Category Archives: Ancient Egypt

Why the Bible is not true: bad translations and worse interpretations

Every religion has its leaders, usually self-appointed guardians of morality who have had some form of indoctrination either by other leaders or by books.  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have the greatest number of illiterates acting as leaders in their respective cults.  The worse offenders are the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox bishops especially in the USA where the new crop are appointed by a marginal scholar, the German-born pope (Josef Ratzinger), and in the land of Slavs by the criminal/cigarette selling billionaire patriarch Kirill of Moscow.  The are joined by the Ayatollahs of Iran whose knowledge of ancient Arabic is minimal (to be as generous as possible) and the illiterate imams in Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Iraq and other Arab nations (but with less lethargy in debates in Egypt and no scholarship prevalent in Somalia, Nigeria or Uganda that merely regurgitates what the current crop of poorly edited Qur’an state and students are required to memorize as if they were successors to Muhammad’s Memorizers).

Cain leads Abel to the field (by James Tissot)

In each of these cults there are accounts, to varying degrees of a rather erotic story that is redefined, reglossed, and redacted into the mythology of two brothers known as Cain and Abel.  Neither existed, but are references to actions.
“Cain” is an old Gaelic word that became Hebrew in time as קַיִן.  It is a word that went from a marginal comment to being incorporated into ancient scripts.  Originally, it meant a rent paid in the form of a subsidy of crops and other agricultural and animal raising enterprises; the crop was usually wheat, but at times corn and various root crops, none of which were special.

Stele of Qadesh in ancient Egypt

It is depicted throughout the history of art as a man bundling wheat or other grains). 

The idea that Cain was a warrior or a man given to battle and murder comes from ancient Celtic legends that made their way south and into Babylonian legends that ultimately flowered in Apiru/Hebrew mythology.

Scot and Irish scribes glossed from marginalia into the corpus of texts. The ancient Hebrew word is Qayin and means “created one”. It has been found in some ancient scrolls and translates as “to rise up” or in ancient Akkadian it means “to strike” with a special antecedent from the earliest Apiru from India who joined the Akkadians as mercenaries in the service and pay of the rulers of Egypt. 

Qadesh Treatise (3000 BCE)

The Akkadian and Egyptian Qayin (הֶבֶל) actually refers to a fertility ritual involving sodomy for both females and males at the instruction of deities (known as Satis, Sati, Amaunet, and Isis, who was a part of all world religions including the faith devoted to Pachamama of Perú) and was a part of the ancient Egyptian Trinity that Constantine I ultimately would refashion into the Christian Trinity) who spoke through their priests.

Ésotérisme Mon étrange pouvoir

It was known as “Ésotérisme Mon étrange pouvoir” that made the priests more valuable than the worshippers. Males were retained in the temple to assure fertility but were subordinate to the female who carried the seed and was the instigator of the act. It is not until much later, with the rise of rabid patriarchy that the male asserts dominance–in part because of the Code of Qadesh (The Rules for Ritual Sodomy in Honor of the Goddess) that they became active but then required the recipient to lay on the ground, leading to the rank and vain plagiarized insertion by Apiru warriors into the Book of Leviticus.

Yahweh’s Wife (on potsherd)

The actual statement in Leviticus is not the rejection of the act but the importance of the act in worshipping and recognizing foreign gods of both genders  (לא יהיה־לך אלהים אחרים על־פני Exodus 20:3, Deuteronomy 5:7) with an overt effort establishes the exclusive nature of the relationship between the emerging nation of Israel and its god, Yahweh (one of the bull gods of ancient Egypt as the God of Israel) by marrying the agricultural deity to the Canaanite goddess of fertility Asherah.

the Lord their God, and served the Baals and Asherahs.- Judges 2:7

While the various writers of Deuteronomy and Leviticus commanded the people “of Israel” to turn from “pagan [country or foreign] gods”, few did.  The majority rejoiced in the old ways and practiced polytheism. The people of Israel did not, reluctantly, embrace monotheism until the Babylonian Captivity. 

the Lord their God, and served the Baals and Asherahs.- Judges 2:7

Part of the confusion is because of a misunderstanding and bad translation of the word Elohim (אֱלֹהִ֔ים that is interchangeable with אלוה and אֱל) all of whom were war lord, murderers, and highly sexual beings.  The Hebrew text uses Elohim for “gods”, a noun that is notably used both as a plural; however, later redactors and revisionists labored at making this plural noun a singular noun (that would be El: אֱל) when it was necessary to speak of the god of Israel (cf. van der Toorn, K.; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem, editors (1999), Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible (revised 2nd edition, Leiden [u.a.]: E. J. Brill, 1999, p. 274, 352-3).  There is no linguistic justification for this absurdity (cp. Mark S. Smith (2008). God in translation: deities in cross-cultural discourse in the biblical world.  vol. 57 of Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Tübingen, Deutschland : Mohr Siebeck, p. 19).  It is but a nationalistic ploy in an effort to unite a divided people of various cultures into one.

Egyptian fertility and love temple of the goddess Hathor at Dendera

What the later Hebrews and early Christians did was to embrace fertility rites but with love added, and commitment required, following the Shema. The Shema and its accompanying blessing/ curse reveals the intent of the commandment to include love for the one, true God and not only recognition or outward observance, as seen graphically in Deuteronomy 6:4-5 (cf. Wylen, Stephen M. (2000). Settings of Silver: an introduction to Judaism.  New York, NY: Paulist Press)  This was even the message of Jesus of the New Testament (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27. Ref. “Shema”, in HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, 1996, Achtemeier Paul J., ed., New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers) and found in the canonical Gospels approved by the Emperor Constantine I before he destroyed the writings of Arius and other Gospels at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.

Cain, by Henri Vidal, Jardin des Tuileries, Paris

What is noteworthy for its absence in this reused tale of the past is that there is no reference to either Cain or Abel wearing clothes (in Arabic, Cain and Abel are always known as the Two Brothers and are cited jointly: ابني آدم, while neither one is mentioned by name).  Clothing was a sign of sin and denial, as seen in the account in Genesis where Adam sewed aprons for himself and Eve (the helpmeet, not helpmate) after they were expelled from the garden.  The absence of information indicates that both males were nude, and their body structure being different, leading Abel to parade arrogantly in front of his brother, as his name

Cain and Abel (by Titan)

indicates, and thus bring jealousy (a sin) into the scenario.  Artists have traditionally captured the two “youth” as nude (naked implies arousal and sinful acts), thus cementing the attack being upon pride, and it could have resulted in Abel’s toying refusal to worship the gods in the manner of the Babylonians (who settled the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that run through Iraq–the center of Eden) who practiced Qadesh (ritual sodomy). 

The vilification of Cain comes only with the writers who composed the various texts (letters or epistle) of Paul  (Saul of Tarsus).  In these cases the writers of the works ascribed to Paul make the landlord of Gan Eden (the garden of Eden) a vengeful, lustful and demanding people (elohim, where the word gods is regulated with temporal leaders who took on the trappings, appearance and

Cain’s offering (word cut 1701, in private collection of author)

title of gods) who played favorites.  This is clearly seen in the “offering”.  While Cain’s gift to the Great Lords was “of the fruit of the ground.” This is a direct reference to the alleged origin of Adam  (Hebrew: אָדָם‎, Arabic: آدم‎, Syriac: ܐܵܕ݂ܵܡ and found in all Abrahamic myths) is a word that translates as “red earth” or “dust” and “dirt” and even “handsome” (Gesenius, Wilhelm & Samuel Prideaux Tregelles (1893). Genenius’s Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. p. xiii.); it also has the meaning of “the one who is closest to the soil being formed from the soil” and thus the recipient of a superior person (Eve) who could induce fertility.  Paulinity, the successor to primitive Christianity, gave the story a different twice: Abel’s sacrifice was “more excellent” (it is found only in Hebrews 11:4; there were numerous questions in the fourth century church created by Constantine as to whether or not Hebrews was even authentic or significant) than Cain’s, and was accepted by God. 

The problem with Cain’s gift, by later redactors and used especially by scandalous sixteenth century scholars passionate for their own interpretations is the fact that Cain’s offering symbolized the resolute debate with the Great Advocate (the serpent: the god of wisdom, that in Babylonian languages and later incorporated into ancient Hebrew as Satan, means Advocate, and one who was favored by the gods in Job 2:1) around the Tree of Knowledge, but never a Snake.  In the earliest days of recorded history, the snake stood for knowledge and useful wisdom.  It was frequently portrayed as a woman, and represented her tongue and vagina.  Later with the advance of patriarchy, the snake became male and represented the tongue and the penis that would enter the celibate, chaste, saved, and enslaved to the gods.  To this end it must be argued that Cain was offering a challenge to the gods (elohim) and debating their monopoly on wisdom and insight, as the deities in Gan Eden were not considered to be at all omniscient (all-knowing), and even

Snake and temptation

omnipotent (all-powerful), nor omnipresent (everywhere). At best the gods were selfish, arrogant, haughty and vengeful, as seen in the repeated verbal ejaculatory exclamations that “vengeance is mine” (Psalm 6:1; Psalm 90:7; Hosea 13:11; Mark 9:43-48; Romans 2:8; Romans 12:19-21; Hebrews 10:30; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9).  In every case the gods are  טהומוס or θεμος (themos) and וגרה (ogre, or dragon δράκοντας), beyond contempt and frightening. If we used the most ancient interpretations of the snake and the offering, it was Abel who attempted to beguile Cain with his tongue, either by singing or using it sexually, and either inviting or rejecting anal penetration.

Hathor giving the breath of life to the pharaoh (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

As for Abel (הבל also pronounced Havel), it is from Hebhel that became Hebrew.  It actually translates as “vanity” but can be translated as “breath” and is indicative of ancient Egyptian deities who “breathed” upon dirt to create life, much in the same manner as the gods of what is today’s Iraq: ancient Babylon.  Abel also translates as “futility”: attempting to take credit for what another did thus arousing jealousy, animosity, and hatred. In the oldest Hebrew Bible, Abel translates as  “elusive” and indicates a tease or toying individual who like to frustrate others deliberately–not exactly god-like qualities nor those of a son of any god or prophet.  It is a better reference point for the myth of the slaughter of the brother.

Abel (Genesis 4:2, 4, 8-9, 25) is called a “righteous” man only in the New Testament (Matthew 23:35). His innocence appears only in a redaction (Luke 11:51).  His gift to the lords or gods of the garden were considered meritorious only in the writings of those who created the letters of Paul (Hebrews 11:4), with the absurd notion that Abel had blood equal to that of the Jesus of the New Testament (Hebrews 12:24) that had curative powers and could eliminate sin from others. None of this appears in the Torah. 

Cain’s death entering the Ark on Abel (MS in author’s private collection)

Modern translators recognize the errors in these definitions, for as I Samuel 6:18 points out, Abel is a word for a great stone on which the Ark landed (Cain, it was thought, through his wife and their descendants, were responsible for the Great Flood, but his death was allowed to enter the Ark so he could suffer so that others could live), or was put around the necks of the accused to sink into deep waters to test the gods judgment on them as to whether or not they were innocent (they would rise above the water) or guilty (they would drown)–a misuse of justice that lasted throughout the Middle Ages and even found its way into Colonial America in the form of the dunking stool.

Cain married sister Luluwa and had children

Abel was killed because of his boasting, bragging, vanity, and selfishness.  When it was first written in cuneiform the story tells us of a braggart that constantly bullied his brother rousing his brother to take his life by stoning.

What people do not know, commonly, is the first actual Biblical record of Cain and Abel and the alleged fratricide does not appear until the first century CE and then is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls (The Dead Sea Scrolls were inspected using infra-red photography and published by Jim R Davila as part of his doctoral dissertation in 1988. See: Davila, Jim R (1988). Unpublished Pentateuchal Manuscripts from Cave IV Qumran: 4QGenExa, 4QGenb-h, j-k. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University). Unfortunately over the years, and with the determination of the first Constantine (emperor of the East), many of the original scrolls were burned in an effort to “purify” Constantine’s newly established “catholic [universal] church”.  (Some scholars argue today that Constantine either had most scrolls with this fable burned or that a few escaped to the Dead Seas by various small communities of chrestianos and christianos.)  To do this required a total rewriting of approved biblical works that the Arian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea did so well years later. There is no mention of “brevity” in Abel in any early scrolls; on the contrary he was seen as a lecherous individual and who enjoyed cuckolding Cain, as an exegete in a Midrash suggests when it was written noting that Abel teased Cain about their marriage to twin sisters, with Abel demanding the most beautiful woman:  Aclima (Brewer, E. Cobham (1978 (reprint of 1894 version) and Cain having vaginal intercourse (the act of marriage) with Luluwa). The Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Edwinstowe, England: Avenel Books. p. 3). 

Contrary to Maggie Gallagher (National Organization for Marriage) and Bryan Fischer (American Family Association), marriage was never between one man and one woman who were not related anywhere in the Bible.  This was common practice in ancient civilizations, and the sexual escapades were popular in more than a few of the tribes thus Abel hastened his own death in keeping with the period of the time to become a “god” (he is referred to as a saint in the early Christian religions, and oddly enough styled a prophet in Islam).

The influence of ancient Egyptian theology, practiced and written thousands of years before any Hebrew writing, brings strong bearing on the Cain and Abel myth.  According to Coptic Christianity (that was far older than either Roman Catholicism or Greek Orthodoxy, the latter two not being established until 325 CE, while Coptic Christianity actually can be dated to 100 BCE or

Part of Matthew 17-18 on a Coptic scroll

later) and the Coptic Book of Adam and Eve (2:1-15), and the Syriac Cave of Treasures, Abel’s body was placed within the cave after many days of mourning.  Most of the important Christian writings were preserved by the Coptics, despite repeated efforts of Roman Emperors, patriarchs and popes to have them destroyed.

The first parents, Adam and Eve, along with their descendants (detailed briefly in Genesis 5), offered their prayers over the unblemished and perfectly maintained cadaver of Cain whom everyone kissed from head to foot. The Sethite line of the Generations of Adam swear by Abel’s blood to

“The First Mourners” [Adam and Eve] by William Bourguereau

segregate themselves from the unrighteous, but there is no record of any blood being retrieved but only that it went into the soil (Genesis 4:10, redacted in Hebrews 12:24) but in much the same way as the blood that went to the goddess Maat attempted to summon justice.

In the extra-biblical Book of Enoch (22:7), one not sanctioned by Constantine I at Nicaea or anywhere else, the soul of Abel is described as having been appointed as the chief of martyrs.  These martyrs were neither witnesses nor saints, but zombies crying for vengeance and demanding the destruction of the seed of Cain (on zombies in the Bible, read Zechariah 14:12, Ezekiel 37: 1-14, Isaiah 26: 19-20, Deuteronomy 22:4-8, Matthew 12:11; 17:7; 27:51-53; Luke 1:69, etc.). This view is repeated in the Testament of Abraham (A:13 / B:11), where Abel has been raised to the position as the judge of the souls. It is of ancient Egyptian origin in the manner of the chief god of the Trinity: the Lord Osiris, known as Lord of Lords, King of Kings, and most importantly: God of gods (a common claim

Zombies in the Bible (and Jesus)

made by religious that claim to be superior to others or who have the only way, but here it was the pharaoh who was also murdered by his brother: the god Seth.  Seth cut him into fourteen pieces and scattered them to the winds.  Osiris’ sister-wife (much like the sister-wife Sarah joined with Abram/ Abraham) ultimately found all fourteen pieces and bound them up thereby creating mummification (but only after impregnating herself with Osiris penis (that had to be rescued from the stomach of a crocodile) so that she could give birth to a savior son: Horus (text is in the Egyptian Book of the Dead)

3 Comments

Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Church history, Genesis, Language, Old Testament

Inventing Christianity

The words Jesus (Latin: Iesus; Hebrew: ישוע; Arabic: عيسى‎ Isa; Greek: Ἰησοῦς Iēsous born c. 7-2 BC/BCE and died c. 30–36 AD/CE) and Christ (ancient Greek: Χριστός, Khristós, meaning ‘anointed’ as a king; (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, ; Aramaic: משיחא, Greek: Μεσσίας,  Arabic: المسيح‎, al-Masīḥ, Latin: Messias. It is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Māšîah), for Messiah) only of late became the name of a man recorded in the Christian New Testament.  Christ was a given title, not a last name.

Originally, the word Messiah had two meanings: warrior and final prophet. They are not the same nor do they mean the same thing.  The title Christ was never used by the man Jesus in the New Testament.  It has always been used by others: e.g. Matthew 1:1, 1:18; Mark 1:1; John 1:17; 17:3; 9:22; Mark 9:40; Luke 2:11; 22:2. As a title it was bestowed on the New Testament Jesus by Peter, a non-relative and a rather minor disciple, in Luke 9:20.

The engraving reads DIA CHRSTOU O GOISTAIS. It is interpreted to mean either “by Christ the magician” or “the magician by Christ”. Bowl c. 200 BCE.

We have actual artifacts that the word Christ appeared at least by 200 BCE and was always accompanied by the message “the magician” and was the leader of a group of wise men and a conjurer of White Magic. The 200 BCE bowl has numerous subsequent bowls that are found as late as 100 CE, and in each they are associated with a magician titled The Christ and used for magical ceremonies.

The bowl, recently found, is very similar to one depicted on or with two early Egyptian earthenware statuettes that are thought to show a soothsaying ritual.  This ritual was common around 3000 BCE and sometimes included the drinking of blood, but generally was used to hold wine that all soothsayers shared as a “common cup”.  The bowl is not that old, and there are many problems with its too-clear inscription after being under water for 2000 years: it does not show the wear of time.  Der Spiegel noted in an article, that Chrestos  was a rather popular Greek name at that time: “Chrestos war in Griechenland ein gebräuchlicher männlicher Vorname”, erklärt der Historiker Manfred Clauss aus Frankfurt am Main, “das muss nichts mit Jesus zu tun haben.”  It would have nothing to do with a New Testament Jesus, for the translation is: “Chrestos was commonly a man’s given name in Greece,” explains the historian Manfred Clauss of Frankfurt am Main. “That need not have anything to do with Jesus.”  In this instance, the name Jesus would be more of a name used in soothsaying or some magical ritual, such as attempting to raise the dead (singularly or as a group).

It is a weak argument to say that chrestianos and christianos are interchangeable, as Tertullian registered disappointment, if not anger, when he was called a chrestianos. Tertullian was abrupt when he reiterated that he is a “Christian” not a “Chrestian.” (Tertullian, Nat. 1.3.8-9).

The engraving might be a dedication, or present, made by certain a “Chrestos“: a group that became popular in Rome, migrating from Alexandria during the reign of Julius Cesar. They were primarily a passive people, and entered Rome with a firm belief in an afterlife that included respect for the dead by burying each person under a headstone. 

This headstone translates as:

“D.M.” (is an abbreviation of “Diis Manibus”)
“to the gods of theunderworld”
[The following text is difficult to interpret as it is missing “essential” words, and requires an interpretation of  M. (and) T. that would mean]
father/fathers of Drusus, dedicate the tomb to his/their first born son
who lived for 42 years and seven days
and Faustus, the son/slave/freedman of Antonia
the daughter/wife of Drusus, bought the right for the urn [with cremation ashes] to be putin a certain columbarium or other burial place from Jucundus, the Chrestian.

(Lodovico Antonio Muratori (1739-1742).  Novus Thesaurus Veterum Inscriptionum, Vol III. Class. XXIII, Mediolani (Milan), p. 1668, no. 6. Rendered here after Manni, Gaetano, Principi della religion cristiana in Firenze :appoggiati a’ più validi monumenti o si dica monumenti appartenenti alla medesima religione, 1764, p. 3).

This is unlike the militant christianos who argued for a warrior god who would cleanse the world.  It is based on the marginalia of Matthew 10:34 that would be later incorporated into the gospel.  It has been suggested that it belongs to a possible religious association called Ogoistais, but the term or name christianos does not appear anywhere before the reign of Nero who wrongfully has been indicted for supposedly accusing (approximately 64 CE), the Chrestianos of starting the fire that “burned [the wooden ghettos of] Rome, but then it was a perjorative word (1 Peter 4:16).

Chaldees – map of modern day Iraq with Ur of the Chaldees pointed out (where Noah and Abraham allegedly came before invading Canaan)

The word “Ogoistais” could be connected to known religious groups that worshipped early Greek and Egyptian gods and goddesses, such as Hermes, Athena and Isis.  Isis was a popular deity throughout the Roman world, and is at times related to or synonymous with Asherah, Astarte, and other deities. Her devotion was part of the word that Hittite mercenaries, known as IS-RA-EL-ites, later used to distinguish themselves from other mercenaries as they were a more violent group most coming from the Chaldees (Iraq from which the mythological figures of Abraham and Noah come in quest of conquering Canaan–the reason for Noah’s infamous curse) and parts of India.  There are numerous records of ancient Jews being warrior mercenaries throughout Egypt, numbering more than 30,000 at the time of Ptolemy I (Ludovici Mendelssohn schedis usus edidit Paulus Wendland (1900). Aristeae ad Philocratem Epistola etc.  (Leipzig, Deutschland: Teubner  § 13)

If it is a part of another cult, then the “word” could actually be a mélecture for ὁ γεύστης, “the one who tasted”? This would preclude it being salted, or a disk that would come from a “pot” but would rather be a ceremonial cup from which one would sample wine. Much of the wine would be “new wine” and invites a remembrance of the myth of the drunken state of Noah and Lot, both of whom were intoxicated and had sex in defiance of their own prohibitions.

Noah is drunk on new wine and naked

Noah is accused in the Bible of being drunk on wine and cursing Canaan (his grandson) without giving a reason, but most likely it was because of masturbation that stopped further fathering of warriors at that time, as the Bible clearly states that Noah was drunk, which later Apiru (Hebrews) would declare to be the “sin” of seeing a parent naked (Genesis 9:20-27: ). In the original text the word is used as exposing his genitals, and naked means arouse and passion; nude, on the other hand, is a state of being, as with a child and denotes innocense, purity, and union with the divine). 

Lot commits incest with his daughters (Genesis 19)

It is also from this place that Lot and Abraham come.  Lot is an unwelcomed guest in the city of Sodom and refuses to register with the city council strangers who sneak into the town while the community was at war.  Lot leaves with his two daughters and travels to another City of the Plain (Zoar) where he is equally unwelcomed and flees to a cave in the surrounding mountains.  In the cave Lot falls drunk on new wine and then commits incest with his two of his four daughters “so that they preserved his seed within them” (Genesis 19:36).  The two who were married stayed in Sodom and perished with their bridegrooms, indicating rather recent and even hurried marriages since foreigners (the daughters) were suspected of treason and passing secrets to the enemy (Gen. Rabbah 50:9; פרקי רבי אליעזר : מהדורה מדעית Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer, ed. Higger, Michael, and Horowitz Chaim M.  בית המדרש למורים של ישיבת ר’ יצחק אלחנן, New York : Horev, 704-708 [1944-1948] chap. 25).  Lot was considered the evil one.  According to the midrash (Tanhuma, Vayera 12), Lot, from the moment he moved into the city, in fact before that when he told his uncle Abraham that he wanted to move to the city, Lot was determined to dwell in Sodom because he wanted to engage in the licentious behavior of its inhabitants: drinking excessively, engaging in gluttony, ignoring the poor, and so forth (Ezekiel 16:49). His self-righteous, ego-centric and barbaric behavior becomes clear when the townspeople mill about his door, demanding that he hand over the angels.  Instead of doing what Jewish law and custom required, Lot offers his daughters to the mob. The Rabbis observe that a man usually allows himself to be killed in order to save his wife and children, while Lot was willing to allow the townspeople to abuse his daughters.  It is for this reason that the gods of Lot told Lot: By your life, the improper act that you intended to be done to your daughters will indeed be committed, but to you.  Nowhere in the original scrolls is Lot defended for protecting the messengers, nor does it use in any instance the sentence of homosexuality. It shows that Lot was totally depraved and beyond true redemption.  In another midrash (אגדת בראשית : מדרש אגדה על ספר בראשית ריכא (רב) … midrash agadah ʻal sefer Bereshit meyuḥas leha-tana Aba Arikha[ed. Buber, Salomon; מנורה, מכון למחקר ולהוצאת כתבי־יד וספרים עתיקים, New York : Menorah, Makhon le-mehkar ule-hotsaʼat kitve-yad u-sefarim ʻatikim, 719 [1959] 25:1) regards the daughters’ act as punishment for their father’s own sexual promiscuity.

