies and faults those who do not have health coverage as being parasites for not buying health coverage, while Michele Bachmann told an Iowa audience that those without health insurance can rely on charity.

Golda Meir, socialist and Zionist, with troops

Running for President of the USA, On December 9, 2011, in an interview with The Jewish Channel, Gingrich was quick to disparage Arabs and Palestinians—calling Palestinians an “invented people” (read here and here)  as if trying to channel  former USA citizen and socialist-Zionist Golden Meir, who left her home in Michigan 1921 for a British mandate it acquired following World War I and was a onetime Prime Minister of Israel, declared in ignorance in 1969 that there had never been a Palestinian state, but was addressing the current post-war era, as Meir had no knowledge of ancient history or of the land that included Jews, Muslims and Christians, with the land the people living on the land identified as “Palestinian.”  This can be seen in Elliott Abrams, who was President George W. Bush’s top Mideast advisor, dismissal of Gingrich’s statement as out of touch with reality.  “There was no Jordan or Syria or Iraq, either, so perhaps he would say they are all invented people as well and also have no right to statehood. Whatever was true then, Palestinian nationalism has grown since 1948, and whether we like it or not, it exists.”  Meir moved to an unchartered place that the UN ultimately styled Israel (which was historically known as Palaestina, and is in Roman records as late as 135 CE (in the age of Julius Cesar it was known by various names including Canaan, Judea, Sumeria, and by latter-day Jews “a pagan land” as it did not embrace the agriculture or warrior gods of the Hebrews)—and both are wrong. 

 

GOP House Whip embraces PLO leader Yassar Arafat 1993 (Huffington Post photo)

While former House Speaker Newt Gingrich on December 9, 2011, claimed that Palestinians were an invention, in 1993, standing in front of Representative Nick Rahall (D-WV), embraced Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasser Arafat.  Gingrich has claimed, furthermore, that the Palestinians are “Arabs” (as if they originated in Arabia) since they were a part of the Ottoman Empire.  They were never Arabs when the nation first began over 15,000 years ago.  However, many became Muslim by force (it was known as the Eastern Roman Empire and was far more civilized than Rome) although Palestines have Jews, Christians of various denominations and sects, and other religions.  It was a geographical area that belonged to the Roman Empire, having as its capital the Greek Imperial City of Constantinople (today’s Istanbul).  The majority were Greek and Christian at the time of the conquest who merged into the Ottoman Empire but did not renounce their Christian faith.

According to the Torah and Hebrew Old Testament, the “first people” (by modern mistranslation a man and a woman) lived in Gan Eden (Genesis 3:3)—which is geographically located in Iraq.  The Jews claimed them as their ancestors. From there the record is weak, with the “sons” who had sex with their sisters (Genesis 4:19ff) moving to other lands and taking them by conquest (Genesis 5-6, 10-11).  Genesis 12:1 and 13:1 speaks of “Abram” going out of Egypt—which would match the records of the Hyksos (a Greek word: Ὑκσώς; in Egyptian it is heqa khasewet) who had Apiru/Abiru/Habiru (or Hebrews) as retainers.  The retainers were also known as Kassites or Amorites and identified as being Arabs.  Many now think that these people were minor functionary Hyksos (known as Midianites and as Palestinians; read here and here).  They were similar to the shepherd kings in Arabia: الملوك الرعاة who records also style as mercenaries working for the pharaoh. 

Mercenaries have always excisted, and were made up of two groups of people: those seeking adventure and wealth, and the very poor who had no alternative.  They included Celtic who were joined by Greek (664-250 BCE) adventurers and vagabonds.  The Greeks required payment, although Egypt was not at this time a monetary society. Special gold staters seem to have been struck to maintain their services, and this led to coinage and currency. Copts and Ethiopians joined them.

Native Egyptian pyramid workers in ancient Egypt (none were slaves)

The Jews were never slaves in Egypt.  There is no record of such enslavement found anywhere in Egypt: in or on any tomb or pyramid, in any scroll or other document.  Those farmers and workers who built the pyramids were paid, given housing, food, and medical attention.  Large limestone blocks were pulled along using wooden rollers. Nearly all the workers were Egyptians, with many being full-time paid employees, while others rotated seasonally when work was available.  The whip was not applied.  