It is not surprising that later Rabbis praised the two daughters who seduced their father, as they were “preserving his seed” and the future of Judaism (Pesikta Rabbati 42). This was common in those days, as civilization depended on children to become fighters and preserve the “houses” (states) that existed.  Another part of the story shows that Genesis was written without consideration of the Laws of Moses in Leviticus, as there is no condemnation of nudity nor of seeing one’s father naked (Leviticus 18:6-18).

The legend of Lot indicates a less sophisticated group who observed rituals and rites but not in the manner intended.  Devotees would have sipped wine and “tasted it” with the injunction “taste from this cup that is the blood of the deity” and it would limited to “true believers” who would “taste it” but not drink it as with the chrestianos in Alexandria.

Idrimi, king of the Hapiru

Guzzling wine and drinking blood has been the description of a blood-thirsty group was known as Apiru (or Habiru, an Egyptian word the sprung from pr.w).  was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dating between 1800 BCE and 1100 BCE).  It is a reference to a group of people living as nomadic invaders in areas of the Fertile Crescent from Northeastern Mesopotamia and Iran (ancient Persia) to the borders of Egypt in Canaan and was the land fought over, plundered, and its villages destroyed by Abraham and Lot.

Cuneiform of Sumerian SA.GAZ and corresponding West Semitic ha-bi-ru

The Hittite forces called the IS[is]-Ra-El-ites after the goddess, the god of the sun, and the Lord over the family who was a minor god. The Apiru came from Sumeria or other parts bordering on the Fertile Crescent and are designated by a two-character cuneiform logogram transcribed as SA.GAZ that translates as ‘murderer, robber’, literally ‘one who smashes sinews’, is an original Sumerian nominal compound attested as early as ca. 2500 BC. It is later equated with Akkadian habbātu ‘plunderer, bandit’ and šaggāšu ‘murderer’ and are identified with the mythological judge known as Lot in Genesis.  AS a group, are recorded in letters written by Canaanite scribes who had mastered the art of cuneiform-based characters or letters of the Akkadian language.  

Scribes noted that Akkadian leaders complained about attacks by armed groups willing to fight and plunder for anyone who would given them war equipment including shields, swords, and sabers, food and drink provisions, and places where they could rest and quarter their lifestock.  A second devious trick of the Apiru was for chieftains to sell of their wives as prostitutes (Genesis 12:10-20 and Genesis 20:1-7) and then reclaim them saying that their gods were offended; Abraham was a liar, pimp, and sacreligious at best, but in reality it is a story of no less than three men on a mission to establish a new kingdom and rule over it when they had sufficient people, Apiru, to conquer established cities and take control.

Apiru in hieroglyphs

Apiru were known as common thieves, their reputation advanced even by Egyptian pharaohs, such as Thutmose III. Amenhotep II boasted of capturing 89,600 people, of which 3,600 were Apiru, in his campaign in Canaan in 1420 BCE.

The Apiru were quick to take to magic rituals and employed “cups” to hold “the source of life”: usually blood or sperm that was consumed in “sacrifice to the gods of old”: the elohim (a plural noun that would be incorporated into the Hebrew language and theology: אֱלֹהִ֔ים).  Ultimately the “source of life” became a ritual drinking of wine, with “new wine” reserved for leaders and gods.

Ancient Roman theater in the modern city of Alexandria, Egypt

The fact that the bowl was found at Alexandria in Egypt is significant. Alexandria was a cosmopolitan center where new and different faiths were always appearing while older faiths and religions were fading fast.  Alexandria was a religious entreport, where faiths were constructed as rapidly as they appear and disappear on the universal landscape.  Each faith claimed to be unique. Each religion was pure fraud, fashioned to make the priests and preachers rich at the expense of the poor, the miserable, the tired, who hoped for a better life–at least in the world to come. 

The sole purpose of religions in Alexandria was to propose solutions to the problem of mortalkind, to offer a fleeting fancy of what might be but never had been.  The mystery religions that rose faster than any Pentecostal group anywhere in the world offered a strangeness that was inviting and yet terrifying.  It was a proto-Adventist colony looking for the return of any number of crucified saviors, a world that held many mysteries that could not be answered as education was denied.  Education was only for a privileged few and not for the masses.  If the laborers learned that they were being fooled into thinking that there was some being who  truly looked after them but did not exist, the masses would rise up and throw off its predatory prelates prattling while dining on the fatted meats sacrificed to the gods (cp. 1 Corinthians 8:1). 

The pontiffs of the ancient world were, without exception, claiming that the mysteries that true science could explain, such as earthquakes, storms, locust infestations, and more were the work of some god or goddess (both in singular and plural form). Myths like burning coals dropping from heaven, rivers running red with blood, and other curses were created for the gullible and enrichment of the priestly class (cp. Exodus 7:9, 8:2-4, 16 ff that can all be explained through natural science and the result of global warming) .

Education in the ancient world, universally, was weak at best, and was not meant nor permitted for everyone to experience.  Religion presumed to have the answers to all questions asked and not asked.  These magical answers were guarded by a self-serving priestly class that infected the thinking of many while robbing the poor for their “daily needs”.  

Jesus: High Priest-King

Those who controlled the people were called priests or kings.  Many had dual hierarchy being priest-kings who controlled religion and politics and some even proclaimed themselves professors (teachers) of science (with ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians arguing that the earth was flat as did Thallas and other Greeks, according to Aristotle (Burch, George Bosworth (1954). “The Counter-Earth”. Osirus (Saint Catherines Press) 11 (1): 267–294; cp. Rawlinson, George (1886).  Ancient Egypt. London: T. Fisher Unwin, pp. 288-297).  The Greek King installed on the Egyptian throne, Ptolemy and others, taught that the sun moved around the earth: Lawson, Russell M. (2004). Science in the ancient world: an encyclopedia. New York: NY: ABC-CLIO. pp. 29–30) and mathematics and philosophy but for the elevation and pseudo-intellectualism of an elite or royal class, for education was to advance fortunes not minds. Rote memorization was imperative for indoctrination; education was not meant to spur the conduct of inquiry as the city of Athens demanded when it called on Socrates to commit suicide matching any Christian family that attacks its members as being “different” or “queer” or “not Christian” leaving the attacked the singular option of suicide to escape their Christian or Mormon family’s bullying “in the name of Christ”.

The primary purpose of education was primitive: it was to indoctrinate not educate.  All but the rulers were to follow unquestioning the dictates of kings and priests, whatever was commanded.  It is the very heart of the word “islam” (الإسلام‎  an active participle) that enjoins all to total submission.

All civilizations held the belief that their deity or his profit if it was paternalistic and patriarchal would be sacrificed so that they might live (either in this world or the next, and from it came the invention of an afterlife).

The cults of Isis, mysteries of Mithra, Krishna in India, and early Christianity bear witness to this as each had a crucified savior who journeyed with a special discipleship of twelve (each member actually representing a sign in the constellation as the magi were star-gazers seeking out messages and answers for what was not know) to spread “the news” of regeneration, resurrection or ascension. Each enlightened leader would end up being sacrificed for the presumed transgressions of the people or world.  This was promised in the performance of a ritual requiring the eating of some form of bread and drinking from the cup or bowl that held the “fluid of life”.

The problem is with the inscription on the bowl that was found in Alexandria.  Many fervent Christians today argue that it stands for Jesus Christ, seeking any form of “biblical [a book that means “book” of any religion that is considered scripture] archaeology” that would confirm their beliefs.  The faithful, the gullible read into the inscription “DIA CHRSTOU O GOISTAIS,” but that is in error.  There are no spaces in ancient Greek.

Christ in ancient Greek was normally spelled XRICTOC.  There are a few inscriptions where H is used. However, XPHCTOC is also an adjective meaning ‘excellent’, ‘meek’, ‘useful’, ‘noble’. It is the antecedent for Chrestos and for his following Chrestianos.  The Christ who was meek and mild, who invited little children to come to him, who had time for the weak and weary, the homeless and destitute, those who knew hunger or thirst, would not be the Christ of the church when it was created by the Emperor Constantine.  This patient and tender Christ was added only as a reference point to give hope to the huddled masses, not as a real person but as a good story, to be replaced with the vengeful, hate-filled Jesus of Paul–a god only an emperor and warrior bishops could appreciate when they stood to gain armies and coin of the realm to build luxury churches and abodes while the poor suffered.

These facts, alone, significantly increases the number of interpretations of the inscription, as the O GOISTAIS may be a secret code for GOHC.  GOHC means “charlatan” or “magician”, and are more in keeping with the Christos than the Chrestos.  It refers, possibly, to a thief who cursed the magician (Christ) before his death–which would make sense grammatically as found in the phrase Gestas, through Christ [was saved or damned]; while some claim that the saved and repentent thief was Dismis, there is no record of the non-repentant thief in the imperially sanctioned canon being restored or taken to a special place of forgiveness and cleansing, but we still do not have all of the gospels and other writings that Constantine sent to the flames in fear that their content would lessen the faith, and more importantly the obedience, of the masses that he redefined as christianos.  We do have the total Nag Hammadi scrolls or others still secreted in large earthen jars safely buried in the hills.  They would be too controversial and too much like the exposure of the popes Innocent I-XIII who had little to offer but much to take.

The fact that the bowl was not made from any precious metal (gold or copper, and so forth) indicates that it was used by a small and impoverished community of magicians who had it created for one of two purposes.  First, it was in this earthen bowl that special elixirs were concocted and mixed with wine to symbolize blood.  To drink the potion would bring, it was hoped, the promise of eternal life. Second, the other possibility was that the bowl was created for a poor community that found poverty especially powerful when communicating with the gods who looked upon mortals as being made of clay or earth and thus creating a link between the two, especially if it contained some form of native hallucinogenic drug.  Thus the Christos would proclaim, “Blessed are the poor” (Matthew 5:3), and continues to this day among Christians, who followed their ancient ancestors in hatred and venomous insults  especially within the Roman Catholic Church and its Hitleresque attack on Liberation Theology (read here and here where the Roman Catholic Church under the mismanagement of Opus Dei  Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne is destroying the nation of Peru), but that was not that way with Chrestos or chrestianos.

Jeweled chalice

The fact that the bowl was not fashioned from special substances or ornamentation shows that it was not used in mainline religious functions by more popular theologies, as compared with the jewel-encrusted cups found in today’s Orthodox, Catholic or some Protestant services. This gives a greater definition of the two groups in Rome: the chrestianos and the christianos.

The chrestianos came long before there were christianos.  Chrestianos were an ancient people from Alexandria, Egypt, and were a people identified by the name based on their action.  Originally they were a cosmopolitan class of people that included members from various parts of the world when the Roman Empire was founded.  While legend has Rome founded on April 21, 753 BCE by twin brothers Romulus and Remus.  Legends has it that they were born in 771 BCE and had a life similar to Cain and Abel.  Romulus killed Remus after a quarrel, with Romulus being the first King of Rome. As King of Rome, Romulus created the foundation for what would be the Roman Empire, with Cesar Augustus being considered the first Roman emperor of what then was considered a republic in 27 BCE. 

The Chrestianos were passive, caring, and considerate—the reasons for their downfall, as they became slaves (another definition of chrestianos) until sufficient time and abuse (especially by christianos) brought them to rebellion. It was the Christianos who were the violent, hot-tempered, self-righteous Pentecostalists who were determined to convert the world by force, intrigue and lies.

The word Chrestianos is a derivative of the adjective Chrestos. It is indicative, by definition of “that which is fit for use” and means “good”, “kindly”, “generous, “mild” and “pleasant”—the attributes that their leader Chrestos had and the message he delivered to those who would accept the rule of a secular prince or Cesar, “by rendering to Cesar that which belonged to Cesar, and to god that which belonged to god”.  It is the word that the Hellenic Greeks used for their slaves who were “service oriented” or were “profitable” to their masters, and is copied in Romans 2:4: ἡ τοῦ πλούτου τῆς χρηστότητος αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀνοχῆς καὶ τῆς μακροθυμίας καταφρονεῖς, ἀγνοῶν ὅτι τὸ χρηστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς μετάνοιαν σε ἄγει to denote goodness (καλοσύνη), closely related to katachraomi: meaning to “use to the fullest extent.” 

Metropolitan Bishop Nikolai of Plovdiv, Representative of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

The authors of “Paul” were determined to keep the chrestianos subservient to meet their needs and desires much the same way that the unholy Inquisition of the Middle Ages and the unholy Synods in the East (Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece) are determined to wear golden miters and carry jeweled crosses on their chests as they roar out condemnation and curse those they find wanting, demanding that they be stoned to death as is so common in Bulgaria in the Mephistophelean metropolitan Plovdiv Bishop Nikolai who deliberately lied and added yet another falsehood to the Bible when he proclaimed: “The task of the Orthodox Church assigned by our God Jesus Christ himself, is to protect the moral and ethical principles of scripture”. More vicious and vitriolic than Nikolai  is Father Evgeni Yanakiev from the town of Sliven and a member of the unholy Synod of Bulgaria. 

Benedict XVI (2012)

While the Jesus of the New Testament wore the poorest clothing (Luke 9:58 f), and John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל) lived nude as there was no church to tend to any physical needs, the priests and bishops from the days of Constantine I wore raiment shot with gold and sewn with precious stones from 325 CE to this day.  Cnstantine’s “catholic [universal] church” became the richest institution in the known world, with abbeys and monasteries and churches laying mortmain (dead hand) and frankalmoin (gifts to god; cf. Henrici Bracton, De Legibus et Consuetudinibus, cp. Kirkalfy, A. K. R. (1962).Potter’s Historical Introduction to English Law and Its Institutions. London: Sweet and Maxwell, p. 212) over the worldly goods of those who died “in the faith” and remains in control of the coffers of people and nations (read here and  here and here).

Chrestos has nothing in common with Christos.  The latter is translated and defined as “one who has been anointed or smeared with chrisma that is a psychotropic unguent reserved for kings and people of special hierarchical rank.  The original inclusion of Chrestos in the scrolls was a statement that Jesus was a slave to his father (Mark 14:35-36 35, Matthew 26:39, 42, Luke 22:42; the original source is the Gospel of Mark, the oldest gospel), and not a king (Mark 15:2, Luke 23:3, which Jesus of the New Testament never claimed), but subjected individual will to one higher (not equal to as Constantine I pushed through his obliging bishops in their creation of the fabricated  Abaddon Nicene Creed).  The role of Constantine I was well known among his subjects: that he would be emperor-pontiff- priest and god (cf. Paul Stephenson (2009). Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor. Chapter 11 notes:  The Emperor established and enforced orthodoxy for domestic tranquility and the efficacy of prayers in support of the empire).

It is easy to find a reference to the Chrestianos even in the forgery of Titus 3:1-4: Ὑπομίμνησκε αὐτοὺς ἀρχαῖς ἐξουσίαις ὑποτάσσεσθαι, πειθαρχεῖν, πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἑτοίμους εἶναι, 2μηδένα βλασφημεῖν, ἀμάχους εἶναι, ἐπιεικεῖς, πᾶσαν ἐνδεικνυμένους πραΰτητα πρὸς πάντας ἀνθρώπους. 3Ἦμεν γὰρ ποτε καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀνόητοι, ἀπειθεῖς. πλανώμενοι, δουλεύοντες ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ ἠδοναῖς ποικίλαις, ἐν κακίᾳ καὶ φθόνῳ διάγοντες στυγητοί, μισοῦντες ἀλλήλους. 4ὅτε δὲ ἡ χρηστότης καὶ ἡ φιλανθρωπία ἐπεφάνη τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν θεοῦ, where the various redactors use the word chreia (χρηστότης)in the form or meaning of “good works” in keeping with the chrestianos.  The passage reads “all our people are to learn to occupy themselves in doing good works for their practical needs”: to be “good slaves who are useful to the community.” This is furthered in 2 Timothy 2:14f, where to be “saved” a person must prove to be “profitable” to the community: “There is to be no wrangling about words: all that this ever profits is the destruction of those who are listening. Do all you can to present yourself … as a man who has no cause to be ashamed of his work … Have nothing to do with pointless philosophical discussions…” as that would be outside of blind faith—but one that the later church of Constantine would give permission to follow in their “teachings”.  Augustine of Hippo the frequent visitors to whores by whom he had a bastard he called Adeodatus, by this definition, was a heretic, as he was not following the rubric that to be saved, one had to remain silent, work hard and never think for oneself.

The chrestianos devolution comes with the invention of Paul and the release of the group-work Letters to the Corinthians, especially as seen in I Corinthians 9:12.  The writers of Corinthians are blunt in stating that they have “sown spiritual things” and would “harvest your spiritual things”.  This theft from the people is what led to the uprising of the Alexandrian chrestianos, the burning of the wooden huts in Rome, and the attack on the nobility and the presbyters who were using religion to enrich themselves. It was equal to the Greek masters ordering slaves to work, then harvest, and sell it for the enrichment of the owner (the future church that within one hundred years following its official creation by the Emperor in 325) is one of the richest institutions on the planet while the people fall deeper into debt and peonage until they have to beg for slop and remains from the fattened clergy as their bishops build monstrous churches, basilicas, monasteries, etc. that house their god like the ancient temples housed their deities as the poor lived in thatched huts that were burned in sport by rogue illiterate nobility. Their sole claim to any respect was having their name changed to christianos: bound slaves to a leader of fiction to justify the existence of a church that was birthed from a foul womb of faith. 

11th century forgery of Tacitus’ “Annals”

It was the chrestianos who Tacitus was referring to in his Annals Book XV (the earliest known extant manuscript of Tacitus was not written until the 11th century CE at the monastery of Monte Cassino; it is kept in the Laurentian Library (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana).  Medieval forgeries have the chrestianos changed into christianos in an effort to proclaim a group following the traditional Jesus of the New Testament, but this a Latinized koine Greek word with a meaning and etymology wholly separate from Christianoi. The fabrication is seen in this line auctor nominis eius Christus Tiberio imperitante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatum supplicio adfectus erat…Christus, which is to be translated as from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus

The gross inaccuracy lies in the mention of Pilate as ‘procurator,’ when in fact Pilate was prefect of Judea. Tacitus himself had risen through the magisterial ranks to the status of proconsul, and therefore would have had a precise knowledge of the proper terminology as well as the succession of administrators.  Even more absurd is that none of the early Christian writers, as later redacted and/or defined by the apologists make any mention of Tacitus.

Tacitus, Annales, XV.44 with marginalia

Tacitus refers to the chrestianos, not the christianos in his Annals XV:44 as being the vandals who set fire to Rome, and for their arson suffered numerous indignities and ultimate death.  While references to Tacitus blog the church from the eleventh century to the present (with a rare citation from the eighth century redaction by zealous monks eager to improve on the original text and to give strength to their religious convictions), references to Tacitus’ claims of christianos do not appear before the eighth century CE, another clue as to their late creation.

Tacitus originally wrote “chrestianos” as can be seen with the erasure.

The obvious forgery that has not eluded any serious scholar of the Tacitus manuscript is in the erasure of the original ‘eta’ in Chrestianos and the differently-inked ‘íota’ has rather noticeable counterparts elsewhere in the literature of early Christianity. This was the appraisal of then-director of the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana Dr. Teresa Lodi, who wrote «The “e”, written originally, of which there are still signs left at the erased area [Italian: rasura], was changed into “i” taking out the upper circle and the horizontal line, while the remaining part was corrected, in my opinion, with the same ink and the same hand, towards an “i”. Another hand added the dot above the “i” and the hyphen between “i” and “s”». Dr. Ida Giovanna Rao, head of the manuscript office (Responsabile Ufficio Manoscritti) at Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana concurred, noting: «with a great effort [Italian: “con molta fatica”] it is possible to hypothesize that there was an “e” under the actual “i”, because the correction is really very clean and the only real pieces of circumstantial evidence—and not proofs—are the apex on the “i” and the hyphen linking “chri” with “stianos”, drawn with a less dark ink, identical to the one that makes the marginal correction [which is rather a bookmark, she says] “Christiani”, beyond to the “i”, which is overdrawn and darker than the other letters, in which the ink in general is more vanished.» She adds (in English): «By “con molta fatica” I mean that the correction was made with accuracy, so that it is not “visible a prima vista” [at first glance] but only if one looks exactly.»

Codex Sinaiticus (divided into four institutions) c. late fourth century

This is especially true in the Codex Sinaiticus, the world’s oldest extant manuscript of the alleged Christian ‘Holy Bible,’ handwritten in Egypt in the fourth century and contains three closely identical and equally obvious forgeries.  Nearly all of these forgeries occur around or immediately after the Emperor Constantine I of the Eastern Roman Empire called his bad of cutthroat bishops to his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.  It was then that the Emperor, not any bishop, had the assembly proclaim that the Jesus of the New Testament was the “son of god”—an ancient title reserved for Horus of Egypt who was born to Isis and Osiris.

The term, name or title Christianos is of recent invention.   The invention of Christian/Christians is used only three times in theNew Testament – twice in the Acts of the Apostles, and once in the First Epistle of Peter.  Both are forgeries.  In Acts 11:26 it is printed: “in Antioch the disciples were first called Christians.”  In the oldest copies of these references, Acts 11:26 and 26:28, 1 Peter 4:16. In the earliest extant complete bible, Codex Sinaiticus (fourth century), the Greek words are even spelled out in the customary way, i.e. Chrestian/Chrestians that were hastily and clumsily reprinted Christian/Christians.  Acts 26:27 is unaceptable as it is an insertion as noting the speech of Paul by his “intimate friend” Luke.  Peter 4:16 “Christian” is used as a perjeroative and the writers of Peter use it to shore up the resolve of the faithful to persevere in the faith.

1 Peter 4:16 (forgery)

The invention of Christianos in the Bible is most easily seen in 1 Peter 4:16. The text, however, does not follow closely, and can be erased by a careful reading and studying of the original text of Acts 11:26.

Acts 11:26 (forgery)

Jesus is a shortening for the word Joshua: a nickname.  At the time that Jesus allegedly lived and died, the name Jesus was extraordinarily common.  It is true that there are numerous prophecies about a Messiah, but this warrior chief is never named.  An historical Jesus is almost impossible to find in any historical record. 

The established Church (the see at Constantinople that falsely claimed precedence over the one at Jerusalem and the other at Antioch) created the myth of a “forever virgin” Mary whereas in the original scrolls the word παρθενικός merely means “young girl” or “maiden” from the Hebrew word ‘almah that is taken from Isaiah 7:14 and means only that the maidenhead (the hymen) was broken and natural sperm entered to fertilize a released egg (ova).  The Biblical Greek παρθένα became Παρθένος (parthenos)is incorrect and was pushed in the Septuagint (of LXX) by the Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian Orthodox communities without any legitimate support; it was followed by numerous editions until it was corrected in the Revised Standard Version.  Her “perpetual virginity” or Mary being “ever virgin” (Ancient Greek: ἀειπαρθένος  aeiparthenos) that is held by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and numerous Protestant churches and their original leaders (Calvin as noted on Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1882). Extraits des manuaux du Conseil d Lausanne, 1512 á 1536, Publiés et annotés par Ernest Chavannes p. 426, but in the end neither supported it nor rejected it as recorded in McKim, Donald K. and Wright, David F. (1992) Encyclopedia of the Reformed faith. Louisville, KY, USA: Westminster/John Knox Press; Edinburgh, Scotland: Saint Andrew Press, page 237; Zwingli was more emphatic: Zwingli, Ulrich; Egli, Emil; Finsler, Georg; Zwingli-Verein, Georg; Zürich (1905). “Eini Predigt von der ewig reinen Magd Maria.” (in German). Huldreich Zwinglis sämtliche Werke. 1. Berlin, Germany: C. A. Schwetschke und Sohn. p. 385; Luther as found in Pelikan, Jaroslav and Lehmann, Helmut T., eds. (1955). Luther’s Works (Philadelphia, PA, USA: Fortress Press, Vol. 43, p. 212); John Wesley as described by Coulter, A. C. (1964). John Wesley.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press, p. 496) and Zwingli) is plain fraud, as is her exaltation into heaven nothing less than a plagiarism from ancient Egyptian theology that has Isis (known throughout Egypt as “Queen of Heaven”) rising to the sky to have the moon beneath her feet and stars above her head; for historical older antecedents, read here; for sacred texts read here).   

The first mention that Mary was “ever virgin” does not appear before 374 CE, in the apologetics of Epiphanius. Mary had numerous children, by no less than two husbands (there is no historical nor Biblical proof that Joseph was an old man; cf. Tabor, James D. (2006). The Jesus Dynasty. New York, NY, USA: Simon & Schuster, pp. 65 ff) with Jesus’ brothers even acknowledged by the church historian Eusebius (Church History, II:23, III:19 relying, in part on John 2:12 patterned after Mark 3:31-32 and confirmed in Acts 1:14, cp. Mark 15:47, 16:1, cf. 6:3). 

The account of Jesus in the New Testament is not the record preached by contemporary Christians of any affirmation, and distinctly not that of Pentecostals, Adventists, Southern Baptists or most evangelical extremists, Orthodox or Catholics of any branch.  The New Testament Jesus dies one week before Passover, not the week of Passover.  The original scroll of Luke (22:14-16) states that “I earnestly wanted to eat this Passover with you before I suffer but I won’t eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”  A copyist inserted the word “again”—a word that appears nowhere in the early records.  To argue that Jesus died during the Holy Week is not only bad scholarship, poor translation and inadequate interpretation, but shows the total lack of biblical knowledge of the history of the time, place, and political factors. This is buttressed by the comment that Jesus shared “a loaf of bread” (άρτοςor atros: ordinary bread that contains “leaven” or yeast) with his disciples, and not the bread of Passover.  The bread of Passover is quite different.  Passover bread is unleavened flat bread (matzos).  Matzos can be “broken”, but atros bread must be torn or cut. 

The absurdity of today’s translations have more in common with the character of Paul and nothing in common with the Jesus of the New Testament.  Paul mentions in 1 Corinthians 11:23: Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὁ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ρτον. Cp. The Bulgarian: Защото аз от Господа приех това, което ви и предадох, че Господ Исус през нощта, когато беше предаден, взе хляб, ref. the Romanian: Căci am primit dela Domnul ce v’am învăţat; şi anume că, Domnul Isus, în noaptea în care a fost vîndut, a luat o pîne, with the Hebrew: כי כה קבלתי אנכי מן האדון את אשר גם מסרתי לכם כי האדון ישוע בלילה ההוא אשר נמסר בו לקח את הלחם׃. Passover was the following week, after the pre-Passover meal was eaten and the bread torn apart, the wine consumed, and no goat meat mentioned.  It was one week after Jesus of the New Testament had died, and was buried.  Everything else is a repeatition of the prophets in the Old Testament without referencing anything found in Q or other destroyed gospels. It is from the Old Testament prophets we read about Jesus wandering in the desert, immersion baptism in the nude for John the Baptist “walked down into the water” so there was no sprinkling (cp. Mark 1:5 with 2 Chronicles 22:2-5; cf. Matthew 3:1; 11:11 and Josephus Antiquities 18.5.2 with modern calibration in Beasley-Murray, G.R. (1975), “Baptism,” Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, Ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), Vol. I, p. 144), riding into the city as King on the foal of an ass, and symbolically removing the “traders” from the “house of God” as “prophesized” by Zechariah, but more important his comment “One of you who is eating with me will betray me” (Mark 14:18) is directly lifted from Psalm 41:9, that reads “Even my bosom friend, in whom I trusted, who are of my bread, has lifted the heel against me”: Hebrew: גַּם־אִישׁ שְׁלֹומִי ׀ אֲשֶׁר־בָּטַחְתִּי בֹו אֹוכֵל לַחְמִי הִגְדִּיל עָלַי עָקֵב׃; Greek (Septuagint): και γαρ ο ανθρωπος της ειρηνης μου εφ’ ον ηλπισα ο εσθιων αρτους μου εμεγαλυνεν επ’ εμε πτερνισμον; Bulgarian: Да! самият ми близък приятел, комуто имах доверие, Който ядеше хляба ми, дигна своята пета против мене; Russian (Synodal translation with different numbering): (40:10) Даже человек мирный со мною, на которого я полагался, который ел хлеб мой, поднял на меня пяту; which created the Finnish: Niin myös minun ystäväni, johon minä uskalsin, joka sai minun leipääni, se tallasi minun jalkainsa alle, and Polish: Także i ten, z którymem żył w pokoju, któremum ufał, który chleb mój jadał, podniósł piętę przeciwko mnie. Just one hundred years earlier, according to the Dead Sea Scroll community, the Teacher of Righteousness had quoted the very Psalm when one of his inner council of twelve betrayed him (Dead Sea Scrolls, Thanksgiving Hymns 9:23-24).

The greatest fraud is the communion service (“Last Supper”).  It has no complement or correlation with anything Jewish.  Jesus in the New Testament was a Jew–and proud of his heritage and religion.  The passages in Mark and Matthew are based on Luke, the unapologetic advocate and “intimate friend” of Paul, who also, allegedly, authored the Acts of the Apostles.  The  cautionary note “allegedly” must be used as there are too many variations in the handwriting, word choice, and so forth to be the work of one person. 

The words “eat my body” and “drink my blood” care from far older theologies, including those of ancient Egypt.  This is shown in the Didache, dating back to the early second century CE.  It is in the Didache that we find the ceremony of the Eucharist, but it reads this way:

With respect to the Eucharist you shall give thanks as follows: First, with respect to the cup [say]: “We give you thanks our Father for the holy vine of David, your child which you made known to us through Jesus your child. To you be the glory forever.” And with respect to the bread [say]: “We give you thanks our Father for the life and knowledge that you made known to us through Jesus your child. To you be the glory forever.” (Didache 9:1-3, in Bart Enrman, trans. (2003). The Apostolic Fathers, Loeb Classical Library 24, vol. 1 (Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press), p. 431).  There is no mention of the wine representing or transfiguring into blood, nor is there a mention of bread representing or transfiguring into body.  In short, there is no Transubstantiation (Roman Catholic and Orthodox), nor Consubstantiation (Lutheran and other Protestant sects).  It shows that the early communities of Christians( neither chrestianos nor christianos) had any concept or knowledge of a man called Paul.  The legendary Paul, furthermore, through those who wrote in his name, had no familiarity with the brummagenic Last Supper, for Paul’s accounts reverse the order of the celebration. 

In Paul we read that Jesus blessed first the bread, and then the wine.  Luke, however, reports that Jesus first blessed the wine and then the bread. This faux pas is a strong indication that Luke did not know the Paul of the Letters.  Based on the calligraphy in the text is most likely the result of at least two or three generations working on the composition of the imperial synoptic gospels and have no external authenticity. 

In Luke’s account the “fruit of the vine” (Luke 22:18) has more in keeping with the intoxication of Noah than it does with the Last Supper, but whereas Noah awakens naked in a tent beside a vineyard after having drank the wine and curses a young boy (his grandson Canaan), Jesus drinks the wine before he goes into a Garden is followed out of the garden by a young and handsome boy who is naked who “the soldiers lay hands upon” (Mark 14:51: Καὶ εἷς τις νεανίσκος ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ, περιβεβλημένος σινδόνα ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ· καὶ κρατοῦσιν αὐτόν οἱ νεανίσκοι in the Greek Orthodox Church impression, cp. Greek New Testament Tischendorf 8th Edition with Diacritics: Καὶ εἷς τις νεανίσκος συνηκολούθει αὐτῷ περιβεβλημένος σινδόνα ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ, καὶ κρατοῦσιν αὐτόν· the word νεανισκοι is not included, and note the difference in the 1551 edition: και εις τις νεανισκος ηκολουθει αυτω περιβεβλημενος σινδονα επι γυμνου και κρατουσιν αυτον οι νεανισκοι, with the Ukrainian including a notation: А один якийся молодець ійшов за ним, одягнений полотном по нагому, й хапають його молодці (воїни); at best the story of the mental agony of Jesus is a repeat of the Noah story of whom there is no record of any suffering prior to drinking the wine).

After Jesus died and was buried (twice), his organization or community (now rendered as “church”) was taken over by his brother James—not by Peter, as Eusebius wrote in Church History. II:23-24, preserving the testimony of Hegesippus (Ἅγιος Ἡγήσιππος c. 110 — c. April 7, 180 CE, writing at least 150 years after the death of the Jesus of the New Testament):

The succession of the church passed [the Greek here is διαδέχομαι or diadexomat, meaning “to succeed”] to James the brother of the Lord, together with the Apostles [of whom Paul was not numbered]

See the Syriac Ascent of James that has been embedded in the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions I:33-74 that is discussed in Van Voorst, Robert E. (1989). The Ascent of James: History and Theology of a Jewish-Christian Community, SBL Dissertation Series 112 (Atlanta, GA, USA: Scholars Press).  James was called the “Just” by all men from the Lord’s time until ours, since many are called James, but he was holy from his mother’s womb.

There are numerous civil records against grave robbing and the movement of corpses from imperial decrees, as with “Ordinances of Caesar (which Caesar is uncertain; it may be Emperor Tiberitus (14-37) or Claudius (41-54)”:

it is my pleasure that graves and tombs remain undisturbed in perpetuity for those who have made them for the cult of their ancestors or children or members of their house. If, however, any man lay information that another has either demolished them, or has in any other way extracted the buried, or has maliciously transferred them to other places in order to wrong them, or has displaced the sealing of other stones, against such one I order that a trial be instituted, as in respect of the gods, so in regard to the cult of mortals. For it shall be much more obligatory to honor the buried. Let it be absolutely forbidden for anyone to disturb them, in case of contravention I desire that the offender be sentenced to capital punishment on charge of violation of sepuiture [early non-Christian writings on death of Jesus]. 

A page from a 1466 copy of Josephus’ “Antiquities of the Jews”

One of those who wrote about the non-historical Jesus, in fact, not in redaction, is Josephus who penned: “”(Ananus) assembled the Sanhedrin of the judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, the so-called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned” (Antiquities XX 9:1).  This was later echoed by Suetonius (c. A.D. 120), a Roman Historian and court official under Hadrian made two references to Christ. In the Life of Claudius (25.4) he wrote

“As the Jews were making constant disturbances at the instigation of Chestus, he [Claudius] expelled them from Rome.”

In the Lives of the Caesars (26.2) Suetonius wrote:

“Punishment by Nero was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievous superstition.”

Most of the people who heard the legend of Jesus of the New Testament were amused.  Most had a better command of science of nature than the christianos—leading Paul to denounce those who studied philosophy.  Paul’s brief mention was used by the pagan Thallus (c. 52 CE, who was a Samaritan-born historian and wrote that the sky turned black when Jesus died, the earth moved (an earthquake), and other “wondrous” happens occurred, relying on the gospel tradition of a “darkness” at the death of Christ (see Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; and Matthew 27:51-53, whose account includes an earthquake, split rocks, and the rise of zombies). 

Thallus appalling disregard for reality, formalized in his book Histories, was legendary in his own day as a solar eclipse should mark the death of a king as was common lore among Greeks and other Mediterranean peoples (Herodotus, History, 7.37, Plutarch, Pelopidas 31.3 and Aemilius Paulus 17.7-11, Dio Cassius 55.29.3, John Lydus, De Ostentis 70.a), as were such events that corresponded with earthquakes were also a scientific superstition (Aristotle Meteorology 367.b.2, Pliny Natural History 2.195, Virgil Georgics 2.47.478-80; cp.  Jacoby, Felix (1923-1958).  Fragmente der griechischen Historiker [Fragments of the Greek Historians,] Berlin, Germany: Weidmann, 1923-1958). 

The Gospel of John makes no mention of any such events, nor does Paul or any other New Testament author.  Thallus was basically ignored, until the day of Julius Africanus (c. 221 CE) who re jected Thallus doubting the eclipse because Easter happens near the full moon and a solar eclipse would have been impossible at that time, as was well-known.  Africanus wrote:

Phlegon records that, in the time of Tiberius Cæsar, at full moon, there was a full eclipse of the sun from the sixth hour to the ninth – manifestly that one of which we speak. But what has an eclipse in common with an earthquake, the rending rocks, and the resurrection of the dead, and so great a perturbation throughout the universe? . . . And calculation makes out that the period of 70 weeks, as noted in Daniel [9:24-26a], is completed at this time.” (Julius Africanus, Chronographia 18.1) Here, as with others, the insistance was that all marks in the life of Jesus, from birth to death, has to be a fulfillment of Old Testament lore that sprung from Assyrian and Babylonian antecedents–as is the case with the Book of Daniel.

Africanus’ writings were restored by Eusebius and brought his mythology to light, writing with some contempt:

“Thallus, in the third book of his histories, explains away this darkness [at the time of the crucifixion] as an eclipse of the sun-unreasonably, as it seems to me.”

At the time of the paschal there was a full moon, and an eclipse would have been impossible when Christ died. Furthermore, there is no other scientific explanation, but literature does show select saviors dying when the sun or moon is overhead.

The possibility that Jesus was a real man, but no god, nor a savior or messiah was especially punctuated in the Jewish Talmud that was completed by 500 CE. The Babylonian Talmud reference to Jesus reads:

“On the eve of Passover they hanged Yeshu [of Nazareth] and them herald went before him for forty days saying [Yeshu of Nazareth] is going to be stoned in that he hath practiced sorcery and beguiled and led astray Israel. Let everyone knowing aught in his defense come and plead for him. But they found naught in his defense and hanged him on the eve of Passover” (Sanhedrin 43a, “Eve of Passover”).

Many refer to Josephus as attesting to the historicity and manhood of Jesus, but their citations overlook critical words:

“At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. . . . Pilate condemned Him to be condemned and to die. And those who had become His disciples did not abandon His discipleship. They reported that He had appeared to them three days after His crucifixion and that He was alive; accordingly, He was perhaps the Messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders” (Antiquities, xviii.ch. 3, subtopic 3, Arabic text).

The Greek text is highly suspected as it was copied down by Greek Christians and does not match the original texts and appears centuries later; it reads:

“Now, there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works–a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew ever to him both many of the Jews, and many Gentiles. He was the Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestions of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to be condemned and to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and the ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day” (Antiquities, xviii.ch. 3, subtopic 3, Greek text).

This is clearly apologetic plagiarism as nowhere does Josephus claim that he believed that Jesus was “the Christ”, in keeping with his writings.  Josephus remained a Jew and no unbelieving Jew would make such statements about Jesus.  The name Jesus Christ does not appear in the New Testament (it is either Jesus or Christ) but does appear in the Old Testament as Yeshua Ha’Mashiach (מְנוֹרָה) which is a part of a Menorah, but today’s apologists misuse a word for an object rather than for a person.

The works of Josephus refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus.  In chapter 9 of Book 20, there is also a reference to Jesus son of Damneus who was a High Priest of Israel and is distinct from the reference to “Jesus called [the] Christ” mentioned along with the identification of James.  There are an increasing number of scholars who question the authenticity of the reference, based on various arguments, but primarily based on the observation that various details in The Jewish War differ from it (Habermas, Gary R. (1996). The Historical Jesus, Joplin, MO: College Press Pub. Co., pp. 33-37, and Wells, George Albert (1986). Did Jesus Exist?  London, UK: Pemberton Publishing Co., p. 11; cp. Ed. London : Elek, 1975).  The earliest known reference to Josephus’ work is found in the writings of the third century patristic author Origen.  Origen, however, does not provide any direct reference to the passages involving Jesus.  The three references found in Book 18 and Book 20 of the Antiquities do not appear in any other versions of Josephus’ The Jewish War, except for a Slavonic version of the Testimonium Flavomium (at times called Testimonium Slavonium) that surfaced in the west at the beginning of the 20th century, after its discovery in Russia at the end of the 19th century. 

Josephus’ tracts are, primarily, forgeries cleverly crafted by Christian monks in the eleventh century (Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.  Grand Rapids, MI, USA: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., pp. 508-509).  The Jews did not preserve the writings of Josephus because they considered him to be a traitor (Flavius Josephus; Leeming, Henry; Osinkina, Lyubov V.; Leeming, Katherine (2003). Josephus’ Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version: A Synoptic Comparison of the English Translation by H. St. Thackeray with the Critical Edition by N.A. Meščerskij of the Slavonic Version in the Vilna Manuscript Translated into English by H. Leeming and L. Osinkina.. Leiden: Brill, p. 26).

Outside of the spurious sentences sung by later apologists for Jesus the Christ, there are no primary sources that claim Jesus of the New Testament lived, died, or ever rose from the dead.  Jesus is now, and was then, a myth.

As Jesus is/was a myth, so too is the very fabrication of Christianity.  It does not come into being until the Emperor Constantine I hand-crafts it into being a bulkwark against mercenaries the empire hired but never paid, and were at that time banging against the gates and walls that provided protections to Roman citizens and their slaves.  While there were communities of believers (chrestianos and christianos) thre was no Christian church as the Emperor had not yet created it.  The favored line in Matthew 16:18 (καγὼ δέ σοι λέγω ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ πύλαι ᾅδου οὐ κατισχύσουσιν αὐτῆς) is poorly read and far worse understood (notice the play on Πέτρος and πέτρᾳ).  The word ἐκκλησίαν actually is “assembly”–not a building nor an institution.  As assembly can be gathered together–not a group of building–as we find in συναγαγόντες τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἀνήγγελλον ὅσα (Acts 14:27) and refers to a group of people who can be greeted: ἀσπασάμενος τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατέβη εἰς (Acts 18:22), or dismissed: ἀπέλυσεν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν (Acts 19:41).  A shepherd can feed people, not buildings or organizations: ποιμαίνειν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ (Acts 20:28), and greet people (not churches) in homes: οἶκον αὐτῶν ἐκκλησίαν. ἀσπάσασθε (Romans 16:5, Colosians 4:5) as the Jesus of the New Testament love people not buildings or institutions: ἠγάπησεν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ ἑαυτὸν (Ephesians 5:25).  Even Paul admits he persecuted people, not institutions: διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην (Philippians 3:6).  There was no church until Constantine created one; there was no set organization of Christianity as there were various sects and cults, each proclaiming it had the ultimate answer, some killing others while there were also suicide cults willing to die to hurry the End Times promised by so many charlatans. 

Coin of Roman Emperor Constantine I depicting Sol Invictus Apollo (Constantine I was hailed as a god after he died–not as a Christian)

There was no Roman Catholic Church before 325 CE.  It was not until 325 CE that the Emperor in the East, Constantine I, called his council of warrior bishops to meet with him in the city of Nicaea (Νίκαια in contemporary Iznik, Turkey; it was the ancient city of Bithynia in northwest Asia Minor, and ultimately, before the advent of Christianity, was given to the Thessalian general Lysimachus (Lysimakhos) (circa 355 BC-281 BC) in 301 BC as his share of the lands after Antigonus (who had served under Alexander the Great) was defeated. Lysimachus renamed the city Nicaea in tribute to his wife Nicaea, who was a daughter of Antipater:  Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great).  There he announced the formation of a “catholic [universal] church”—with no representative (presbyters) from Rome present.  There were no recognized Popes of Rome, until much later, by the emperors.

The first list of “popes” [i.e. “fathers”] of Rome does not appear until St. Irenaeus, writing between 175 and 190, prepared a highly questionable list of pontiffs.  This list appears not many years after his Roman holiday that lasted longer than he anticipated.  Irenaeus (Εἰρηναῖος), (2nd century AD – c. 202; he was bishop of what today is Lyons, France) enumerates the series from Peter to Eleutherius  in his  Adversus Haereses (Against Heresies) III.3.3, which is used 150 years later by the bishop Eusebius of Cesaraea in his Historia Ecclesiastica : Church History V.6).

Irenaeus had a specific object in mind when he created this list that most contemporaries knew was false.  The list was created to establish the orthodoxy of the traditional doctrine as defined by second century bishops after the original Council of Apostles (that did not include Paul) had died.  It was used as a tool to fight what Irenaeus referred to as heretical novelties, by showing that the bishop of Rome (based on a myth by misinterpreting Matthew 16:18-19), and all bishops, was the natural inheritor of the Apostolic teaching. 

The fraudulency of Irenaeus’ claims can be seen within his imaginary list as the bishop of Lyons gives only the names of the pretend or reputed bishops (pontifex maximus was a title (read here)  reserved for the emperor who did not always go to war but who perform sacrifice [ῥέζειν] for victory acting as chief intercessors to the gods: γεφυροποιοί) alone, not the length of the various episcopates.  It has been noted that one of the greatest absurdities in the emerging church and crystallizing fully in the medieval church was the Roman bishops assuming the title of pontifex maximus despites its pagan and civil context, uses, and understanding (“In the matter of hierarchical nomenclature, one of the most striking instances is the adoption of the term pontifex for a bishop” (Paul Pascal (1966). Medieval Uses of Antiquity in The Classical Journal, Vol. 61, No. 5 [February], pp. 193–197).).  Judas, by early records was no traitor and betrayed no one; it was a plan that backfired.

To grant Paul space in the invention of Christianity is unusual and short sighted, showing a contempt for the absense of any record in civil order (it is a grave error to attempt to use the Bible to prove the contents of the Bible, and is bad scholarship without supporting primary sources).  Paul condemns himself in his words as being knowledgeable about and an instrument of Jesus of the New Testament, as Paul only twice refers to the sayings of Jesus in all the letters (epistles) that are ascribed to his authorship. These references are in 1 Corinthians 7:10-11 and 9:14. 