If Jews had been slaves, the Egyptians (who were meticulous record-keepers) would have noted that, and written beside each name the value of the slave.  Such records do not exist.  The fact that such an allegation of Jews being slaves appears only in the Bible and basically in the Book of Exodus (the word pyramid does not appear anywhere in the Bible; it comes from Herodotus): and none of that book is historical (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1992). Moses: making of myth & law : the influence of Egyptian sex, religion, and law on the writing of the Torah / with an introduction by Decherd Turner.  Las Colinas, TX, USA: Monument Press).  It is political posturing and has no resemblance to reality.  It is popular propaganda: a practice that was widespread. 

The Hyksos and Palestinians (Palestinians can be traced from the Stone Age to prerecorded epochs: 500,000 to 14,000 BCE) were a settled and affluent society.  In the Mesolithic Period (15,000 – 9,500 BCE), they were known as the Natufian.  The Natufian Palestinians built fortified cities far grander and more secure than other people built their towns.  Many of these urban areas were constructed near Jericho (which was another Palestinian stronghold). 

Walls of Jericho (8500 BCE - 2011 CE)

Jericho’s walls held for millennium until they were shaken by a massive earthquake as was first suggested by John Garstang, who confessed in his introduction that he had labored to prove the story of Joshua in the Bible–but could not prove the legend of heralding angels with trumpet blasts (Garstang, John and Garstang, JBE (John Bergès Eustace) (1940). The Story of Jericho. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton).  Those who recorded its destruction used a metaphor, as the Garstangs later acknowledge, that some of the mud-brick walls of Jericho fell due to an earthquake that sounded like “trumpet blasts”: a common expression for seismic upheavals and the sounds earthquakes make.  Other walls surrounding Jericho are still standing.

Using a metaphor to describe the fury and shaking, sound and swiftness of the earthquake was in keeping with the genre of the time. There is no record (pictorial or otherwise) of any army marching around it, for Jericho was believed protected to be protected by the gods of Mesopotamia.

As early as the 10 millennium B.C.E., Palestinians engaged in plant and animal domestication that sprung forth from the transition of shepherding to agriculture.  It would highlight the ‘Neolithic Revolution’ (9000 – 4500 BCE) and the antecedents for the name began to emerge.

The ancient Palestinians were known as the al-Natoofieh.  They occupied caves north of Jerusalem, and had a long history as a civilized state. 

The al-Natoofieh established the City of Jericho (Tell es-Sultan).  It was (and is) the oldest continuously inhabited city in existence, being founded in 8000 BCE.  It flourished for one thousand years.   

Hyksos introduce war chariots and horses into Egypt

Palestine civilization was more advanced beyond that of the Hyksos and Apiru (who may have been the same nation) when the people moved toward greater unity, education, and inventing various arts from 8000-4500 BCE, going from food collectors to food producers (especially barley and wheat; the mythology of Enoch attributed early man’s knowledge of plant domestication to the fallen angel Semjaza out of which would come the invention of The Devil).  The Book of Enoch mentions Sarara and Galbanum (spices listed in Exodus 30:34), and suggests that the people were not depending solely on hunting or herding as was the lot of the early Habiru/Apiru (Hebrews) who had not yet invaded their lands with the open intent to steal it.  Enoch and his people were Sumerians, not Jews, and had an advanced culture that rivaled most other civilizations.  They gave to the world such myths as giants, fallen angels, and even extra-terrestrial beings coming to earth.

Palestine carried on trade with foreign nations, as seen in the pottery found in Egypt and elsewhere that matches that of Palestine.  It shows the close connection between Palestine and Egypt and it would be out of Egypt (especially during the reign of Pharaoh Seti I) that the later Hyksos and Apiru would come.

By 7200 BCE, Palestine was invaded by exiles from the North: by Aryans from India, to unsettled Greeks and people from what would become present-day Turkey.  Farms began to develop, with the average size farm being ten acres.

Palestinian artifacts in Chalcolithic Age 4500-3500 BCE

The Chalcolithic Period (4500 – 3300 BCE), also known as the Copper Stone Age, was relatively peaceful.  This can be noted in the paucity of fortresses built and the allowance of older walls to crumble. The arts flourished as seen in more sophisticated pottery production and ornamentation, heralding the beginning of Nimrod’s empire (Genesis 10:10) that was a beacon for intellectual dialogue, the advance of science but the diminution of religion leading many cult leaders seeing the multiculturalism of the empire as a threat, with plots to overthrow it and reestablish theocracies thereby enriching the sacerdotalists’ coffers.

Ancient ruins of Beersheba

An alphabet and writing was introduced and caught on quickly (Genesis 10:10, 11:2, 14:2).  Jewelry, using copper and ivory (discovered in and around Beersheba) became popular for both genders—as sex was an act of worship and joy and not reserved merely for procreation—distressing the a Hyksos and Apiru who argued that a woman’s purpose was to produce future soldiers for conquest, and misogynism entered into ontology and theologies. Flint anvils were fashioned along with ovens, various tools, and the introduction of roads that made Palestine the crossroads between East and West, appeared. Foundations for homes were laid out; architecture began in earnest, while the

Zarethan (advanced Palestinian city)

Hyksos and Habiru were still living in tents. In the biblical city of Zarethan (Joshua 3:16; I Kings 4:12, 7:46; II Chronicles 4:17) archaeologists have found evidence of an olive oil production facility, strengthening the theory that Palestine was engaged in large-scale production for foreign trade since it most likely made more oil than the immediate community could consume.  That there was foreign trade is evidenced by the numerous tokens of currency from other civilizations found in the region.  Furthermore, within the facility a sunken room was found providing an area to cool liquids, such as wine and olive oil, for storage.  The Hyksos remained in Egypt until c. 1550 BCE, when the boy-pharaoh Ahmos ejected the invaders in battle.  As one foot-soldier wrote:

Pharaoh Ahmos and the defeat of the Hyksos

Let me speak to you and tell you the honors I received. How I was decorated with gold. During the siege of Avaris, the king noticed me fighting bravely on foot, and promoted me. We took Avaris. I carried off four people there. A man and three women and his majesty let me keep them as slaves.

Hyksos art

Ahmos pushed the Hyksos out of Southern Egypt, but died before reclaiming all of ancient Egypt.  The Hyksos would remain in the North for a while until they would be turned out by the Egyptians (most likely the root of the myth of Moses and the Exodus). Neither the Habiru nor the Hyksos had similar, and none of this would appear in what would become Israel until the final millennium BCE.  Their art was more pastoral than their neighbors, although they were a war-like people because of their need to eat and work was not easily obtained for a “foreign” nation of shepherds, concentrating on familial scenes, especially that of women carrying children. Archaeological evidence proves that when Abram arrived in a heterogeneous Palestine that was neither backwards nor unsettled, but was a highly developed civilization engaged in international commerce (Paton, Lewis Bayles (1901). The early history of Syria and Palestine. New York, NY, USA: Charles Scribners’ Sons [reissued in 1902, 1909, and 2007).  Abram was the barbarian who invaded and destroyed what he saw, with his apologists distorting (and destroying) records to make the man from Ur appear as a holy and knowledgeable sage.  The Palestinians had already invented writing, kept written historical and economic records, and led to the introduction of education.  From 3200 to 2000 BCE, the Palestinians built fortifications to keep out the less civilized tribes, including the Hyksos including Habiru/Apiru and their mercenaries who ultimately entered around 1900 BCE, destroying most of the advanced civilizations, communities and people.  

During the third millennium BCE, The Ammonites, Canaanites, Yabousians and Phoenicians moved into Palestine in the third millennium BCE. The Canaanites, who built more than 200 towns in the second millennium BCE, settled on the plains of Palestine and the Ammonites settled in the mountains. The Yabousians settled in and around the area that would become Jerusalem and built the city of Jerusalem naming it “Yabous” then “Hierosolyma”. The Phoenicians settled on the north coast of Palestine and in Lebanon, but all considered themselves Palestinians, identified with the Palestinian people and armed against the saber-rattling of the Habiru who were known as blood-thirsty assassins and thieves.