The bulk of Paul’s letters reflect an abrupt and un-Jesus-like message.  For example, whereas Jesus warned his followers against judging others (Matthew 7:1), Paul had no problem with it (Romans 1:18-28 although only verses 26-27 are pounded out on pulpits and in pernicious preaching today, whereas the entire condemnation is for those who are educated and consider themselves wise in the first century through today, while verses 29-32 spell it out even more in opposition to Acts 10:34.  The festering infection that is synonymous with the Epistles of Paul are best seen in the vociferating umbrage of the authors of Romans who wrote:  that evil people are filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31Without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them [29πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ πονηρίᾳ πλεονεξίᾳ κακίᾳ, μεστοὺς φθόνου φόνου ἔριδος δόλου κακοηθείας ψιθυριστάς 30καταλάλους θεοστυγεῖς ὑβριστὰς ὑπερηφάνους ἀλαζόνας, ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, 31ἀσυνέτους ἀσυνθέτους ἀστόργους ἀνελεήμονας· 32οἵτινες τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπιγνόντες ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες ἄξιοι θανάτου εἰσίν, οὐ μόνον αὐτὰ ποιοῦσιν ἀλλὰ καὶ συνευδοκοῦσιν τοῖς πράσσουσιν. None of this is found in any Gospel, the sayings of Jesus recorded in Q or in any other scroll (Thiede, Carsten Peter and D’Ancona, Matthew (1996). The Jesus Papyrus. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).  It is a later fiction, much like the redactions of Josephus and Tacitus]; cp. 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 and 1 Timothy 1:10)

One thing is clear in the original scrolls: Paul never knew Jesus.  He wrote about the Jesus of the New Testament no less than twenty to thirty years after Jesus died, and during this time period all biblical scholars agree that there are no surviving records.  Even then, as with the Letter to the Galatians, the work is more autobiographical than biographical.

Paul, patronizingly, admits “I did not see any other apostle except James the Lord’s brother” (Galatians 1:19). Paul does not refer to James as “an apostle” but accords him greater dignity as “the Lord’s brother.” 

The list of actual apostles is clearly stated in Acts: 1:13, detailing the leaders present in the Upper Room in Jerusalem: “Peter, and John, and James, and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Mathew, James son of Alphaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas brother of James,” and then notes emphatically in verse 14: “All these [the Eleven] were constantly devoting themselves to prayer together with certain women, including Mary the mother of Jesus as well as his brothers” (Compare the brothers with Acts 12:17; cp. Tabor, James D. (2006). The Jesus Dynasty: the Hidden History of Jesus, His Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity. New York, NY, USA: Simon & Schuster). The brothers included Simon the Zealot and Judas the brother of James.

Mary, definitely, was not a virgin in reference to a hymen or by youth.  In the New Testament she is given special dignity, not just as the Mother of Jesus, but also within the Council of the Twelve. This matches ancient Egyptian theology where Isis is accorded superiority over her son Horus and the Twelve gods who assist him.

Paul gives James superiority, over Peter and John (Galatians 2:9).  The order of the brothers and other apostles reflect not mortals but members of the constellation that would iconize the mother Mary, similar to the way Isis had been enshrined. There is no proof that Paul (or Peter) ever died in Rome.

Paul was the antithesis of ancient Christianity. Diabolical and sinister those who created Paul did everything to undo the simple message that the Jesus of the New Testament had and instructed his seventy disciples (Luke 10:1) to spread “to all nations” the words of the Old Testament, not a novel New Testament (cp. Jeremiah 31:31 and Luke 22:30). Paul had not obtained any authority from Jesus, for Jesus was dead and never knew Paul, and Paul had little contact with James, the leader of the new Jewish-Christian community in Jerusalem. Paul showed only contempt for the leaders of the community in Jerusalem, noting that “what they were means nothing to me” (Galatians 2:6, 9). Furthermore, Paul did not hesitate to hide his condemnation and rejection of the religion of Jesus, scorning the Torah (Galatians 3:24-25, Philippians 3:2-3) and denounced those who underwent the required Jewish ceremony of circumcision (Galatians 5:12) even though the Twelve in Jerusalem followed the lead of Jesus’ brother James who said it was not necessary for the Gentiles to follow the Jewish way (Acts 15:19-21).  To make his separation more cutting, Paul uttered what would later be considered a heresy, by claiming that Jesus Histories was not truly born but had existed from all time (Philippians 2:6).

Whereas the emerging church, belching breathlessly out of the community of believers into a stratified, stagnant and sordid institution, had once be thought to argue that Paul was next to or even coequal with Peter, the Letters of Paul show the contrary.  Paul hated and diminished Peter in word and deed, working harder than all of the other Apostles (1 Corinthians 15:10) and suffering more than Jesus suffered, stating that he was “filling up what was lacking in Christ’s suffering” (Colossians 1:24: Νῦν χαίρω ἐν τοῖς παθήμασιν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν καὶ ἀνταναπληρῶ τὰ ὑστερήματα τῶν θλίψεων τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου ὑπὲρ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ἡ ἐκκλησία,) as he “opposed Peter to his face because he stood condemned” over a dispute involving Jewish and Gentile table fellowship (Galatians 2:11: Ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Κηφᾶς εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην, ὅτι κατεγνωσμένος ἦν and the Armenian Սակայն երբ Պետրոս եկաւ Անտիոք՝ ես դիմադարձեցի անոր, որովհետեւ պարսաւելի էր:). Paul labels Peter a hypocrite with vitriol in Galatians that is more repugnant and pathetic than all the prattling of Paul in other epistles. To strengthen his lies, Paul more than likely created the two letters attributed to Peter as they sound more like Paul than anyone else.

There is no tangible, incontrovertible proof of a Peter or any immediate successors of Peter or popes during the first one-hundred years in the city of Rome.  The lack of proof, that constitutes evidence, is found in the liturgical tradition of the fourth-century Roman Church, because it was only at the end of the second century that any special feast of martyrs was instituted and there is no first century “popes” recognized, especially Linus who allegedly followed the mythological Peter.  For that reason no Linus, nor any of his alleged successors, appears in the fourth-century lists of the feasts of the Roman saints.

According to Torrigio (Le sacre grotte Vaticane, Viterbo, Italy: Discepoli 1618, p. 53; text is in Italian) when the present confession was constructed in St. Peter’s (1615), sarcophagi were found, and among them was one which bore the word Linus. The explanation given by Severano of this discovery (Memorie delle sette chiese di Roma e di altri luoghi che si trovano per le strade di esse, parte prima in cui si tratta dell’antichita di dette chiese, Roma, Italy: per Giacomo Mascardi, 1630, p. 120) is that probably these sarcophagi contained the remains of the first Roman bishops, and that the one bearing that inscription was Linus’ burial place. This assertion was repeated later on by different writers. But from a MS. of Torrigio’s we see that on the sarcophagus in question there were other letters beside the word Linus, so that they rather belonged to some other name (cp. Aquilinus, De praescriptione, xxxii Anullinus). The place of the discovery of the tomb is a proof that it could not be the tomb of Linus. (De Rossi, Giovanni Battista and Silvagni, Angelo (1935) Società romana di storia patria.; Pontificio istituto di archeologia cristiana. Inscriptiones christianae urbis Romae séptimo saeculo antiquiores, Vol. II: Coemeteria in Viis Cornelia, Aurelia, Portuensi et Ostiensi. Romae : Pontificium institutum archaeologiae christianae, pp. 236-7, in Latin).  Even more condemning is Tertullian’s argument that St. Clement followed St. Peter (De praescriptione, xxxii), yet confusion reigns even here especially with Irenaeus of Lyons. Iremeus (as he is styled in the original Catholic Encyclopedia but should be Irenaeus) has Linus, Anacletus, and Clement; whereas Augustine and Optatus put Clement before Anacletus. On the other hand, the “Catalogus Liberianus”, the “Carmen contra Marcionem” and the “Liber Pontificalis”, all most respectable for their antiquity, make Cletus and Anacletus distinct from each other; while the “Catalogus Felicianus” even sets the latter down as a Greek, the former as a Roman. Among the moderns, Hergenröther, Joseph Adam Gustav (trans. Belet, P abbé) Histoire de l’Eglise. Paris, Delhomme & Briguet [1878?]-1892, Vol. I, 542, note) pronounces for their identity, cf. Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (1868). Christenthum und Kirche in der Zeit der Grundlegung, 2. verb. Aufl, Regensburg, Deutschland: G.J. Manz, p. 315) declares that “they are, without doubt, the same person”; and that “the `Catalogue of Liberius’ merits little confidence before 230.” Duchesne, Louis Marie Oliver (1889). Origines du culte chrétien: etude sur la liturgie latine avant Charlemagne. Paris, France: Thorin, 1889, in French, ranges himself on that side also.

The dating of papal rule does not appear until 354 and then in the controversial and easily disproven Liberian Catalogue (actually entitled Catalogus Liberianus, after the last pope named: Liberius; it is part of an illuminated manuscript known as Chronographus anni 354 [Chronography of 354])   apparently written by one Furius Dionysius Philocalus.  (The copyists did include the rampant anti-Semitism, especially that of St. John Chrysostom in his Homilies 1 through 8, etc.  The history of the Roman popes can be read in Monumenta Germaniae Historica:  Chronica Minora I (1892 text in Latin; Berolini : apud Weidmannos, 1892-1898), pp. 73-76) Not only does this late list start with a minor apostle, Peter, but ends with a nondescript pope Liberius, but it does include the assumed length of their respective episcopates (citing no records or other data to firm the tome, its research faulty at best), the consular dates, the name of the reigning emperor (both which have numerous public citations), and in many cases other details that cannot be proven nor disproven as most are falsified from legends without even eye witness verification.

Today, scholars recognized that the Liberian Catalogue earlier part was crafted as far as Pontian (230-35) by Hippolytus of Portus, as it is close to his work Chronica Minora (Lipsiae, in aedibus B.G. Teubneri, 1892; text is in ancient Greek [to 1453]).  The highly respected Anglican theologian  Lightfoot bishop of Durham who, from 1854 to 1859, edited the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology, argued that this list originally contained nothing but the names of the bishops and the duration of their episcopates (Ramsey, Arthur Michael. From Gore to Temple.  London, UK: Longmans(1960) p. 1616). Lightfoot argues that the remaining notes were additions by a later hand, most likely by zealous copyists.  Several inaccuracies occur; for example, the list of popes in the Liberian Catalogue is identical with that of Irenaeus, except that Anacletus is doubled into Cletus and Anacletus (creating two popes out of one), while Clement appears before, instead of after, these two names. Then, too, the order of Popes Pius and Anicetus has also been interchanged, thus weakening any relevance of the document. All later lists, such as the list by Eusebius, come no less than three hundred years after the alleged first pontifical reign—and are at best staging of a lie.  For example, Eusebius in his Church History IV.22 writes that in the middle of the second century (at least one hundred or more years after Peter allegedly was crucified in Rome—that has no historical basis) Hegesippus, a Hebrew Christian, visited Rome and drew up a list of bishops as far as Anicetus for his own use.

The Liber Pontificalis, long accepted as an authority of the highest value, is now acknowledged to have been originally composed at the beginning of the fifth century, and, as regards the early popes, to be dependent on the “Liberian Catalogue”. This list is haphazard and includes both popes and antipopes. As the New Catholic Encyclopedia notes, previous “to the middle of the eleventh century, the information is of uncertain value” (Joyce, G. (1911). “Chronological Lists of Popes.”  The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company).

Emperor Nero

As for there being any active church before Constantine, that is a well-placed fable.  It is similar to the legend that Christians/Chrestianos were singled out for persecution.  There were no persecution of Christians, but of chrestianos until the fire (Magnum Incendium) that swept the slums of Rome in 64 CE, and the few Christians who did “confess,” confessed under torture but their confession is unclear if they were admitting to being arsons lighting their homes in a drunken stupor or they were proclaiming themselves to be chrestianos to set the sect apart from christianos and thus bear the wrath of the empire (Tacitus, Annals XV.44).  Arson in Rome, deliberate or accidental, was not new in the imperial city at this time, as there were other such conflagrations  under Vitellius in 69 during the seige of Vespasian (where the culprits were his troops) and under Titus in 80 (Suetonius, Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus, 8).  The fact that Tacitus’ copyists were quick to blame the Christians and create a false aura of martyrdom were to be subject death rather than acknowledge that Chrestianos being a people eager for martyrdom can be seen in the earliest extant manuscript, the second Medicean, as the e in “Chrestianos”, the Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz (2001). Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch. Göttingen, Deutschland: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (originally published in 1996), p. 89 so as to place blame on both sects. The reading Christianos, Christians, is, therefore, doubtful.  There are no primary accounts (written by Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder) are described as contradictory and gross exaggerations in keeping with Constantine’s desire to show the Christians being wrongly persecuted and singling them out as the True Faith-keepers, and their scrolls burned in the emperor’s holocaust of writings when the works of Arius were also consigned to the flames (ref: Tacitus, Annals XV.38-39 where Tacitus claims the fire was an accident. Nero was in Antium, so could not have set drunkards out to ignite the homes of the poor while he played a lyre on a hill and watched as we read in Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.16-17 and Suetonius. “Life of Nero”. Lives of Twelve Caesars. p. 38).

During the Ante-Nicene period following the Apostolic Age (from the death of the last official Apostle, until the reign of the Emperor Constantine I), there was a great diversity of views among the various community that emerged nearly simultaneously with strong unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period. The most popular views were those held by the Docetics who taught that Jesus did not appear in the flesh, but as a ghost, and thus could not die; what died was the shell of a man that the ghost had invaded (Ignatius, Trallians 9-11).  The Gnostic movement had far more intelligent thinkers, teachers, and preachers than did the movement within Paulinity; these greats included Satornilus of Antioch, who labored before 1500 and Basilides, who taught in Alexandria around 130; and, most important of all, Valentinus, who was active in Rome from c. 135-165 and was regarded as the most gifted figure and thinker of his day.  There are no historical records (outside of the Christian Bible which has no foundation in provable and documented history) that lists a Peter.  Valentinus was far more important in real life than the imaginary initial betrayer of the Jesus of the New Testament.

Maricon made a distinct impact on Rome.  He showed how the New Testament Jesus was far superior in kindness than the violent-enraged Old Testament god.  This made people think and encouraged many to give up Judaism.

Since Marcion preached a message of a loving Jesus, he quickly became unpopular with the rise of the militant community that sought the return of a marshal military Jesus proclaimed in Matthew 10:34.  A struggle broke out and the presbyters that controlled churches in Rome in the name of Paul (nt Peter), demanded the ouster of Marcion.  Their action further alienated the believers and caused one of the first rifts in the community that had not yet been solidified into a single church: a collective community recognizing a single head.

The struggle was intensified with the rise of Montanism that distinctly and sharply followed the teaching of the New Testament Jesus.  The Montanists denounced the worldliness of the church and condemned the priests who claimed they were ministers of Jesus for their lavish living and corrupt secular lifestyle.  Those who denounced the worldliness of the church and its leaders were categorized as “fallen” people: apostasia (“ἀποστασία”) meaning defecting, departuring, revolting or being in rebellion against the church.  Once the Roman Catholic Church had a forceful stranglehold on Western Europe in the nefarious form of the Inquisition (restored by Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) and embellished by Benedict XVI in the manner of Scott Lively, Bill Donahue of the Catholic League, Maggie Gallagher of NOM (read here and here), Brian Fischer (American Family Association) and the two most vile cardinals in history: Timothy Dolan of New York and the wretched Salvatore Cordileone of San Francisco with others who despise freedom), Pope Innocent III declared: “Anyone who attempts to construe a personal view of God that conflicts with church dogma must be burned without pity.”

While the Roman Catholic Church was the most worldly and among the richest and wretched in western Christiandom, the Eastern Orthodox was the epitome of any organization under criminal control with the patriarchal throne of Constantinople frequently sold to the highest bidder, while new patriarchal investiture was accompanied by heavy payment to the government (read here and here). To recoup their losses, patriarchs and bishops heavily taxed the local parishes and their clergy to the point of bankrupting most.

The Greek patriarchal throne was never secure. Few patriarchs between the 15th and the 19th centuries died a natural death while in office, instead there was a plethora of forced abdications, drowning, exiles, hangings,  and poisonings of patriarchs from Constantinople to Sofia and into Moscow. The hanging of Patriarch Gregory V (Γρηγόριος Ε΄, born Georgios Angelopoulos) from the gate of the patriarchate on Easter Sunday 1821 for becaming a member of the Filiki Eteria (Φιλική Εταιρεία: Friendly Society; cp. Alison, Phillips W. (1897). The war of Greek independence, 1821 to 1833. London, UK: Smith, Elder. pp. 20, 21) that was preparing for a revolt against the Turkish rule; his execution was accompanied by the execution of two metropolitans and twelve bishops, leading to whole-scale burnings of the Bible and the writings of clergy.

The official christiano movement was trotted in by Irenaeus of Lyons, who had little knowledge of the Bible and even less of history—much like the bishops of today, especially those sitting on the Council of Bishops of the USA, and the Perú Council of Bishops.  Irenaeus, writing about 185 CE, claimed that the Gospels of Matthew and John were actually written by the Apostles (which has been repeatedly proven to be false), while Mark (on which all synoptic gospels are based) was claimed to have reproduced the message of Peter and Luke. Irenaeus went so far as to claim that the Gospels said nothing about Gnosticism, further proving his ignorance of the Bible, either rejecting or more likely not knowing 1 Corinthians 2:6 (cp. Irenaeus, Heresies 3.4.1). Still the early movement in Rome thrived as the Gnostic movement was far more open and generous than Pauline Christianity that most considered to be a barbaric transmogrification of anything Jesus said, did, or wanted to occur. It was especially popular from 135-160 CE that it threatened to destroy Paulinity that was being cultivated by Imperial Rome as a way to foster and gain adherents to the empire as it argued for spiritual knowledge (γνωσις) over physical or philosophic knowledge and being more passive led to the legalization of Christianity in 313 CE.

Many of those who had entered the early church also left it, such as Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 160-225 CE), the first ecclesiastical writer of prominence to use Latin in his letters (even the presbyters of Rome used Greek), and unfortunately authored the absurdity of their being an “original sin” (Tertullian, Anima 41, that could only be undone by the power of the grace of God: verse 21).  Tertullian also popularized the Egyptian concept of a Trinity (Tertullian, Praxeas 2), although it was a term that was used earlier than Tertullian by Theophilus of Antioch in Ad Autolycum 2.15 to refer to God, God’s Logos (Jesus), and God’s Sophia (Holy Spirit).  Tertullian and his wife abandoned Christianity for the more views of Montanism. Cp. J. Kaye, Bishop of Lincoln (1845, third edition) The Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, illustrated from the writings of Tertullian. London: Rivington.

Part of the unifying trend of chrestianos and christianos among Gentile was an increasingly harsh rejection of Judaism and Jewish practices. Early Christianity gradually grew apart from Judaism during the first two centuries and established itself as a predominantly Gentile religion in the Roman Empire causing many to leave the new cult. Christianity only became the official religion in 325 CE and then because of the order of Constantine and the support of the army of Rome (Paul Stephenson (2009, 2010). Constantine: Roman Emperor, Christian Victor. New York : Overlook Press, 2010.Chapter 11).  Constantine’s Catholic Church that emerged as today’s Roman Catholic, Orthodox of Protestant Christianity rejected, totally, the words of Jesus of the New Testament: “Take My yoke upon you and learn of Me, for I am gentle [meek] and humble [lowly] in heart, and you will find rest (relief and ease, refreshment, recreation and blessed quiet) for your souls. For My yoke is wholesome [useful, good — not harsh, sharp, or pressing, but comfortable, gracious, and pleasant] and My burden is light and easy to be borne” (Matthew 11:29-30).

2 Comments

Filed under Ancient Egypt, Apostolic Succession, Bible, Bishop of Rome, Church history, Education, Homosexuality, Jesus Christ, Roman Catholicism

Jessica Ahlquist and Rhode Island Roman Catholics: the attack on the wall separating state and church

Roger Williams defining wall separating state and church

Roger Williams (c. 1603 – 1683) founded the colony of Providence Plantation to provide a refuge for religious minorities. An early proponent of religious freedom, Williams was deeply dedicated to maintaining a firm separation of state and church. A Puritan minister, he argued against any public display of religion by any sect, cult, or group, and was especially found distasteful the Church of England (Anglican) and its sister-in-faith, the Roman Catholic cult.

Roger Williams was the first to use the phrase “wall of separation”.  It was later incorporated into a letter to the Danbury Baptist church in Connecticut to define the relationship of state and church.  Both Williams and Jefferson warned that when religious fanatics within the Christian communities rose to defend their own sectarianism no one was safe.

Roger Williams "The Bloudy Tenent" (on injustice; original in private collection of this author)

His primary tract, a robust denunciation of the King of England and the growing authoritarianism of religion in the colonies led to his being summoned before the General Court of Boston to hear charges of unorthodoxy levied against him. The clergy in the seventeenth century were especially determined to maintain an Old Testament theocracy where women were to remain silent, children seen but not heard, slavery was the design of their god who used the color black to mark the sins of the mythological Ham in the tale of Noah and his ark, and to make certain that education was focused only on a literal reading of the English Bible.  While some ministers knew Greek and a few were competent in Hebrew, the scriptures used were called out to demand allegiance and obedience to the pastors of congregations, and women were to sit silently in obedience to their men–a continuation of the misogyny of Martin Luther and the crippling of theology by various Fathers of the Church from the fourth century forward. Denouncing the High Church authorities of the Anglican communion as men in trappings, Williams was ordered to stand trial in Boston–a trial that had every trapping of the Spanish Inquisition.

List of Crimes for which a person could be executed in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1641; original in this author's private library)

Following a travesty of justice his tract was publicly burned as was the fate of most dissenters and those who defended the right of people to believe or not believe as their “spirit” dictated. The burning of books, tracts, and tomes was not new to Christianity in the New World.

Emperor Constantine orders Arius' books burned (from compilation of canon) 327 CE

It began with the very foundation of the Christian Church by the Emperor Constantine the Great (the First) when he ordered the writings of Arius to be burned at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE, and has continued through every

Florida Pastor Terry Jones burns Koran March 20, 2011; Pakistan Muslims later burned him in effigy

epoch and in every church in every land to the present where no scripture of any kind for any theology has been safe.

Map of Rhode Island (USA)

Today, the colony of Providence has become the theocracy of Rhode Island.  Rhode Island is a state where no one is free to dissent, and where the rulings of a judge against the public display of any religious ideas are mocked and the plaintiffs and judge threatened. 

The messenger who has followed in the footsteps of Roger Williams called for her right to disbelieve and found the Christian mind-control of her school to be rightfully unconstitutional has been accused of everything from being the mythological anti-Christ to being the subject of vile epitaphs and notes on Facebook and Twitter—this done by “saved” Roman Catholics and Protestants, although she did score the help of one Protestant minister, and later support from some Protestant ministers who initially hesitated to act.

Cranston High School West (RI)

The Roman Catholic cult that controls Rhode Island and has infested the town of Cranston, continues to sharpen its hatred equal to any blustering of the Spanish Inquisition and the Grand Inquisitor Torquemada, a one-time Jew, turned mass murderer. Torquemada issued the same threats of rape, assault, and assassination as has the gaggle of goons who metaphorically goose-step through the halls of Cranston High School West in Rhode Island. 

Prussian coat-of-arms (1933)

The hatred in Cranston High School West is so loud that one can nearly hear the famous proclamation: Gott mit uns proudly publicly belched from 1940-1945 and emblazoned on the Wehrmacht belt buckle that had represented the Prussian coat of arms in 1933 (it actually was a late Roman Empire war cry: Nobiscum deus, which after the Christian church was founded by the emperor Constantine in 325 became a part of his self-created “catholic” [universal] church that he never attended nor accepted but created to silence dissent; Haldon, John (1999).  Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World.  London, UK : UCL Press, p. 24 ), exceeding Deus vult in 1095, following the blood-demanding raw rhetoric of one of the least holy and most evil of medieval popes: Urban II (Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God’s War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 65), the prototype for the sadistic and unsaintly Jeanmaría Escrivá and his nefarious Prelatura Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei, whose maleficent organization has issued more hatred for women, the right of protest and individual choice than any other evil that has covered this planet.

Josemaría Escrivá and Opus Dei

The cult of Escrivá and his embrace of the dictatorships of Generals Francisco Franco in Spain (1939-1975) and Augusto Pinochet in Chile (1973-1990), were but the least disguised attacks on dissenters, that would come to fruition in Rhode Island in 2012 (Luis Carandell, Vida y milagros de Monseñor Escrivá de Balaguer, fundador del Opus Dei (Madrid: Editorial Deriva, 2nd ed., 1992), and von Balthasar, Hans Urs (1964), “Friedliche Fragen an das Opus Dei” (in German), Der Christliche Sonntag 16: 117).  The people of Cranston who oppose free speech and the First Amendment of the US Constitution are far worse than Escrivá who would whip his body until his bathroom was red with his blood, for they seek the blood of a young girl who had the courage to defend the US Constitution.

Jessica Ahlquist (photo by Gretchen Ertl for The New York Times)

The one who has brought out the worse in Christians in Rhode Island is 16, the daughter of a firefighter and a nurse, a self-proclaimed nerd who loves  the fictional character Harry Potter created by J K Rawlings and, like most young people, is addicted to the privacy-invading social-media Facebook.  Her name is Jessica Ahlquist. In addition to being a student, an avid reader, and a Facebook devotee, the teenager is an outspoken atheist and has won the hatred of her heavily Roman Catholic city and its predatory priests having successfully sued the public school to get a prayer removed from the wall of her high school auditorium, where it has hung for 49 years.

Jessica Ahlquist in law office to discuss case

Federal Judge Ronald R. Lagueux ruled in January 2012 that the prayer’s presence at Cranston High School West was unconstitutional. Like many others in Rhode Island, he is Roman Catholic, but like John F. Kennedy, he would not be owned nor controlled by the Vatican and concluded that banner bearing the prayer violated the principle of government neutrality in religion. In part, the judges rulings were based on in part based on the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, and US Supreme Court Cases Lemon v. Kurtzman, Lynch v. Donnelly, and Lee v. Weisman.

Jessica Ahlquist enters federal court

In Lemon v. Kurtzman 403 U.S. 602 (1971), the Supreme Court ruled that Pennsylvania’s 1968 Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which allowed the state Superintendent of Public Instruction to reimburse nonpublic schools (most of which were Roman Catholic) for the salaries of teachers who taught secular material in the nonpublic schools, secular textbooks and secular instructional materials, violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment and upheld a decision of the First Circuit that had struck down the Rhode Island Salary Supplement Act providing state funds to supplement salaries at nonpublic elementary schools by 15%.  In Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668 (1984), while the Supreme Court upheld the right of communities to display sectarian holiday scenes (a crèche) and ruled that the crèche is a passive representation of religion and that there was “insufficient evidence to establish that the inclusion of the crèche is a purposeful or surreptitious effort to express some kind of subtle governmental advocacy of a particular religious” view. The Court, in a 5 to 4 decision, also stated that the Constitution “affirmatively mandates accommodation, not merely tolerance of all religions, and forbids hostility toward any.” There was dissent, however by four judges, who argued dissent argued “The effect on minority religious groups, as well as on those who may reject religion, is to convey the message that their views are not similarly worthy of public recognition nor entitled to public support. It was precisely this sort of chauvinism that the Establishment Clause was intended forever to prohibit.”  In Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992), came to litigation when the principal of Nathan Bishop Middle School in Providence, Rhode Island, Robert E. Lee, invited a Jewish rabbi to deliver a prayer at the 1989 graduation ceremony. Again, in a 5-4 decision, resulted, with the majority voting against Nathan Bishop Middle School, with Justice Kennedy, the swing vote, writing for the majority noted that the non-sectarian nature of the prayer was no defense in light of the Establishment Clause: “Through these means, the principal directed and controlled the content of the prayers. Even if the only sanction for ignoring the instructions were that the rabbi would not be invited back, we think no religious representative who valued his or her continued reputation and effectiveness in the community would incur the State’s displeasure in this regard. It is a cornerstone principle of our Establishment Clause jurisprudence that it is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers for any group of the American people to recite as a part of a religious program carried on by government, and that is what the school officials attempted to do.”  Rhode Island had become the exact reverse of Roger Williams original intent for establishing Rhode Island as a safe haven for the expression of all religious and non-religious people, where there would be, as he wrote, a wall separating church and state.

The judge’s understanding of the law was lost on the majority of what appears to many as miscreant Cranstonians where Roman Catholic churches have a stranglehold on rational thinking and hate is more common than are flowers in stores and gardens, when ruling for Jessica Ahlquist. In the weeks since the ruling, the repugnant residents crowded invidiously into school board meetings to demand an appeal to force the retention of the pestiferous poster. 

Cranston High School West prayer banner

The prayer, eight feet tall, is papered onto the wall in the Cranston West auditorium, near the stage. It has hung there since 1963, when a seventh grader wrote it as a sort of moral guide and that year’s graduating class presented it as a gift. It was a year after a landmark Supreme Court ruling barring organized prayer in public schools.

The prayer begins: “Our Heavenly Father, grant us each day the desire to do our best, to grow mentally and morally as well as physically, to be kind and helpful.” It juggernauts goes on for a few more lines before concluding with “Amen.”  

“Amen” is the most sectarian, offensive and repulsive of all the words in this pushed prayer.  It appears only in six of the Old Testament/Hebrew bible (twice in the Torah for the Orthodox Jew) books where it (אָמֵן) translates as “so be it” (cf. Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15-26; 1 Kings 1:36 repeated in its redaction 1 Chronicles 16:36; Nehemiah 5:13 and 8:6; Psalm 41:13, 72:19, 89:52, 106:48; and Jeremiah 28:6). For some later-day Hebrews it was the name of an angel (Isaiah 65:16: a “god of truth”). On the other hand “Amen” is found in twenty-three of the books of the Christian New Testament as ἀμήν, where it translates as “standfast” (cf. Matthew 6:13. 28:20; Luke 24:53; John 21:25—notice that it appears nowhere in the Gospel of Mark which was the first of the gospels to be written—and the Pauline texts written by colleges of writers: Romans 1:25, 9:5, 11:36, 15:33, 16:20, 24 and 27; 1 Corinthians 14:16 and 16:24; 2 Corinthians 1:20 and 13:14; Galatians 1:5 and 6:18; Ephesians 3:21 and 6:24; Philippians 4:20 and 23; Colossians 4:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:28; 2 Thessalonians 4:18 and 22; Titus [a spurious letter] 3:15; Philemon 25 (the text was not an original Pauline essay as it was written by Onesimus, an alleged servant of Paul who was illiterate; it is tantamount to claiming that the Koran was written by the illiterate camel driver Muhammad); Hebrews 13:21 and 25; 1 Peter 4:11, 5:11 and 14; 2 Peter 3:18; 1 John 5:21; 2 John 13; Jude (of dubious authorship) 25; and the horror tale that can be found in Hittite, Hyksos, Egyptian and other Canaanite sources, known in the Christian Bible as Revelation of Apocalypse 1:6, 7 and 18; 3:14; 5:14; 7:12 (where it is repeated twice(, 19:4; 22:20 and 21) and is a battle cry to suppress dissent and push a sectarian agenda.  In the Arabic it is آمين‎ and reflects a resurgence of emphasis (“Verily” or “So be it”) and was an afterthought coming after the word Dua (دعاء “supplication” or “invocation” and comes from Muhammad’s conversations with Jews living in Mecca before he wandered the desert and received the Koran from Allah through his messenger Gabriel).  It is a basic triconsonantal root word for most Semitic languages and people and is a derivative of the name of the Egyptian god Amun, dating before 1000 BCE (read: Bonwick, James (1956). Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought. Indian Hills, CO, USA, Falcon’s Wing Press.  pp. 123-125; originally published in London, UK: K. Paul & Co., 1878) the Egyptian hieroglyphic language shows the deity’s name as

Egyptian alphabet (a, i, u were not considered vowels)

having only three letters: AMN, as vowels in the earliest days of the language

First use of "Amen" (Egypt: 1520 BCE) to summon the sun

did not exist.  It shares the same root as the Hindu Aum.  All the initial statements by Jesus begin with Amen—which has no parallel in Hebrew scripture and makes the banner a distinctly Christian document. This alone makes the prayer at Cranston sectarian singling out Christianity as a church as the New Testament Greek word for church is ekklesia (εκκλησία) that correctly translates as “a calling out” being a meeting or a gathering (an assembly or a congregation and is singular—the only time that plural is used (Acts 19:37) is a direct reference to heathen temples. 

To claim that a church is a kuriakon or kyriakon refers to a building (εκκλησιών), not any people inside it, and was a reference to the goddess Circe to celebrate the return of the god sun (Apollo).  Christianity was a religion invented by the Emperor Constantine as the only religious source to provide values and direction.  It is definitely against the US Constitution and the framework of the founding Fathers as “Amen” is not found in the Constitution nor in any congressional papers or the writings of any founding Father nor in any recorded/written speech.  It does not exist. That makes it and the banner offensive, demeaning, and badgering and belittling to Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Farsi, Jews, and people of other religions and no religion and shows total contempt of the Bill of Rights and the Constitution of the USA.

Prayer on T-shirt (photo by Gretchen Ertl for The New York Times)

Today the predacious prayer has become a coat-of-arms, a decoration for T-shirts being sold to students, faculty, and citizens to raise revenues to appeal the judge’s decision and restore theocracy of theological thugs and evangelical extremists over the public school system to forcibly enshrine Christianity as the only acceptable faith.  To determine if the school would appeal the federal judge’s ruling, the school board held a public forum on the question.  This assembly was held at the Western Hills Middle School.

Supporters of the prayer banner sang and clapped their support of the banner, while booing students who spoke out against it (Source WJAR CNN)

The meeting was neither cordial nor constructive, and it did not address the issues of education but, as reporters, noting the words of the federal judge who ruled against the banner, the Western Hills Middle School at times had the atmosphere of a religious service for Tuesday night’s meeting during which a crowd of more than 200 zealots sang hymns and took turns demanding the School Committee appeal a court ruling ordering the banner removed.

The meeting was distinctly, recognizably, and offensively a sectarian exercise that was clearly in defiance of the Establishment Clause, and while Americans have freedom of speech, no American has the right to force any religious idea on another person by turning the meeting into a revival meeting, hurling epitaphs at Jessica Ahlquist that compared her to a Christian Mephistopheles, and chided and derided others who defended the removal of the offensive Christian prayer.  In a meeting that had a plurality of Roman Catholic apologists who blustered in the same way as the Coptic Christian monks under the sway of the Coptic Pope Theophilus in the fifth century, not only pulling the atheist librarian (Hypatia) from her chariot while they were busy burning “offensive” [Arian and secular] books, and tearing her skin from her back while she was still alive only to throw her into a burning holocaust fed by scrolls and other writings being incinerated to destroy evidence of opinions that went counter to state sanctioned religion, the denizen of deniers of human and civil rights voiced their support for a theocracy similar to the church-tie state between the Vatican and medieval Spain and Franco’s fascist Spain.  Because of a fear that such unreasonable and un-American activity would break out, the meeting included police escorts for those who took an “un-Christian” attitude and wanted the rule of law and the US Constitution’s First Amendment upheld. 

Tolerance and respect for the law was spat upon and shouted down by a resident of Cranston, Lisa French, who hurled dollar bills towards the dais (she was later arrested and escorted out for rushing the stage in response to another speaker’s opinion that the protesters were “ignorant” of the fiscal crisis in the city), loud cheers and some boos, the Cranston School Committee on Tuesday heard from a crowd of nearly 250 residents demanding they appeal a court ruling ordering the prayer banner at Cranston High School West come down. The rally (official a public meaning to discuss budget plans for the school) had spiraled further down and there was little difference between it and the rallies and book burning of Nazi Germany when even living professors were hurled into the flames as SS (Schutzstaffel: Protection Squad) raided schools and with student aid, the majority were Roman Catholic who were encouraged by their Roman Catholic priests and the Generalsynode  who were the pastors of Lutheran, Calvinist and other Protestant churches merged into the Church of Germany and  carried “offensive books” to the bonfires or irrational state-controlled religion.

Although the highlight of the night’s agenda was Superintendent Peter Nero’s fiscal 2013 budget presentation that was consigned to an afterthought, the auditorium at Western Hills Middle School was packed in the first School Committee meeting since Judge Ronald Lagueux ruled in favor of plaintiff 16-year-old Jessica Ahlquist and the state chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union, ordering the banner removed.

Many wore signs, provided by Christopher Young.  Young is a radical and mentally disturbed zealot (cp. Spilka, Bernard, Hood Jr., Ralph W., Hunsberger, Bruce, and Gorsuch, Richard (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (3rd Ed.). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press) who sees anything not Christian or Roman Catholic to be the work of the devil and claims to be a member of St. Paul and St. Charles Roman Catholic Churches in Cranston.  Young once ran for mayor of Cranston and is viewed as a perennial candidate for elected offices.

Chris Young Mayoral Candidate Ejected from Debate over Statue of the BVM

Young is a staunch Roman Catholic who believes that the rulings of the Pope carry greater weight than the laws of Congress or decisions of the US Supreme Court, who was once arrested for disorderly conduct for tossing an anti-abortion DVD boxed movie at US Representative Patrick Kennedy and screaming anti-abortion slogans in November 2009, while Kennedy was speaking at Brown University (Young was arrested, see video here) and announced he would not seek re-election; Young has described himself as the “servant of the Virgin Mary” (see the video where Young carries the statue of Mary to a mayoral debate, here; cf. Postman, Neil (1976). “Fanaticism”. Crazy Talk, Stupid Talk: How We Defeat Ourselves by the Way We Talk and What to Do About It. New York, NY: Delacrote Press. pp. 104–112: a fanatic sees any action that violates his or her concept of what is right as a violation of what he or she sees as normal and the will of a god or goddess, singular or plural; as Lloyd Steffen wrote in his book Holy War, Just War , “[Religious] fanaticism … invokes the idea of ultimacy, and its presence in religious life is undeniable” … “[Religious] fanatics are persons who attach to some object an ultimate valuation and then attend to that overvalued object with what is recognizable as a kind of religious devotion” such as the worship and protection of a “virgin” statue, the proclamation that any book is “the true and actual word of a god” and so forth; read: Steffen, Lloyd (2007). Holy War, Just War: Exploring the Moral Meaning of Religious Violence. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 81) and “unequivocally Roman Catholic” as with his singing Revelation as seen in this video (denoting religious fanaticism that was excused by Jeanmaría Escrivá and the Polish pope who suffered from various physical and mental illnesses) where the Vatican is the last word for mortals and the Pope is the only mouthpiece of god, and repeats that in 2010, he attends St. Charles Roman Catholic Church on the corner of Cranston and Dexter Streets in Cranston. In my professional judgment, Young is a danger to himself and his community, and is quite capable of killing Jessica Ahlquist or any who dissent from his Opus Dei viewpoints and excessive Roman Catholicism).  The signs that Young handed out screamed “APPEAL – or vote them out!”

The vast majority in attendance were there to call for an appeal and decry the court decision, though several speakers did urge the committee not to appeal and said it would be a lost cause, including Ahlquist herself, who was led in and out of the auditorium by an entourage of Cranston Police officers.  Only one person was allowed to speak twice: Pastor Richard Lehe who claims he speaks directly for god (see video here).

Ein feste Burg (Luther's original signature and composition) 1529 ed.

Before the meeting started, the crowd broke out into song, at first by singing God Bless America and eventually drifting into Christian hymns, a type of group psychosis exhibiting a collective psychotic mood formation bordering on harbingering violence.  Many lustful voices echoed through the room, with tears swelling, and damnation of Jessica interspersed between prayers, strangely similar to the marching Lutheran armies spilling carnage and bloodshed in their wake to confiscate Roman Catholic holdings during the Protestant Reformation (Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott a paraphrase of Psalm 46, sung by all invading armies throughout northern Europe) with the Lutheran cult being forcibly established throughout Scandinavia in the same manner as Roman Catholicism forced itself on the Moors of Spain and the advanced civilizations of the Inkas in the Andes of South America: the cross was used as a war weapon. It was as if the god of Rhode Island could not protect himself but needed the physical support for him to enact vengeance upon the unfaithful.

Patrick McAssey, a 17-year-old student council president at Cranston public school, began the public comment by stating he believes the prayer is “not in fact a Christian prayer,” bur rather a “positive statement that reaches all walks of life.” McAssey said “Heavenly Father,” and “Amen,” which is how the prayer begins and ends, could relate to many religions, not just Christianity. That’s why he believes the banner should stay.  The greatest problem with McAssey is that the young man selectively or unintentionally (or lacking refined education) either ignores history, has not been taught history truthfully, or transmogrifies history, for “Heavenly Father” goes back beyond 5000 BCE when it was a term for the Egyptian sky god: a cow, detailed in The Book of the Heavenly (Celestial, Divine) Cow, Funerary text of Egypt’s New Kingdom, and we also find fairly complete versions of the book in the tombs of Seti I (KV17), Ramesses II (KV7) and Ramesses III (KV11); read Hornung, Erik (1999). Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, Cornell, NY, USA: Cornell University Press).  I discuss the ancient Egyptian use of “Amen” (the name of another Egyptian god: Ἄμμων) in another place in this essay, but note here that it is a universal word, with Sanskrit foundation, and has nothing to do with a religious ejaculation nor payer before the advent of redacted records for the Emperor Constantine’s catholic [universal] church after 325 CE when all opposing books, especially by Arius and Gnostics, were burned publicly to silence dissent.

McAssey, like a wounded soldier fighting a lost cause that was created out of a lie, marshaled on in a psychological syndrome of self-invited persecution and paranoid ideation, declaring: “Despite all the unwanted attention brought to this school, we should appeal this case.  If we’re going to go down, let’s go down fighting.” (Cp. Read, John, and Argyle, Nick (1999), “Hallucinations, Delusions, and Thought Disorder Among Adult Psychiatric Inpatients with a History of Child Abuse,” Psychiatric Services November 1, 1999, vol. 50, No. 11; ref. Goff, DC; Brotman, AW; Kindlon, D; et al. (1991). “The delusion of possession in chronically psychotic patients.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease179:567-571, and Blackwood, Nigel J.; Howard, Robert J.; Bentall, Richard P.; and, Murray, Robin M. (2001). “Cognitive Neuropsychiatric Models of Persecutory Delusions,” American Journal of Psychiatry, Apr 2001; 158 (4); 527-539).

Cranston resident Lisa French, who from my research has no educational background nor license in law, declared the judge’s decision “an unconstitutional ruling” and warned the committee that a precedent is being set.  She stated: “How should a small minority be able to decide what should stand and what should not stand? I don’t know what kind of math you’re using but when I went to school, two is greater than one.”

French reiterated a frequently made point during the meeting, that many believe since “separation of church and state” does not explicitly, word for word, appear in the constitution, which is correct.  Her assertion, however, that there is no reason why the government can’t sponsor prayer and religion has been rejected repeatedly by all degrees of jurisprudence (e.g. Bradfield v. Roberts , 175 U.S. 291 (1899), Quick Bear v. Leupp , 210 U.S. 50 (1908), Schneider v. State of New Jersey , 308 U.S. 147 (1939), West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette , 319 U.S. 624 (1943), Everson v. Board of Education , 330 U.S. 1 (1947), Torcaso v. Watkins , 367 U.S. 488 (1961) that addresses the issue of a required belief system, Engel v. Vitale , 370 U.S. 421 (1962) that can directly apply to Cranston, RI, as it states that state officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools the state, even if the prayer is denominationally neutral, Chamberlin v. Public Instruction Board , 377 U.S. 402 (1964), Wooley v. Maynard , 430 U.S. 705 (1977) that prohibits any government or agency from disseminating an ideological message by displaying it in a manner and for the express purpose that it be observed and read by the public, Stone v. Graham , 449 U.S. 39 (1980) rejecting that a Kentucky statue requiring the posting of a copy of the Ten Commandments, even purchased with private funds, is unconstitutional, Wallace v. Jaffree , 472 U.S. 38 (1985) that a one-minute of silence violates the Establishment clause of the First Amendment, Edwards v. Aguillard , 482 U.S. 578 (1987) that Louisiana’s “Creationism Act” violates the First Amendment since it lacks a clear secular purpose; etc.).

Following the collective psychosis in the auditorium (cp. an interview by Harry Nutt with Gertrud Hardtmann on Eine Bewegung, die keener mehr kontrollieren kamm in Tageszeitung No. 5766, February 19, 1919), French warned that the entire committee would be voted out if they didn’t choose to appeal. “If you don’t defend the banner, you will not be reelected,” French shouted. “Any of you!” 

French demonstrated, effectively, illusions of grandeur and hysterical mob psychosis (cf. T. W. Adorno, “Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda.” In Vol. III of Psychoanalysis and the Social Sciences. Ed. Géza Roheim. New York: International Universities Press, 1951, pp. 408-433. Reprinted in Vol. VIII of Gesammelte Schriften. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1975). Any veneer that Christianity was a religion of peace or love was firmly erased and exposed the stagnant skeleton on which faith was drapped in Cranston having been cannibalized by hate honed from pulpits, priests and pastors, parents in homes and sidewalk evangelists.

Taylor Grenga, a junior at Cranston West, said she thought that although the banner contained “a good moral message,” that is not a reason to keep it because the school already has a school creed hanging in the auditorium. Grenga was booed by some members of the audience, which prompted Nero to scold the crowd for not setting a good example, he said. What the general attitude did was show not only mob psychosis, but borderline personality disorder among the opponents to Grenga’s arguments (cf. Goodman, Marianne; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; and, Siever, Larry (2009). “Quieting the Affective Storm of Borderline Personality Disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry May; 166(5); 522-528). Nero continued: “The last few days, we’ve seen attacks — some of them which we have no control over, which are on blog sites. And you wonder where everybody’s getting down on kids for saying these things but you folks who boo — you’re setting the example for these kids [sic]. We have not sent a good sample and you folks need to set a good example.”

(L-R) Secretary of State Mollis and Andrea Iannazzi

Even before the public comment period began, School Committee chairwoman Andrea Iannazzi warned the crowd that anyone speaking ill will of Ahlquist “clearly does not understand the intent of the banner and will be asked to leave”. Iannazi added that even if she doesn’t agree with Ahlquist, “we can all recognize her bravery for standing up for what she believes in.”

Some in the crowd couldn’t contain their frustration, including French, who screamed that she was being slandered when Kerri Kelleher spoke and refuted an assertion by a previous speaker — who identified herself as a Narragansett resident — that the district has a $133 million budget and could easily afford to continue the legal battle.  Lisa French charged the stage, throwing a fistful of dollars toward the committee, screaming “Here’s your money!” Iannazzi ordered French to be escorted after the room by police.

 Ahlquist, herself, addressed the committee and urged its members not to pursue an appeal. She noted that Judge Lagueux is a conservative Catholic and “and even he sees this is not to be in a public school.”