The Hyksos and Habiru

Habiru shown in the tombs of Amarna (Egypt)

The Hyksos were famous for introducing the horse and chariot and modern burial customs including burying the horse with its owner and became a part of the shepherd kings who ultimately would rule over Arabia: الفلسطينيون ‎, al-‘Arab al-Filasṭīniyyūn but were not Arab by definition but were mixed Semitic-Asiatics with their foreign (non-indigenous) traits found at Tell el-Dab’a whose chief deity was the Egyptian storm and desert god Seth—who legend claims was the third son of an early goddess fashioned from bone. From this came the legend detailed by Josephus Flavius, Adversus Apion, 1.73, who wrote: It was also reported that the priest, who ordained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name Osarsiph, from Osyris, who was the god of Heliopolis; but that when he was gone over to these people, his name was changed, and he was called Moses.

Turk/Arab racism in North Africa (Black Obelisk 4)

Once out of Egypt, Abram and his “nephew” Lot began a war to oust the original inhabitants (cf. Genesis 14:14f) of what would become Israel—the Canaanites who are recognized as the heirs of Canaan (who was cursed by Noah but without reason as it was Ham who “saw” his father naked, the grandson is not even mentioned as being in the tent; this follows the scenario of Oedipus and his incestuous relationship with his mother by whom they spawned Electra), son of Ham.  This was because the gods of Abram were violent, warmongering and hate-filled, eager for human sacrifice (cf. Genesis 22:2, 9, cp. John 3:16 as the gods demanded that mortals to fear them: Genesis 22:12b). Lot would later go to Zoar (Genesis 19:39), and after being expelled from that city-state went into the mountains with his daughters.  Once in a cave (reminiscent of the cave where Mithras was born of a virgin mother (who was given the title of “Mother of God“) on December 25, and some scrolls claim that Jesus was born, according to Justin Martyr (Dialogue with Trypho, LXX and LXXVIII citing Isaiah 33:16 as the source for the Mirthras nativity–but there is no such reference in Isaiah, and Justin Martyr is neither credible nor reliable and is not a confirmed Christian in the orthodox definition and should be used with care and caution), Origen, Contra Celsum 1.2, and the Protoevangelium 18, while in the Jerusalem Talmud (Ber. ii. 3) it is written that Jesus was born in a “royal castle” that was an euphemism for a cave as both were made out of rock or stone) his two daughters made him drunk and then had sex with him (Genesis 19:34-36), in keeping the debauchery of the earlier crucified saviour Bacchus.  Both females conceived, adding bastardy (illegitimacy) to incest.

The constant attack upon the Palestinians and their compatriots the Phoenicians continued for generations, as is found to be common in the Old Testament: from Joshua to “the people of Moses” and so forth (Genesis 50:30 sq, cp. Joshua 7). The Biblical Jews (there is little historical evidence for a people of that name at that time) continued to war for the plains “that the gods [Elohim] gave” them (Moses uses the plural adjective with the plural noun elohim: “hath heard the voice of the living gods [elohim hayyim]”; cp. Genesis 1:26 as it is followed by a plural verb; for an interesting discussion read here)—a tribal god(s) who was/were married, allegedly, to the goddess of the Canaanites: Asherah (Astarte).  The argument that Joshua wrestled the lands away from the Palestinians because his gods The stories of Joshua and “the people of Moses” (Genesis 50:30 sq, cp. Joshua 7) follow the same pattern: war for the plains “that the gods [Elohim] gave” them (Moses uses the plural adjective with the plural noun elohim: “hath heard the voice of the living gods [elohim hayyim]”; cp. Genesis 1:26; the plural noun is followed by a plural verb; for an interesting discussion read more here; the story of Moses and the Torah that he allegedly wrote is filled with numerous errors, the most basic being his authorship as he not only writes, in the third person singular, of his death but also his burial: Deuteronomy 34) were determined to give the Jews a “homeland” is filled with errors: it is justified based on land taken by war 3,300 years ago and lost by war 2600 years ago. By that logic, Americans

Palestinian protester dies of his wounds while throwing stones at an Israeli military vehicle that lobbed a tear-gas canister direct at him and hit him in the face (10 Dec 2011 al-Jazeera

should give the southwest territory back to the Mexicans and the rest to the nation back to the Indians. The Jews get a “homeland” only because of a UN decree and the force of arms by Great Britain, the USA, and others repentant for their lethargy in attacking the NAZIs and the genocide of Hitler’s government: the German holocaust—antecedent to the Israeli holocaust of the Palestinians today.