“This is not about religion,” Ahlquist said. “This is about the Constitution and it always has been. Religion does not have a place in public school and this country was not founded on the idea of Christianity and Christian principles. It was founded on the idea of religious freedom. If you want to defend the Constitution, you will remove the banner.”

Ahlquist was seconded by Ray Bosscia, a longtime Cranston resident who said he initially was in favor of keeping the banner, but after reading Lagueux’s decision, he has begun to think “he may be right.” Bosscia, unwilling to make a deeper commitment to the Constitution, said maybe an “Our heavenly father” and “amen” could be removed from the banner to keep it in place. That was a suggestion from the ACLU early on, but the committee rejected it.  Bosscia noted: “If we had done that in the beginning, would we be here now?”

The committee did not take any immediate action on the banner issue at the meeting. School Committee Member Frank Lombardi said he appreciated everyone who showed interest in the issue and “think it provides for spirited debate.” The Beckett Fund for Religious Liberty, which takes direction from the Vatican and provides legal services to the school district, is reviewing the case, promising to let the committee know if an appeal is worth considering. That means no action will be taken anytime soon, Lombardi said.

Allan Fung first Asian-American mayor of Cranston elected 2008

Since the ruling, the prayer has been covered with a tarp. The school board deliberated for some time before deciding delay consideration on an appeal—an appeal that would drain off the last revenues the school had reserved for education: books, teachers, staff, and so forth.  On January 13, 2012, the Mayor of the city, Allan Fung, was among those who disagreed with the decision to remove the banner, but noted the expense that the city would incur in an appeal

Jessica continues to receive online threats from students, parents, priests, and others, despite the fact that Rhode Island has an anti-bullying law (Bullying/Harassment Statute 16-21-24 (2003) and 16-21-26; H7213 (2008) includes “electronic communications” in the definition of harassment, intimidation or bullying that is aimed at cyberbullying, a favorite form of tormenting others by psychopaths and schizophrenics. Statute 11-21-2 (1956) makes hazing, defined in detail in Statute §11-21-1(1909), a misdemeanor offense, punishable of up to a $500 fine and/or imprisonment from 30 days to one year) A similar, national statute was initiated by one-time

David Cicilline

Providence Rhode Island mayor  who later ran for the US Congress seat vacated by Patrick Kennedy: Congressman David Cicilline (D-RI) who became the fourth openly gay member of Congress: (read here and  here).  Cicilline has been consistently vocal in his opposition to any form of bullying, and has declared his support for divergent views. What happened in Cranston was overwhelming,

 The local police have escorted her at school as even teachers along with classmates have vowed to “punch her in the face”, commit rape, and assassinate the youth (read here) and the observations of her uncle who has kept a video log of school board meetings and comments made by citizens of Cranston.  Jessica received many from her school. Here are a select sampling of hate messages sent to Jessica Ahlquist from classmates:

Unquestionably, AJ St. Angelo has serious mental problems, for his Tweets stand out among the others that rampaged across the airwaves. He is in need of psychiatric help. To discuss rape is one thing, but to threaten rape, even by an imaginary being is deranged. Rape is an element in the crime of murder and genocide–the rapist has one intent: that the person (female or male) is unable to reproduce and thereby cannot educate a new generation in what the rapist considers to be heresy, blasphemy, or irreligiosity.  While AJ St. Angelo shows definite sadistic psychological imbalance, his protestations also indicate a suppressed libido that makes him feel sexually inadequate either to penis size or observed or feared inability to complete a normal sexual act (Rice, Marnie E.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Quinsey, Vernon L. (2005). The Causes of Rape: Understanding Individual Differences in Male Propensity for Sexual Aggression (The Law and Public Policy.). American Psychological Association (APA) or impotence). St. Angelo’s introduction of Satan into his screed indicates that his ability to think rationally is impaired by religious imprisonment of his mind, that he has been taught that Satan is the author of crimes against people and the ultimate punisher–in keeping with late medieval Roman Catholic theology and an emerging Protestant embrace of demonology. The introduction of Satan as the instrument of rape also demonstrates an attraction to the abnormal or supernatural forces, and may indicate a suppressed desire to experience similar penetration. At the same time, it is a covert cry that St. Angelo feels that Jessica Ahlquist is attached to the illusionary being that represents the base of evil since rape is generally by someone the victim knows rather than by a stranger.

Eric Rosa has been submerged too far in the cult of the cross, where he suggests that Ahlquist must be “nailed to the cross”.  This can be read two ways: (1) that Jessica is the new saviour, although that is not his intent, and/or (2) that Jessica deserves to die (strangely by crucifixion as was the alleged lot of the New Testament Jesus).  In both cases, Rosa is fixated with religion and sees any attack on it as an attack upon his personal god (cp. Roberts, Laura Weiss Roberts; Hollifield, Michael; and, McCarty, Teresita (1998). “Psychiatric Evaluation of a “Monk” Requesting Castration: A Patient’s Fable with Morals” American Journal of Psychiatry, March 1998; 155 (3); 415-420).

Taylor Crocker shows classic borderline personality disorder and the desire to destroy to elevate herself as a sage, while recognizing that she is mentally unstable. While Crocker is speaking for herself, she writes that “everyone” will go after Ahlquist as if that was a commonly accepted requirement, emphasizing pathological comorbidity (multiple diagnosis) that is usually associated with opioid addiction where psychiatric symptoms and disorders may be drug-induced, independent, or interrelated. Substance use and addiction can mimic, exacerbate, or precipitate psychiatric personality disorder symptoms leading for calls for violence and homicidal ideation (cf. Robins, E, and Guze, S.B. (1970) “Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: Its application to schizophrenia.” American Journal of Psychiatry. 1970;126:983–6).

Rev. Brandon Smith (RI)

Cranston, a city confounded and cursed with raw hatred has little to brag about as the city has run out of money, the school nearly bankrupt, and with the abhorrent aberration of despicable displays of Christian charity championed in churches, chapels, and among clergy, many of whom have brought dread with the rise of priestly pedophile preying (Jeffrey Thomas, of Massachusetts, and Helen McGonigle, of Connecticut, who have gone on record saying that they were raped as children by the Rev. Brendan Smyth, an Irish priest who had been assigned to Our Lady of Mercy in East Greenwich from 1965 to 1968), the  city of 80,000 just south of Providence, has throbbed with raw emotion as if it were aroused erotically—in the same manner as was the sport of those who participated in the religious torture of nonsubscribers and nonbelievers throughout the Roman Catholic world.  This is not just the verbal ejaculations and barbed insults hurled at

Peter G. Palumbo

Jessica Ahlquist coming from the twisted mentality of residents, but also barked by the execrable State Representative Peter G. Palumbo, a Democrat from Cranston (16th District), who damned Jessica as “an evil little thing” on a popular talk radio show and publicly shows his contempt for anything that offends his religious views.  His denunciation will win him votes for he represents the worse and most bigoted element in his constituency, lacking all respect for the struggle for equality and civil rights in the USA. While Palumbo does represent the bigots and the Roman Catholics in Cranston, he does not represent the ideals of the USA nor the stated platform of the Democratic Party in the USA.  He is more in keeping with the Dixiecrats and the numerous hate organizations listed by the SPLC and other groups.

Alexandra Vachon’s Tweets show the greatest instability over the issue of Jessica Ahlquist’s right to express her opinions on matter of religion.  She vows violence but retreats under fear of being punished.  This is classic schizophrenia and falls into the comorbidity classification since there is obviously a part of her life she keeps hidden (it could be alcoholism, which seems most plausible, or any other drug of choice) as each of her Tweets indicates a joyful celebration over the possible defacement (a “punch” in the mouth, etc.) that shows sadism at its worse.  It is no longer “child’s play” or a “teenage tantrum” but rather a blunt statement of intent. Ms. Vachon vouches psychiatric problems for herself and for others, not just Ms. Ahlquist. On the nature and evaluation/elevation of hurtful words, read: Tiecher, Martin H.; Samson, Jacqueline A.; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; and McGreenery, Cynthia E. (2010). “Hurtful Words: Association of Exposure to Peer Verbal Abuse with Elevated Psychiatric Symptom Scores and Corpus Callosum Abormalities,”  American Journal of Psychiatry, December 2010; 167 (12); 1464-1471; ref. Siever, Larry J. (2008). “Neurobiology of Violence and Aggression.” American Journal of Psychiatry, April; 165 (4); 429-442).

There has been no effort to shore up or defend Ahlquist’s right of descent against enforced religiosity, but there have been concerted efforts to make her life the Christian concept of hell on earth. Three separate florists refused to deliver her roses sent from the Wisconsin-based Freedom from Religion Foundation, a national atheist group. The group, known as the FFRF, filed a complaint with the Rhode Island Commission for Human Rights, where it languishes as several clerks fingered their rosaries.

Annie Laurie Gaylor

Annie Laurie Gaylor, co-president of the foundation, told reporters, when the news broke that the flowers would not be delivered, stated, “I was amazed.” This led the organization to give the young woman $13,000 from support and scholarship funds, with other people and groups setting up similar funds for Jessica’s future college education. Gaylor noted, “We haven’t seen a case like this in a long time, with this level of revilement and ostracism and stigmatizing.”

Jessica was baptized as a baby in the Roman Catholic Church.  She stopped believing in God at age 10 when she learned that prayer was talking to herself and that no god answered prayers.  Because of this realization, Jessica saw the prayer was an affront. “It seemed like it was saying, every time I saw it, ‘You don’t belong here,’ ” she said the other night during an interview at a Starbucks in Cranston.

Ahlquist’s action was not hasty. It took time.  It required thought.  A friend brought the prayer to Jessica’s attention in 2010, when she was a high school freshman. She said nothing at first, but before long someone else — a parent who remained anonymous — filed a complaint with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) who has as its goal “to defend and preserve individual rights and liberties”. That lawsuit intimidated the school board, as the school system was running low on money given the deteriorating economic conditions in Rhode Island. The Cranston school board began to hold hearings on whether to remove the prayer, and Jessica spoke at all of them. She also started a Facebook page calling for the prayer’s removal (it now has almost 4,000 members) and began researching Roger Williams, who founded Rhode Island as a haven for religious freedom.

In March 2011, at a rancorous meeting that Judge Ronald Rene Lagueux of United States District Court in Providence, of whom several complaints were launched against him, described in his ruling as resembling “a religious revival,” the school board voted 4-3 to keep the prayer. Some members said it was an important piece of the school’s history; others said it reflected secular values they held dear. Lagueux was nominated a federal judge by Ronald Reagan on January 21, 1986 and was an associate judge on the Rhode Island Supreme Court 1968-1986. He received an LL.B from Harvard Law School in 1956, earning an A.B. in 1953 from Bowdoin College in Maine (he was born in 1931 in Lewiston, Maine). No one explained how a prayer could be secular.

The Rhode Island chapter of the ACLU then asked Jessica if she would serve as a plaintiff in a lawsuit. She agreed.  The lawsuit was filed the next month.

Lincoln Chaffee defends "holiday tree" as RI tradition

New England is not the sort of place where battles over the division of church and state tend to crop up. It is the least religious region of the country, according to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.  Rhode Island is an exception.  Rhode Island is the nation’s most Catholic state, and dust-ups over religion are not infrequent. In December 2011, several hundred people protested at the Statehouse after Gov. Lincoln Chafee (who is among those who want the banner removed), an independent, lighted what he called a “holiday tree” in honor of Roger Williams who founded Rhode Island.

The most evil force, as would be expected, demanding the retention of the prayer banner to save souls is the rank Roman Catholic Church of Rhode

Bee England (left) and Marie Ferrazzano (right) defend theocracy over democracy

Island.  Bee England, a parishioner at St. Charles Borromeo in Providence, and Marie Ferrazzano of St. Mary parish in Cranston wore signs indicating their support for an appeal of the federal judge’s ruling against the prayer banner, and later boasted that only the Vatican should speak on matters of law when the issue was education as all people should be trained to be servants of the Roman Catholic Church. The assistant pastor (the fulltime Pastor is Rev. James. R. Collins) of St. Matthew Parish (it was forced to close its school at the end of 2010 because of diminishing enrollment from 299 to 119, and a fire that cost too much damage to be able to afford to rebuild), 15 Francis Avenue in Cranston, was among those who attended school meetings to show his support to keep the offensive banner on the school wall, commenting in a manner similar to the Dominican Inquisitors of the fifteenth century when faced with rebellion in Spain: “If we go down, we go down with a fight.” This same smugness was reiterated by the Spaniards when the conquered the Inka Empire in the sixteenth century and murdered its king and most of the court. There was no religious tolerance then, nor ever in the Roman Catholic Church’s history.

Roman Catholic Inquisition torture of women

What the people who assembled to denounce the judge’s opinion based on law and the Constitution want is a world matching the fifteenth century where all dissenters were tortured and put to death by garroting, auto-de-fé, Iron Maidens, water-boarding and other devilish devices that John Choon Yoo who worked in the US Department of Justice suggested to George W. Bush (a man that the one-time US Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA) called a “better Roman Catholic [sic: Bush is a Methodist] than John F. Kennedy” (read here and here  and here) that recounts how Santorum saw himself as a Roman Catholic missionary while in the US Senate, with some claiming that the assassination of JFK was a Vatican-

Waterboarding was common during the Spanish Inquisition (15th-17th centuries)

Jesuit conspiracy) that torture and water boarding were acceptable means of

Torture of women was especially popular with the German Inquisition

extracting critical information and had been used by the Roman Catholic Church for more than 1500 years.

The Roman Catholic Church in Rhode Island has the support of the Washington, DC based Becket Foundation for Religious Liberty, a non-profit Roman Catholic interest legal and educational institute that works to protect the freedoms of Roman Catholics and “reasonable” Christians who might convert to Roman Catholicism. The most odious opportunist was Monsignor Richard Sheahan, pastor of Holy Apostles Church in Cranston (read the official Roman Catholic biography), who argued that the ruling further “secularized” society by “attempting to remove God from public view” but never clarified his comment on when god was ever seen in Rhode Island.  Clergy comments

Thomas J. Tobin, bishop of Rhode Island

were endorsed by Rhode Island bishop Thomas J. Tobin, who had long protected pedophile priests in Rhode Island parishes and church schools

The Rhode Island bishop , Thomas J. Tobin, admitted that 125 Rhode Island priests had been accused of molesting children (without any reference to the numerous adults) of both genders, but, following instructions from the Vatican under the pontificates of John Paul II and Benedict XVI, only allowed 29 of the pedophile priests who admitted to sexually molesting young girls and boys, to be publicly identified (read here and here), claiming that as much as he opposed the ruling, “resorting to personally insulting and even threatening language in such public controversies is totally unacceptable, especially when directed at a young person such as Jessica Ahlquist who has every right to promote her beliefs and express her opinion.”

Bishop Thomas Tobin has a long record of double-talk and negative actions.  While protecting pedophile priests, he has denied communion to those who practice contraception or do not adhere rigidly to official Roman Catholic Church dogma and denied Congressman Patrick Kennedy communion because of his pro-choice convictions.    As Ruth Moore of Hull, Massachusetts, stated for the record: “He claims that it’s important that we protect the unborn. But it’s equally as important to protect those who have been born and those young children who have been raped and sodomized by clerics and priests. But yet he seems to protect those clerics.”  This was echoed by Randi Rhodes who comments regularly, that the bishop’s stand is “Love the fetus, hate the child”.  This is especially common among the Roman Catholic clergy in Cranston who say nothing about the death threats directed against Ahlquist by their parishioners but mourn the covering of the prayer banner in a public school. Where Opus Dei is strongest in Rhode Island, Tobin is championed as a “soldier of Christ, armed with shield and sword” to fight against those who would deny “the message of Jesus”. The Catholic Action League of Massachusetts called Tobin’s action an “act of courage, fidelity and charity, intended to prevent scandal and sacrilege.” 

1997 Vatican letter requiring hiding child abuse

The Vatican, in 1997, with the knowledge of Pope John Paul II, warned bishops in the USA as it warned Irish bishops not to report sex offendersin the clergy for fear it would lead to defections from the church in a letter that emphasized the church’s right to handle all child-abuse allegations and determine punishments in-house rather than give that power to civil

Archbishop Luciano Storero

authorities; the letter was signed by the late Archbishop Luciano Storero (who wrote the canon on sexual abuse by priests; Benedict XVI continues the cover-up; with child sex rapes by priests and nuns (read here and here), Pope John Paul II’s diplomat to Ireland, the letter instructs Irish bishops that their new policy of making the reporting of suspected crimes mandatory “gives rise to serious reservations of both a moral and canonical nature.”  John Paul II’s duplicity in the cover-up has been exceeded only the rank retaliation of Benedict XVI who demands total allegiance to Vatican rule.

It was decreed by the Vatican that it is “far more important” to protect symbols to hold the “church base” together, especially catering to the elderly who could leave their money to further church goals.  The plight of children meant nothing until droves of Roman Catholics left the Vatican’s church, and thousands of sexually abused boys and girls (now men and women) have brought lawsuits against the Roman Catholic Church in state and provincial courts from Canada and the USA to Ireland and Europe, and as distant as Spain (see video here), Ireland (see the video here), Australia (that has a record of nuns selling babies see video here) and New Zealand (see video here).  It is a common practice, worldwide.

Roman Catholics in the public school meeting on the issue of appealing the banner were quick to call on the school to use public funds (which include taxes paid by non-Roman Catholics) to protect the sectarian prayer. The elderly, fearing death and for their souls (read here and here),  were among the most outspoken, calling Ahlquist “the devil” and “a whore of evil”—while being noticeably upset when asked if they had ever done something they did not confess to a priest or question as to their sexuality or spirituality. Threats were hurled endlessly, not only at reporters and the Ahlquist family (Jessica in particular), but also at any supporters seeking the removal of the banner.

Many alumni this week said they did not remember the prayer from their high school days but felt an attachment to it nonetheless. According to published

Don Fox and family (Facebook)

reports, Donald Fox, a 1985 graduate of Cranston West, gun enthusiast (“shooting” is his avocation) an unsuccessful Republican candidate for the 47th District in 2010 losing by 196 votes, and endorsed by the Tea Party for a run in 2012 for the Rhode Island legislature, noted: “I am more of a constitutionalist but find myself strangely on the other side of this. The prayer banner espouses nothing more than those values which we all hope for our children, no matter what school they attend or which religious background they hail from.”

Brittney Lanni (Facebook)

Brittany Lanni, who graduated from Cranston West in 2009, said that no one had ever been forced to recite the prayer and, identifying herself as a “daughter of Jesus,” called Jessica “an idiot.”  She could not remember what Matthew 5:22 or 7:1 said. Instead, Lanni excused her argument by comparing the prayer banner to economic solvency: “If you don’t believe in that, take all the money out of your pocket, because every dollar bill says, ‘In God We Trust’.”  The first time “In God We Trust” appeared on our coins was in 1864 on the new two-cent coin, and by 1909 it was included on most the other coins. The slogan was forced on all of the citizens of the USA during the Age of Fear under Roman Catholic US Senator Joe McCarthy (R-WI) in 1955 when Red Baiting (anti-communist hysteria that is applauded by the Roman Catholic Church: coming from the anti-democratic Catholic League of the USA) was at its pinnacle (see an apologia pro vita Joe McCarthy by the Jesuit Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the [Roman] Catholic Church, 1950-1957. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina) , when, during the height of the cold war, on July 11, 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Public Law 140 making it mandatory that all coinage and paper currency display the motto, making the slogan the official motto of the USA over the protestations of many.

Raymond Santilli, whose family owns one of the four flower shops that refused to deliver to Jessica, said he declined for safety reasons, knowing the controversy around the case (the flower shop has a gross income of $98,000 a year and employs two people). People from around the world have called to support or attack his decision, which he said he stood by even after being offered police protection. Santilli reasoned that the publicity would chase away steady clients, giving the lie to his claim he was worried about employee safety (video here).

A second bigot is the hate-filled owner of Twins Florist (who has a business located at 1083 Park Avenue with an income of under $500,000 a year)  in Cranston owned and operated by Marina Plowman who chortled that discrimination is her right as a form of freedom of speech. Floral Express located at 30 Phenix Avenue in Cranston was the second Cranston, RI, floral shop that employs between one and four people, and has an income under $500,000, refused the order and earmarked the right of the business to openly discriminate dispute US Supreme Court rulings to the contrary.

Sean Condon and Stephanie Ewart-Condon co-owners of Glimpse of Gaia (photo Emily Groves: Norwich CT Bulletin)

Lawsuits are being filed against all three Cranston florists for discrimination, defamation of character and other charges infringing upon human and civil rights. Co-owner of Glimpse of Gaia Florist Sean Condon (video here), drove all the way from Connecticut to deliver the flowers, stating that “we don’t discriminate against people for any reason” unlike the rampant discrimination that is found everywhere in Cranston, Rhode Island.

As it is true everywhere, money has greater weight than charity, justice, or kindness.  It was the greed and quest for money that led by Pope Clement V in 1307 (a Frenchman born at Villandraut in Gascony in the Bordelais region c. 1260 – died April 20, 1314 at Roquemaure, Provence, and known as a mercenary with a greed for gold) to order that all Knights Templar (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici name; “Poor Fellow-soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon) were to be executed so that he could confiscate more than 9,000 properties as well as countless pastures, mills and other commercial ventures (the trials of the Masters of the Order were shames, reaching the same nadir depths as the inquisitions under John Paul II and Benedict XVI. Many knights abjured their oaths, but the leaders of

Pope orders the torture and assassination of the Knights Templar; depicted is the execution of the Grand Master De Molay and Geoffrey de Chamey who warned against the encroachment of the Vatican

the Order, the elderly Grand Master Jacques de Molay, who had confessed under torture, retracted his forced statement. His close  associate Geoffrey de Charney, Preceptor of Normandy, followed de Molay’s example and insisted on his innocence. Both men were declared guilty of being relapsed heretics, and were sentenced to burn alive at the stake in Paris on March 18, 1314. De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he could face the Notre Dame Cathedral and hold his hands together in prayer. According to legend, he called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God. His actual words were recorded on the parchment as: “Dieu sait qui a tort et a pëché. Il va bientot arriver malheur à ceux qui nous ont condamnés à mort” (free translation: “God knows who is wrong and has sinned. Soon a calamity will occur to those who have condemned us to death”).  Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of the year); the pestilential Pope Urban II called for the First of numerous crusades that led to the butchery of Jews, women and infants throughout Europe and the Middle East, forced the conquest and destruction of Constantinople so that it would fall ultimately to the hordes of Muslims, and give reason for Roman Catholic nuns from Ireland to Australia to kidnap and sell babies to the highest bidder. None of this mattered to Santilli, although, thinking of Jessica, he said, “I’ve got a daughter, and I hope my daughter is as strong as she is, O.K.?”

Jessica was not surprised at the contemporary Christian response for it matches the reality of Christianity since its formation and forceful spread under the slogan “convert or die”.  Jessica had been used to it since a child.  She knew that the Jesus of the New Testament was schizophrenic, according to his numerous biographers who ended up with their various writings declared canon by various church councils. Jesus was portrayed as loving little children (Luke 18:16), and coming to the earth not to bring peace but a sword (Matthew 10:34).

Ahlquist said she had stopped believing in God when she was in elementary school and her mother fell ill for a time.  Jessica told reporters: “I had always been told that if you pray, God will always be there when you need him,” she said. “And it didn’t happen for me, and I doubted it had happened for anybody else. So yeah, I think that was just like the last step, and after that I just really didn’t believe any of it.”

Reporters asked Jessica if she empathized in any way with members of her community who want the prayer to stay.  Her response was: “I’ve never been asked this before,” then paused, and said: “It’s almost like making a child get a shot even though they don’t want to. It’s for their own [sic: reflexive pronoun is incorrect] good. I feel like they might see it as a very negative thing right now, but I’m defending their Constitution, too.

Jessica’s charity towards her attackers and columnists defied any Christianity in the Cranston community. While Christianity requires charity (1 Corinthians 13:1-10 ff), atheists, it appears especially in the case of Jessica Ahlquist, are naturally charitable, forgiving and understanding–not needing a god to help others or to speak out for equal rights and self-determination.

1 Comment

Filed under American Civil Liberties Union, Ancient Egypt, atheists, Bullying, Christian Terrorists, Roman Catholicism

Zombies, Matthew 27:52-53, Southern Baptists and reality

Zombies (the “living dead”) have always been a part of the world’s sacred and profane literature.  Legends abound about zombies and other ghouls.  Each tale was created to keep the people passive: to oppress them with religious dogma that would put their food and wealth onto the tables and into the pockets of the priests, pastors, rabbis, mullahs and imams, and similar soothsayers. Religion has long been the yoke to harness the poor to do the bidding unquestioningly of those who would speaker for god. The quickest path to wealth is through the ministry, requiring next to no labor or thinking.

Easter Island statues memorialize a prehistoric zombie outbreak

Zombies and their depiction go back at least

Shaft of the dead man - Lascaux Cave

to 35,000 – 23,000 BCE in Romanian caves, 25,000 – 15,000 BCE, as seen in the famed caves of  Lascaux, France, and of course the more famous statues on Easter Island.  There are depictions of similar living dead that date to 60,000 BCE in Katanda, Central Africa.  There is evidence of zombiphobia in Egypt as early as 3500 BCE (Maish, A., and R. Friedman. Pondering Paddy: Unwrapping the Mysteries of HK43. Nekhen News 11: 6-7; and, Murray, M.A., 1956. “Burial customs and beliefs in the hereafter in Predynastic Egypt”. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 42: 86-96.).

There is commentary on a purported zombie attacks in ancient Egypt as early as 3200 BC.   However, most of the tales were maintained to keep the people satisfied, and there is little hard evidence that zombies existed except in the minds of local citizens.  Most of the alleged evidence for zombies is from and Hierakonpolis where some workers were stricken when their brain had been infected with the virus Solanum that was claimed to turn people into zombies: they walk upright but in a near catatonic state, have halting speech, etc. (the virus does not exist; it was made up by Max Brooks to support his book on zombies and zombification).

Solanum seaforthianum (Brasilian Nightshade)

The plant solanum was cited by Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) in a botanical essay. What is known is that only green parts and unripe fruit are poisonous to people; however, there are many edible varietals including the potato, tomato, and eggplant.

 While Solanum, as a plant, is poisonous and has been fatal, it is also used by native people as medicine but in low amounts.  This plant is known as Giant Devil’s-fig (Solanum chrysotrichum) has been shown to be an effective treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis in a scientific study. It is most commonly found in Australia.

Solanum. chrysotrichum

 The Assyrians were among the most ferocious. Ashurbanipal, king from 668 to 627 BCE, was recorded as having exalted: “I will hack up the flesh [of my enemies] and then carry it with me to show off in other countries”.  His heirs were equal to every move of the king, cutting open the bellies of their opponents “as though they were young rams” and demanding that the people see “the living dead walk among them.”

Mesopotamia was a haven for many zombie stories, including those that prelude the single reference in the Gospel of Matthew.  The issue of zombies raising from the dead, stepping out of their tombs, waiting to hear the Judgment Call (Apocalypse) is as old as recorded time, and in Sumerian and Akaddian records matches the Biblical account added to Matthew 27 (verses 52-53: καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων  ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ  εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς, compare it to 2 Kings 13:21 for a similar resurrection; cf. Isaiah 26:19, and the far older Babylonian lore in Job 42:17 that was fully plagiarized by the early Hebrews). It is found in the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld a goddess who goes to the Netherworld to see her sister Ereshkigal. Ishtar is the goddess of sex and war, and her sister is goddess of the underworld; male deities are not yet supreme.

Ishtar (Goddess of sex and war; storms Hell's Gate and wins)

The Mesopotamian Biblical account of the Decent of Ishtar to the Netherworld, preserved on sanctified clay tablets (the best known is the first

Gilgamesh Tablet XI recounting the Great Flood

two-thirds of Tablet XI (created c. 2700 BCE; cf. Tigay, Jeffrey H. (1982), The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic, Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 217 f.) which is the earliest record of the myth of the Great Flood, at least one thousand years older than the account in Genesis), gives the scholar two of the prime focus points for zombies that would make an appearance in the New Testament: 1) animated dead people who 2) feed on the living. The latter is not found in Matthew but in all other contemporary accounts; what is unique in the Biblical account is that the Jesus of the New

Fragment of Tablet VI (Epic of the Gilgamesh) Zombies rise up

Testament tells his followers to “eat of my flesh” and “drink of my blood”—typical zombie theology: Matthew 26:26, a self-idealized cannibalism common in all Mesopotamian cults and is found on twelve clay tablets of the Epic of the Gilgamesh; cp. Tablet VI and Ishtar’s rage:

I will knock down the Gates of the Netherworld,
I will smash the door posts, and leave the doors flat down,
and will let the dead go up to eat the living!
And the dead will outnumber the living!

Perillos being forced into the brazen bull that he built for Phalaris

In ancient Greece and Italy, giving antecedent to the myth of a blood thirsty Babylonian god, saw regular brutality during the reign of Phalaris (Φάλαρις) tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 BC.  He had hollow a bronze oven made in the shape of a bull (always a symbol of a god, and nearly universally known as Yah {or Jehovah}) in which he would roast his enemies alive (Pindar, Pythian 1), and fed on suckling babies (Tatian. Oratio ad Graecos (“Tatian’s Address to the Greeks“), Chap. XXXIV; it is considered a heretical work written by a student of Justin Martyr who turned to Gnosticism as being more in keeping with the Sayings of Jesus than the emerging state controlled church), giving birth to the legend of the slaughter of infants in Egypt and Israel.  In the end he was overthrown in a general uprising headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c. 488-472 BC), and burned in his brazen bull. Both the story and the symbolism became incorporated into Hebrew lore with the invention of the myth of Moloch and the Biblical Gold Calf (עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב) in Exodus 32:4—the Egyptian god Apis—but the Hebrews would have two golden calves unlike the Egyptians (1 Kings 12:26–30; cf. Nehemiah 9:18–19).

In most cases the dead would eventually rise up to greet their sadistic saviour who commanded them to walk among mortals as testimony to the power of the demigod. In most cases the zombies were foretellers of impending doom and the destruction of the planet in a great apocalypse.  The prophet Ezekiel had his own Zombie army: Ezekiel 37: 1-14 (1) The hand of the Lord was upon me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and set me in the middle of a valley, it was full of bones. (2) He led me back and forth among them, and I saw a great many bones on the floor of the valley, bones that were very dry.  (3) He asked me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said,”O sovereign Lord, you alone know.” (4)  Then he said to me, “Prophesy to these bones and say to them, “Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord! (5) This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: I will make breath enter you, and you will come to life. (6) I will attach tendons to you and make flesh upon you and cover you with skin. I will put breath in you, and you will come to life. Then you will know that I am the Lord”:  הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיֹּוצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתֹוךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמֹות׃  וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבֹּות מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשֹׁות מְאֹד׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמֹות הַיְבֵשֹׁות שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃  כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃  וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עֹור וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קֹול כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמֹות עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמֹו׃  וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עֹור מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃  וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחֹות בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃  וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבֹוא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדֹול מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ ס וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמֹות הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמֹותֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃  לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ ס  וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרֹותֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלֹותִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרֹותֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃  וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ ף.  The entire story is plagiarized from ancient Egyptian military history and theology that was repeated in the records of numerous growing states including that of Persia and the Hyksos.  This may be the source for the legend of the lost army of Cambyses II. Cambyses II led a Persian army of 50,000 soldiers into Egypt and supposedly perished in a sandstorm in ancient Egypt 2500 years ago, long before any Hebrews were known or Habiru mercenaries serving the Hyksos.  It continues to this day with fantasies from New York to Albania and beyond.

Zombies are introduced in the Old Testament, in Zechariah 14:12 And the Lord will send a plague on all the nations that fought against Jerusalem. Their people will become like walking corpses, their flesh rotting away: וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָמֵק בְּשָׂרֹו וְהוּא עֹמֵד עַל־רַגְלָיו וְעֵינָיו תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן וּלְשֹׁונֹו תִּמַּק בְּפִיהֶם׃ (cp. the gentleness of a loving god in Leviticus 26:16, Deuteronomy 28:21-22, Job 18:13, Zechariah 14:15, 18).

This is the foundation for Matthew 27:52-53: 52 and the tombs broke open. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. 53 They came out of the tombs after Jesus’ resurrection and[a] went into the holy city and appeared to many people. (καὶ τὰ μνημεῖα ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ πολλὰ σώματα τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἁγίων ἠγέρθησαν, καὶ ἐξελθόντες ἐκ τῶν μνημείων μετὰ  τὴν ἔγερσιν αὐτοῦ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς.)

These two lines give cause for pausing in reflection on the warrior Jesus of the New Testament.  It is in error to even consider that such a ghoulish event happened.  Josephus, the chronicler of the time, does not mention it—nor do any of the apologists for what became Christianity, nor do its detractors.  It is a unique mentioning.  The tone and word choice of these two lines indicates a later addition to the text; but it has greater value.  It repeats what ancient Babylonians and Hyksos and their mercenary troops (Habiru: Hebrew) saw in the tale of the ambulant dead a promise of eternal life or immortality.  But to give full credit to those who would eventually call themselves Hebrews is a disservice to fact, as such tales appear universally. 

The ancient Scandinavians, before the intrusion of Paulanity, were an advanced people with a theology similar to what would become Christianity. Among those who were sought out for advice was the zombie Völuspá (“Prophecy [spá] of the völva”).  The Great God Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future. She was reluctant, crying out, “What do you ask of me? Why tempt me?” Since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him.  Odin was seeking information on the war of the zombies that would come when his favorite son, the God Thor, would set out to battle evil in the universal war of Ragnarök (Armageddon).  This predicted battle foretold the ultimate death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Freyr, Heimdall, and the jötunn (trickster) Loki), as gods would disappear when people gained sufficient intelligence to stop believing in them; it would also lead to the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water (a second Great Flood). Afterwards, the world resurfaces anew and fertile, the surviving gods meet, and the world is repopulated by two human survivors (gender is not spelled out).
 
The Ragnarök (Armageddon) would be fought, in part, by zombies, which in Scandinanvian Viking culture are known as draugr (draug in Icelandic; draugen in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish).  Ancient to medieval Scandinavians saw zombies as an exemplar of a continuation of a tumultuous life: carousing, drinking, fighting, wenching and generally making a nuisance of oneself (e.g. Harald Halt-foot).  A similar phenomena is found in Japanese culture where Japanese zombies reflected extreme piety such as the living mummies on Mount Yodono. Zombies even appear in Mexico, both in the past and today where it is known as the Day of the Dead.  The Day of the Dead is a celebration for the returning revenants who are welcomed and treated as guests, just as they would be if they were still alive and had returned briefly from living somewhere else, which in the eyes of ancient cultures they were.

With the invention of Christianity and the elevation of Paulinity (the writings of the legendary St. Paul) by the pagan Emperor Constantine I (Christianity tries to claim that Constantine converted to Christianity on his death-bed, but there is no proof of this happening; at the most he became an Arian Christian as his “confessor” was the Arian bishop Eusebius) at his Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.  Constantine’s one major contribution to Christianity was ordering all books and writings that disagreed with his church were to be burned in a manner that popes and prelates of the Middle Ages and later Adolf Hitler would follow, leading the psychotic Coptic Theophilus of Alexandria to torch the great Library of Alexandria and commission the murder of the world’s greatest mathematician and philosopher on orders of the Christian Emperor Theodosius who took, energetically, all measures including torture and murder in converting all his subjects to Christianity,with most of this coming from fourth century writers that were used by Edward Gibbons (there is a sound argument that it was destroyed earlier, by Julius Cesar).  The most illustrious of the victims was the virgin (unmarried) Hypatia whose flesh was torn off of her body while she lived by enraged Christian monks. Hypatia had served as the librarian but was singled out for martyrdom by the fatuous followers of the  phantasmagorical Theophilus because of her comments against Christianity that she equated with fantasies of small children.  Personally, I find more evidence for Theodosius as the prime instigator given his sordid record of forcing everyone to convert to a bastardized religion that had nothing in common with the original scrolls and the Sayings of Jesus, but were invented by later church councils that would even elevate the Egyptian Trinity to being a Christian concept, transmogrifying the original Isis-Ra-Horus into the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to remove the significant stature of a woman as being the primary mother of all things (the ancient Hebrews would transmogrify this by removing Horus in favor of the sun-god Ra and substituting the word lord (El) to complete their trinity.  They would ultimately abbreviate the Egyptian Trinity into Is-Ra-El: Israel). 

I do not agree with the Greek testament by Rufinus Tyrannius who continued Eusebius Historia Ecclesia (Books X and XI) as he claims that the local pagans “incited the Christian mobs” with their refusal to convert to the pagan faith out of Jerusalem.  The “local pagans” had been heavily taxed, were beaten, denied jobs, and forced to attend the “love feasts” of the early Christians and were victimized daily, having no say in their own destiny.  This is supported by  the pagan writer Eunapius of Antioch (died after 400 CE) who wrote about the sack of the Serapeum in his Life of Antonius, and, before he died in 390 CE, prophesied that all the pagan temples in Alexandria would be destroyed (not a desperately surprising contingency at the time) out of “religious fanaticism” and an effort to make the scrolls of Christianity into a god that he termed as bibliolatry: worship of the bible, predating the rise and evolving intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Constantine’s Christian Church (originally known as the catholic [universal] Church taught that the dead might return from the grave to take vengeance on the living for not saying Masses for them, and paying the priest for each Mass said.  This had little to do with piety, but was ecclesiastical extortion, one of the many ways that the Church raised revenue, and on the Night before All Souls Day (Halloween; on All Souls Day read the Bollandist Ada Sanctorum (Saec. VI., pt. i. p. 585) which requires “sacrifice”) the Church said special masses for the dead always at inflated prices—the offerings being put into gourds (similar to pumpkins) that were crafted with faces and had a candle within to illuminate the scowl or smile depending on the nature of the carver.  At each Mass the priest would remind parishioners that the faithful would soon come near a walking dead in testimony of the resurrection of Jesus and the need that the fearful faithful had to put coins in the gourd to keep the candle stable so that its light would lead the New Testament Jesus to the church where the central figure would enter the host that would be displayed upon a table or altar where the sacrifice (similar to Abram’s near-slaughter of his son Isaac) of the “Son of God” was to be executed.  Halloween, like all Christian celebrations, borrowed heavily from incorporates traditions from pagan harvest festivals and festivals honouring the dead, particularly the Celtic Samhain, especially in votives and prayers for the dead and the payment to priest to pray for the dead to stay away from the living (Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford UK and New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, pp. 11-21 sqq).  Today, Celtic Reconstructionists, pagans, and others who maintain ancestral customs, make offerings to the gods and the ancestors in keeping with their original heritage before missionaries arrived swinging battle axes and swords while preaching from Bibles (Hörandner, Editha (ed.; 2005), Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo, Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), Wien (Vienna), Austria: LIT Verlag Münster; and, Santino, Jack (ed.;  1994), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life.  Knoxville, TN, USA: University of Tennessee Press).

The ever-intolerant world of evangelical Christianity that demands that believers accept every word of the Bible as literally true has had numerous casualties in its battle for conformity especially within the Southern Baptist Convention where literacy is an article of faith and the Bible considered inerrant: Article XX of the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics states, 

We affirm that since God is the author of all truth, all truths, biblical and extra biblical, are consistent and cohere [sic: coherent], and that the Bible speaks truth when it touches on matters pertaining to nature, history, or anything else. We further affirm that in some cases extra biblical data have value for clarifying what scripture teaches and for prompting correction of faulty interpretations. We deny that extra biblical [sic: extra biblical or extra-biblical] views ever disprove the teaching of Scripture or hold priority over it.

This is matched by the in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy:

We affirm that canonical Scripture should always be interpreted on the basis that it is infallible and inerrant. However, in determining what the God-taught writer is asserting in each passage, we must pay the most careful attention to its claims and character as a human production. In inspiration, God utilized the culture and conventions of His [sic] penman’s milieu.  A milieu that God controls in His sovereign providence; it is misinterpretation to imagine otherwise.

So history must be treated as history, poetry as poetry, hyperbole and metaphor as hyperbole and metaphor, generalization and approximation as what they are, and so forth. Differences between literary conventions in Bible times and in ours must also be observed”.

Michael Licona (Facebook)

Michael Licona (Facebook)

While the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy asserts that an inattention to the culture and literary conventions in Bible times could lead to a misinterpretation of the biblical text, professors have been fired from teaching appointments for not conforming their interpretations according to erroneous English translations and codified canons, as has been the case with Professor Michael Liconawho was denounced by the twenty-first Grand

R. Albert Mohler, Jr.

Inquisitor R. Albert Mohler, Jr., president of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary — the flagship school of the Southern Baptist Convention and one of the largest seminaries in the world who wrote: The affirmation of biblical inerrancy is nothing more, and nothing less, than the affirmation of the Bible’s total truthfulness and trustworthiness. The assertion of the Bible’s inerrancy — that the Bible is “free from all falsehood or mistake” — is an essential safeguard for the Bible’s authority as the very Word of God in written form. The reason for this should be clear: to affirm anything short of inerrancy is to allow that the Bible does contain falsehoods or mistakes. The intolerance of the Southern Baptist Convention has exceeded even the corrupt Councils of the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages, when “evangelical philosopher” Norman Geisler,  a Christian apologist and the co-founder of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina with a PhD from Jesuit Loyola University.  

Norman Geisler

Norman Geisler has argued that creationism be taught in public schools, affirms the existence of UFOs but claims that they are “a satanic manifestation in the world for the purpose of deception” (San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, December 12, 1981), and has publicly been accused of plagiarism (Danel W. Bachman, “The Other Side of the Coin: A Source Review of Norman Geisler’s Chapter,” FARMS Review of Books, 12/1 (2000): 175-213).  Geisler , who argues for an early dating of the New Testament going against every other learned scholar and advocating certain actions are absolutely right or wrong regardless of other contexts such as their consequences or the intentions behind them thus destroying free will, addressed two open letters to Michael Licona, charging him with violating the inerrancy of Scripture in making his argument about Matthew 27:52-53. Geisler is the problem, for he has little comprehension of interpretation in the first century.

Licona, Geisler argued, had “dehistoricized” the biblical text. As Geisler made clear, this was a direct violation of biblical inerrancy. Licona’s approach to this text, Geisler argued, “would undermine orthodoxy by dehistoricizing many crucial passages of the Bible.”  This is the approach of all tyrants who will stifle dissent: from Martin Luther to Pius IX, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI and Opus Dei cardinals and bishops such as Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne of Lima, Perú, destroy the freedom of inquiry, and rule as theocrats without a conscience.  No one should ever accept any word, any document, any message sola fide (on faith alone) as it degrades the individual, destroys education, and makes a mockery of free will. Geisler is more like the Dominican monk and

Tomás de Torquemada

Spain’s Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquema (the son of a Jewish rabbi), than he is a Christian on the order of the New Testament Jesus.  It is most likely that this pulpit parasite is totally unfamiliar with Matthew 7:1 or Acts 10:24, for he, like the member congregations of the Southern Baptist Convention, has placed his Bible before god and made himself and other theocrats into gods as exposed by his own words, using the cryptic psychology of unwavering obedience to authority. To accept such a command and obey with unwavering obedience can lead to catatonic withdrawal, suicide, and self-doubting of actuality and personal work completed or in-progress (Zisselman, Marc H, and Jaffe, Richard L. (2010). “ECT in the Treatment of a Patient With Catatonia: Consent and Complications” American Journal of Psychiatry. 167:127-132; cf. “Replicating Milgram: Researcher Finds Most Will Administer Shocks to Others When Prodded by ‘Authority Figure’,” December 19, 2008; American Psychological Journal; the same demand for acceptance infallibility of anyone or in anything was used successfully by Nazi Germany in containing and eliminating dissent and questioning: Joyce, Nick (2009). “In search of the Nazi personality; The Nazi Rorschach responses have captured psychologists’ imaginations for decades.” Journal of the American Psychological Association Vol 40, No. 3; cp. Gilbert, G.M. (1950). The psychology of dictatorship; based on an examination of the leaders of Nazi Germany. New York, NY, USA: Ronald Press Company). Geisel has done himself, the Southern Baptist community, and Liconia an unparalleled disservice. Geisel has put the Southern Baptist Convention, its churches, and its members, directly in line with Nazi thinking and actions, as the churches (Roman Catholic and Protestant/Lutheran) and their adherents and ministers directly supported what Hitler did (with a few minor opponents: read Ericksen, Robert P. (1985). Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch. (New Haven, CT, USA and London, UK: Yale University Press; for unpublished material, consult the Landeskirchlichesarchiv in Hanover).

Geisler called upon Michael Licona to change his position on this text and to affirm it as historical fact without reservation. But Geisler, a member of the Evangelical Theological Society [ETS] for many years, made another very important point. He reminded Licona that such arguments had been encountered before within the ETS, and it had led to the expulsion of a member.”  This matches, identically, the heresy trials of Arius before the Emperor Constantine I leading to the bonfire of burning Arian books.”

St. Paul overseeing the burning of scrolls at Ephesus

This evolved from the mythical St. Paul (there is no record of a Saul or Tarsus or a St. Paul outside of the New Testament; he is not named nor discussed by Josephus, Tacitus, or other contemporaries, not even among the early church presbyters) and his order for the burning of books in Ephesus (Acts 19:19: A number who had practiced sorcery brought their scrolls together and burned them publicly: ἱκανοὶ δὲ τῶν τὰ περίεργα πραξάντων συνενέγκαντες τὰς βίβλους κατέκαιον ἐνώπιον πάντων, καὶ συνεψήφισαν τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν καὶ εὗρον ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε.) and elsewhere as “instruments of evil”.  I am surprised that Geisler has not called for an auto-de-fé to rid the world of Licona, for his overt public psychology shows him to be dictatorial with illusions of grandeur.  The same intolerance for dissenting opinion, for revision of corrupt writings, and for the clarification of texts that led to the burning of books throughout history became a furnace of hate by the Roman Catholic confessing Adolf Hitler, testified:

My feelings as a Christian points me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter. It points me to the man who once in loneliness, surrounded by a few followers, recognized these Jews for what they were and summoned men to fight against them and who, God’s truth! was greatest not as a sufferer but as a fighter. In boundless love as a Christian and as a man I read through the passage which tells us how the Lord at last rose in His might and seized the scourge to drive out of the Temple the brood of vipers and adders. How terrific was His fight for the world against the Jewish poison. To-day, after two thousand years, with deepest emotion I recognize more profoundly than ever before the fact that it was for this that He had to shed His blood upon the Cross. As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice… And if there is anything which could demonstrate that we are acting rightly it is the distress that daily grows. For as a Christian I have also a duty to my own people.