Mustafa Tamimi dies after being directly hit in the face by Israeli military shooting cannisters of tear-gas 2011

About 1000 BCE, Palestine was divided into two parts: Samaria and Judea.  Division of Palestine did not stop then, nor today.

Palestine existed before Zionists arrived (photo 1870 by Michael Maslan)

On November 12, 1917, the government of Great Britain issued the Balfour Declaration promising to build a Jewish state that had not existed for more than a millennia: a declaration Great Britain had no right to make since the land was already owned by Palestinians.  To enforce its illegal designs, Great Britain invaded Palestine in December 1917 under the guise of destroying the Ottoman Empire.  Sir Herbert Louis 1st Viscount Samuel, a declared Zionist who was openly opposed to any recognition of Palestinian legitimacy (Ingrams, Doreen (1972). Palestine Papers. New York, NY, USA: G. Braziller, p. 106), was sent as Britain’s first High Commissioner to Palestine, and began the systematic persecution and suppression of the Palestinian people.  In April 1920, in the small Italian town of San Remo, Britain and France divide the Middle East into mandates while the American ambassador read his newspaper in the garden (Cohen, Michael Joseph (1987). Origins and Evolution of the Arab-Zionist Conflict.  Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, p. 64 and footnote).  This was buttressed the corrupt League of Nations in 1922 that used greater force against the Palestinians while ignoring the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s and 1940s.

It is impossible to prove anything in one book by citing the book itself, yet that is what Gingrich and Israeli apologists do—using the bibles of their faith that were written not as historical records by records of faith and instruction.  What is known is that there are no external contemporary records in ancient Egypt, Sumeria, or Babylon that note a Jewish presence in Palestine when the descendants of Jacob moved in on the land in open warfare.  The Arabs adopted much from the Torah and the Old and New Testaments to create the Qur’an/Koran (Abraham is mentioned more times than Muhammad), but religious plagiarism is common throughout the world.  It is from the tale of Abram and his two sons (Isaac, the youngest, born to Sara (a shortened version of the Egyptian Ummu-sarra), wife of Abram; and, Ishmael (إسماعيل‎), born to Abraham’s concubine (cf. Koran 2:62; 37:102-111; the problem that exists is that many Christians take the Bible as fact, when the same Bible says it is not all fact: Jeremiah 8:8 RSV:  How can you say, We are wise, we have the law of the LORD, when scribes with their lying pens have falsified it? ) and slave Hagar [a name that means flight or cast out) that enmity broke out among their descendants: Muslims who cite Ishmael as the father of the Arab race (Greenspahn, Frederick E. “Ishmael” in Lindsay Jones, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed). New York, NY, USA: MacMillan Reference Books. p. 4551-4552; cp. McAuliffe, Jane Dammen, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of the Qur’an.  Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill Academic Publishers. Ishmael is far older than Isaac in ancient Semitic literature and folklore, and most likely was incorporated into the Abrahamic legends) and Jews who cite Isaac as the father of Jews.  The battle has lasted since Ishmael was cast out into the wilderness because of the jealous of Sara (Genesis 21:8-21). The son whom Abram intended to kill is not named in the Torah, but Muslims claim it was not Isaac but Ishmael who accompanied him into the mountains to be sacrificed to a vengeful god who would sacrifice his own son.

Related links:

The Bible Unearthed  Archeological evidence shows no Jewish control of Palestine.
The Israeli-Palestinian Struggle An well-researched, contemporary historical account (Seattle Times).

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Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Genesis, Old Testament, Torah