-Adolf Hitler, in a speech on 12 April 1922 (Norman H. Baynes, ed. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, Vol. 1 of 2, pp. 19-20, Oxford University Press, 1942)

To say that the biblical literalists are misguided is most generous of their own insanity demanding absolute obedience to a work of fiction. Albert Mohler, Jr., is totally incorrect—as there is no non-biblical historical proof for a Jesus, nor any of the mythology surrounding the Jesus of the New Testament: the birth (born in a rock similar to the god Mithras, of a virgin), found by wise men seeking the star of the apocalypse (magi), to the death by crucifixion on a pillar (not a cross tree as the gods Odin and Thor were crucified, nor any common thief on a crux).  The alleged proof in Tacitus (the “proof of Jesus” is allegedly in Annals xv.44, but the original was “lost” (burned?) and there is no existing “copy” until the eleventh century CE; Tacitus was born 25 years after the alleged death of Jesus, and was age 7 at the time of the Great Fire of Rome—he was no eye-witness; on the insertion being a “pious fraud” see: Henry Furneaux, ed., Cornelii Taciti Annalium ab excessu divi augusti libri. The annals of Tacitus with introduction and notes, 2nd ed., vol. ii, books xi-xvi. Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1907. Appendix II, p. 416f., 418; the most that can be said for Tacitus’ account of Jesus of the New Testament is that he was merely repeating what he heard as he had no eyewitness accounts and did not do what today is considered investigative reporting: France, Richard Thomas (1986). Evidence for Jesus. London, UK: Trafalgar Square Publishing. pp. 19–20, also released by London, UK: Hodder and Stoughton, and Downers Grove, IL, USA : InterVarsity Press) and Josephus (Guignebert, Charles Albert Honoré (1914). Le problem de Jesus. Paris, France: Ernest Flammarion, 1914; reissued under the title Jesus, New York, NY, USA: University Books, 1956, p. 17; cp. Mitchell, Logan (1842?) Christian Mythologies unveiled: a series of lectures…. London, UK: Cousins, who noted:

“Mattathias, the father of Josephus, must have been a witness to the miracles which are said to have been performed by Jesus, and Josephus was born within two years after the crucifixion, yet in all the works he says nothing whatever about the life or death of Jesus Christ; as for the interpolated passage it is now universally acknowledged to be a forgery. The arguments of the ‘Christian Ajax,’ even Lardner himself, against it are these: ‘It was never quoted by any of our Christian ancestors before Eusebius. It disturbs the narrative. The language is quite Christian. It is not quoted by Chrysostom, though he often refers to Josephus, and could not have omitted quoting it had it been then in the text. It is not quoted by Photius [9th century], though he has three articles concerning Josephus; and this author expressly states that this historian has not taken the least notice of Christ. Neither Justin Martyr, in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew; nor Clemens Alexandrinus, who made so many extracts from ancient authors; nor Origen against Celsus, have ever mentioned this testimony. But, on the contrary, in chap. 25th of the first book of that work, Origen openly affirms that Josephus, who had mentioned John the Baptist, did not acknowledge Christ. That this passage is a false fabrication is admitted by Ittigius, Blondel, Le Clerc, Vandale, Bishop Warburton, and Tanaquil Faber.'”

p. 47; and, as the Rev. S. Baring-Gould remarked:

This passage is first quoted by Eusebius (fl. A.D. 315) in two places (Historia Ecclesiae, lib. I, c. xi; Demonst. Evang., lib. iii); but it was unknown to Justin Martyr (fl. A.D. 140), Clement of Alexandria (fl. A.D. 192), Tertullian (fl. A.D. 193), and Origen (fl. A.D. 230). Such a testimony would certainly have been produced by Justin in his apology or in his controversy with Trypho the Jew, had it existed in the copies of Josephus at his time. The silence of Origen is still more significant. Celsus, in his book against Christianity, introduces a Jew. Origen attacks the argument of Celsus and his Jew. He could not have failed to quote the words of Josephus, whose writings he knew, had the passage existed in the genuine text. He, indeed, distinctly affirms that Josephus did not believe in Christ (Contra Celsus I).

The absurdity of turning to Josephus or Tacitus has long been disproven, and the New Testament not only found saturated with errors but statements that contradict (or “enhance/explain”) Old Testament fantasies from the gods (elohim) “creating” the world in six days (Genesis 1, 2) to Peter’s notation that a mortal day may be equal to one thousand years (2 Peter 3:8). 

Mohler fulfills page 13 of the Southern Baptist affirmation of the literal infallibility and correctness of the texts:

“Since God has nowhere promised an inerrant transmission of Scripture, it is necessary to affirm that only the autographic text of the original documents was inspired and to maintain the need of textual criticism as a means of detecting any slips that may have crept into the text in the course of its transmission. The verdict of this science, however, is that the Hebrew and Greek text appears to be amazingly well-preserved, so that we are amply justified in affirming, with the Westminster Confession, a singular providence of God in this matter and in declaring that the authority of Scripture is in no way jeopardized by the fact that the copies we possess are not entirely error-free.

“Similarly, no translation is or can be perfect, and all translations are an additional step away from the autograph. Yet the verdict of linguistic science is that English-speaking Christians, at least, are exceedingly well served in these days with a host of excellent [sic] translations and have no cause for hesitating to conclude that the true Word of God is within their reach. Indeed, in view of the frequent repetition in Scripture of the main matters with which it deals and also of the Holy Spirit’s constant witness to and through the Word, no serious translation of Holy Scripture will so destroy its meaning as to render it unable to make its reader “wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus” (2 Tim. 3:15)” [emphasis mine in bold italics]

The Southern Baptists of today have nothing in common with the eighteenth century Danbury Baptists who petitioned Thomas Jefferson to help them maintain a separation of state of church.  Today, the Southern Baptists openly endorse candidates, contribute to “tearing down the wall” separating church and state (an invocation by Roman Catholic Rick Santorum), and to creating a theocracy of their own making.  The people will become the zombies in their army as witnessed by the generation of the New Apostolic Reformation.

2 Comments

Filed under Adolf Hitler, Ancient Egypt, Bible, Christian Terrorists, Church history, Evangelical Christianity, Old Testament, Roman Catholicism, Torah

Serpent in the Garden

Even before recorded time the serpent has been a symbol for wisdom, fertility, creativity, and creation.  It was prized for millennia.  Few civilizations saw the serpent as evil.  Those civilizations that viewed the serpent as a sinister miscreant were generally patriarchal and patrilineal.  The other cultures and societies viewed the serpent as benevolent, intelligent, a teacher, a doctor, and a caregiver.

The serpent in the Genesis myth is not new.  It had many previous Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Babylonian, Hittite, Hurrian, etc.) antecedents and ancestors among the gods and goddess of the Fertile Crescent and from Egypt and beyond.  These included (1) Anu/An; (2) Dumuzi/Tammuz; (3) Ningishzida/Gishzida; (4) Ea/Enki; (5) Enlil/Ellil; (6) Marduk/Merodach; (7) Inanna/Ishtar; (8) Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell; (9) Shamhat (Ukhat).  The emerging Hebrews merely recast the characters and changed their names, as they also did for such fictional beings as Adam, Eve, Cain, Abel, Seth, Noah, Moses, and even Yahweh.

Anu ("Lord of the Great Above") the God of Heaven (Sumerian) son of the first pair of gods, Ansar and Kisar

Anu/An is a Sumerian god of the sky.  Anu/An is known as the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, Consort of Antu and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions.  Anu was believed to have come from “the great void” (the Milky Way star system in quest of gold and ore).  Anu is a very old god, and he is a part of the Sumerian Trinity that became a foundation stone for the Christian invention of Three-Persons-in-One.  Joining Anu in this theological triad are Enlil, god of the air and Enki, god of water: the basic elements that make up the planet and became bricks in the wall dividing civilizations by Habiru scribes millennia later.

Like all Mesopotamian and Mediterranean deities, Anu is especially dedicated to sexuality.  Sex plays as big a role in his religion as it does in that of the tribal Habiru agricultural god Yahweh.  While Yahweh was more like Zeus, having sex and then abandoning his temporary mistresses (with the one exception being the boy Ganymede whom Zeus flew to Olympus to be with him) to return to his wife Hera, Anu had several consorts.  His most important temporary affair was with the goddess Ki (earth), Nammu who was technically Anu/An’s mother (and the only creatrix of the universe in Babylon) who was goddess of the primeval sea (Engur) that gave birth to An (heaven), Ki (earth) and the first gods: among whom would be Abram (Abraham from the Ur of the Chaldees–the mythological father of Isaac and Ishmael who would ultimately propagate the female deities known as the “Satanic Verses”), and Uras (another goddess of earth, primarily red soil, and mother of the goddess Ninsun and a grandmother of  the Babylonian hero Gilgamesh (Kramer, Samuel N. (1998). Sumerian Mythology: a Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press).

Marriage of Inanna and Dumuzi (a sex ritual)

Dumuzi/Tammuz was another Sumerian deity who was god of food and vegetation, who died each year at autumn to rise again as a new crop.  He was especially popular in Syria where his name  ܬܡܘܙ (Dumuzi) meant faithful and true son: the prototype for Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem; in Sumeria,  Tammuz  (תַּמּוּז) was known as the Good Shepherd, and like many other gods, he was the consort of his mother (in Akkadian: Ishtar (Astarte or Asherah in Canaan; marriage occurred when sex was enacted, as became the foundation for marriage in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), the most prominent Mesopotamian female deity) and rescue Ishtar/Inanna: the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility and warfare.  Tammuz is recognized by the prophet Ezekiel (Ezekiel 8:14-15; cp. Edwin M. Yamauchi, Edwin M. (1965). “Tammuz and the Bible” Journal of Biblical Literature 84.3 (September, pp. 283-290), Kramer, Samuel Noah (1980). “The Death of Dumuzi: A New Sumerian Version” Anatolian Studies 30, Special Number in Honour of the Seventieth Birthday of Professor O. R. Gurney (1980:5-13), and, Wolkstein, Diane and Kramer, Samuel Noah editors/translators (1983). Inanna, Queen of Heaven & Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer. New York, NY, USA: Harper Colophon).

Ningishzida as a Hydra serpent

Ningishzida/Gishzida is either another name for Dumuzi, or a similar Sumerian god who was lord of the underworld, much like Pluto and Hades.  He is commonly depicted as a serpent with a human head and is considered the son of Anu (Ira Maurice Price, Ira Maurice (1900) Notes on the Pantheon of the Gudean Cylinders, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 17, No. 1 (October, pp. 47-53) and an ancestor to the Gilgamesh and also the son of Ereshkigal, but in those days there were no definite chronologies or genealogies. Ningishzida’s symbol of two serpents or snakes twining (possibly copulating) predates the Caduceus of Hermes, the Rod of Asclepius and the staff of Moses by more than a millennium.  In the Adapa myth the serpent deity is a male god, not the female being the later Hebrews create (Turner, Frederick (2006). Natural Religion.  New Brunswick, NJ, USA: Transaction Publishers).

Ningishzida/Hydra is portrayed as serpent-dragon with the forepaws of a lion, but no hind legs.  This image is preserved on an early Persian clay tablet  Langdon (1931) but Black and Green (1992) date it to the Greek Seleucid period, the successors of Alexander the Great. (cf. Langdon, Stephen Herbert (1931). The Mythology of All Races: Semitic. Boston, MA: Archaeological Institute of America, vol. 5, p. 190, fig. 159; cp. Black, Jeremy, & Green, Anthony (1992).  Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, An Illustrated Dictionary.  Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, published in cooperation with the British Museum Press of London).

Ea or Enki in Mesopotamian religions: both a god and a goddess who could change gender at will

Ea/Enki was originally a Sumerian god but was adopted into Akkadian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Hittite and Hurrian theology where he was a creator god associated with water and was among the earliest deities to be associated with numerology (his sacred number was 40). His image is a double-helix snake, or the Caduceus, very similar to the Rod of Asclepius, and is often shown with a horned crown of divinity dressed in the skin of a carp.  Dating from the third millennium BCE, Ea/Enki is considered the god of wisdom, semen and magic (leading to fertility and fecundity; cp. Leick, Gwendolyn (2001), Mesopotamia: the Invention of the City. London, UK: Allen Lane/The Penguin Press, p. 20), his delight was to engage in discussions with women known to be superior to men in theological debate (Kramer, Samuel Noah (2007). Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium BC. Charleston, SC, USA: Forgotten Books). It is from the Enki story that the writers of Genesis were able to create the myths of Adam and Eve walking in the Garden, as after Ea/Enki completed his/her conversation they would make the mortal(s) into slaves for the gods.  Ea/Enki were the background for what would become the myth of Noah and the Great flood (see the carvings on the rock sanctuary of Yazilikaya near Bogasköy).

Relief from Susa . Enlil to the left, Ninlil to the right. Tree of Knowledge is the symbol for the erect phallus.jpg

Enlil/Ellil and Ninlil were the gods of creation (as recorded on clay tablets in the third millennium BCE, long before any Torah or Bible was even thought of), and the account of the birth of Nanna is the foundation for Genesis 1-3 (cf. George Aaron Barton (1918). Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press, p. 52).  The conception took place in a “heavenly city” never occupied by mortals–who were later introduced to work for the gods on 22,000 square feet of cultivated fields.  The goddess Nun-bar-ce-gunu warns her daughter Ninlil not to approach the river, fearing that she would want sex with Enlil. She disobeys her mother, goes to the river and is raped by Enlil.  This violence conceives

Nanna conceived

Suen-Acimbabbar, the moon-god in a “ritually impure” manner–which lead to the arrest and exile of Enlil (completing the myth of the exile of Adam and Eve from the Garden). 

Marduk/Merodach is from the third millennium to the eighteenth century BCE and the era of Hammurabi (Jastrow, Jr., Morris (1911). Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria, G.P. Putnam’s Sons: New York and London. pp. 217-219).  Originally, Marduk was considered the sun of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and connected with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic (C. Scott Littleton (2005). Gods,

Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu, from a Babylonian cylinder seal

Goddesses and Mythology. Tarrytown, NY, USA: Marshall Cavendish. Vol. 6, p. 829).  Literally, Marduk means “bull calf of the sun-god Utu”, giving rise to the cow deities of India and Egypt, and to the golden calf fantasy of Exodus. Marduk is historically pictured with his dragon-snake Mušḫuššu, and is commonly found on Babylonian cylinder seals.  By 1000 BCE, Marduk’s name becomes a title: Bel (Lord; it would in time be synonymous with master and husband).  As Babylon’s power grew, the Enûma Elish was written, culminating in an apocalyptic battle between good and evil, giving rise to the Babylonian myth of Daniel and His Companions and laying the foundation for John of Patmos’ nightmare, the Apocalypse.

Mesopotamian Goddess Inanna/Ishtar

Inanna (a Sumerian goddess; the name means “Queen of Heaven”) / Ishtar (the Akkadian counterpart) is the goddess of sexual fertility, love, and warfare and was the most prominent and popular female deity in Mesopotamia 4000 – 3200 BCE. The famous Uruk Vase (found in a deposit of cult objects of the Uruk III period; Ralf B. Wartke, “Eine Vermißtenliste (2): Die “Warka-Vase” aus Bagdad”, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 26 April 2003, Nbr 97, page 39; it was stolen from the Bagdad Museum during the April 2003 invasion of Iraq and broken into fourteen pieces by three unidentified young men on motorcycle determined to steal it; it was more than 5000 years old; from then on looting has been regular, including by allies (UK and USA soldiers and contractors), so the museum has been bricked up and covered over with cement) depicts a row of naked men carrying various objects, bowls, vessels, and baskets of farm produce, and bringing sheep and goats, to a female figure facing the ruler.  The

Uruk vase (3000 BCE; partially restored) Iraq

nudity of the men, abhorrent to contemporary Christian conservatives and Islamic fundamentalists and has been signaled out as a “devilish corruption” of the individual, signified their place in purity and subservience to the ruler in the same way that the mythological Adam and Eve were nude until the gods of Gan Eden.  It was for this reason that the Hebrew gods of Genesis took time to sew for the first people on earth aprons before expelling them from the garden.  The unique aspect of the Hebrew gods terror at seeing the nudity of the first people was that there were no other people in the Garden (according to Genesis). This indicates that either the gods were afraid to look at the nude bodies that they had “created in their own image” or that the penis and vagina/clitoris had not been created by the gods and that they were the invention of the serpent who knew that without the sex organs full knowledge would not be obtainable or useable.  Knowledge in the ancient world was equated with sex.  To this end all early religions had “sex priests” (the Hebrews referred to them as “dog priests”: kedeshah (קדשה)‎ meaning “to set apart” from mortal to perform rituals for the [pagan: non-Hebrew] gods; they were never homosexuals; cf. Thus Deuteronomy 23:18-19, but this practice continued into the fourth century CE: Eusebius, Vita Constantini, 3.55, 58) to perform fertility rituals in honor of the gods and goddesses of creation where creation was the result of sexual orgasm.

Nergal: Patron God of Kutha/Cutha

Nergal as the equivalent of Satan “ruler” of Hell is the son of Enlil and Ninlil and ruler deity of the city of Cuth (Cutha): “And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal” (2 Kings 17:30). Nergal was sometime god of the sun, but primarily god of war, fire and pestilence, thus earning him a place in Hebrew and Christian mythology as being the Satan of Hell. 

Tablet of The Deluge in the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian (2000 - 700 BCE)

Shamhat (Ukhat) was a temple prostitute in the age of Gilgamesh (Dalley, Stephanie (2000).  Myths from Mesopotamia, Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh and others.  New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, revised edition,  p.137.).  Shamhat appears on Tablets I/II and VII of the Epic of Gilgamesh from which the Hebrews found the legend of the Deluge (the Great Flood). On Tablet I she plays the integral role in taming the wild man Enkidu, who was created by the gods as the rival to the mighty Gilgamesh by tempting the wild man and civilizing him through continued sexual intercourse that he enjoys “six days and seven nights” until his former companions, the wild animals, turn away from him in fright, at the watering hole where they congregated. Uncertain what to do, and wanting to be with his friends, Shamhat persuades him to follow her and join the civilized world in the city of Uruk, where Gilgamesh is king.  Enkidu rejects  his former life in the wild  become the best of friends with Gilgamesh with whom he has many adventures.  Because Shamhat used sex to entice Enkidu, women from that time on in Hebrew lore were considered devils and temptresses and purity laws (Leviticus) were written to help man avoid the evils of women.  

Margiana silver plate decorated with snakes (Early Bronze Age) Metropolitan Museum New York

In the Middle East, from which the Abrahamic religions spring, serpents were considered senior deities, and are found with favor among the ancient Canaanites/Palestinians (Rosen, Arlene M. (1995). “The social response to environmental change in Early Bronze Age Canaan,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14(1):26-44) in the Bronze Age—who would be transmogrified by later invading mercenaries known as Habiru/Hebrews as שרף meaning “burning” and originally as a term for an enlightened being/god. While Canaan (כנען; Oswalt, John N. (1980). “כנען,” in R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke (eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago, IL, USA: Moody, 1980.  Pp. 445–446) had a highly advanced and sophisticated society; the invaders were at best mercenaries and more precisely barbarians (Redford, Donald B. (1993) Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press).

Ouroboros serpent with arms, hands, legs, feet swallowing its tale (fertility and eternity symbol) at Ptuj castle

Only in the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) does the serpent represent sexual desire, as in other religions that are far older the serpent (or snake) is seen as the ouroboros:  a symbol of eternity and continual renewal of life as found in Buddhism.  The ouroboros is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon eating its own tail and was a common motif used for rings, handles, dishes, and so forth.  The word/term originates from within Greek language; οὐρά (oura) meaning “tail” and βόρος (boros) meaning “eating”, thus “he who eats the tail” (cp. Plato, Timaeus, 33: πᾶν ἔξωθεν αὐτὸ ἀπηκριβοῦτο πολλῶν χάριν. ὀμμάτων τε γὰρ ἐπεδεῖτο οὐδέν, ὁρατὸν γὰρ οὐδὲν ὑπελείπετο ἔξωθεν, οὐδ᾽ ἀκοῆς, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀκουστόν: πνεῦμά τε οὐκ ἦν περιεστὸς δεόμενον ἀναπνοῆς, οὐδ᾽ αὖ τινος ἐπιδεὲς ἦν ὀργάνου σχεῖν ᾧ τὴν μὲν εἰς ἑαυτὸ τροφὴν δέξοιτο, τὴν δὲ πρότερον ἐξικμασμένην ἀποπέμψοι πάλιν. ἀπῄει τε γὰρ οὐδὲν οὐδὲ προσῄειν αὐτῷ ποθεν—οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν—αὐτὸ γὰρ ἑαυτῷ τροφὴν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ φθίσιν παρέχον καὶ πάντα ἐν ἑαυτῷ καὶ ὑφ᾽.  According to the second century Yoga Kundalini Upanishad 1.82, “The divine power, Kundalini, shines like the stem of a young lotus; like a snake, coiled round upon herself she holds her tail in her mouth and lies resting half asleep as the base of the body”).

The serpent of Genesis 1-3 is of recent vintage, and the concept that the serpent represents evil is an invention, as found in linguistic studies. Nahash (a word that means “serpent” in Hebrew, comes from the root nshs and it should be translated as “to find out” or “discover” by conversing with more intelligent gods and goddesses, especially the Mother of All Gods (it appears in all languages: Θεοτόκος, Աստուածածին, Богородица, ღვთისმშობელი, and so forth; it is not reserved for one language, religion, or people) in the ancient Jewish world: Eve.  Technically she was a helpmeet (not a helpmate): one who guided those subservient (“created from dust” to her, as was the inferior Adam who was Kohen (officially this word denotes a descendant of Aaron and a

Egyptian God Thoth as a bearded man-serpent "Wisdom-bearer"

Jewish priest. However, long before the fable of Moses and Aaron appeared, it meant “serpent priest”) who in ancient Egypt was Sato (“son of the earth”).

The figure of Eve is based upon much older mythology and is traceable to the ancient Mother Goddess or World Mother and the serpent cults of the pre-Biblical period before there were Jews, Hebrews or Israelites—people of a later invention. Closer examination of the name ‘Eve’ revealed her serpent origins, for the Hebrew for Eve is havvah (חַוָּה‎, Ḥawwāh in Classical Hebrew, Khavah in Modern Israeli Hebrew, and in Arabic: حواء‎) meaning ‘mother of all things.’ Outside of the Abrahamic use it also translates as ‘serpent’ as found in the Egyptian Book of the Netherworld. Likewise, the Arabic words for ‘snake,’ ‘life,’ and ‘teaching,’ are closely related to the word or name “Eve’ (cf. Gardiner, Philip; and Osborn, Gary (2005). The Serpent Grail: the Truth behind the Holy Grail, the Philosopher’s Stone and the Elixir of Life. London, UK: Watkins, cp. Philip Gardiner (2007). Secret societies: Gardiner’s forbidden knowledge: revelations about the Freemasons, Templars, Illuminati, Nazis, and the serpent cults. Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA: New Page Books).

When discussing the serpent that appears in Genesis 1-3, who is not a disfavored nor a disfigured being, but an equal with the gods as shown in the dialogue with Eve. According to CE translations of Genesis, the serpent was “cursed” (actually “blessed”) by the senior deities (a plural noun in the original) who allowed it to debate the Mother of All Creation (it must be remembered that Genesis is a work of recent vintage—coming at the end of the Torah—not at the beginning; it is placed at the beginning of the Hebrew and Christian bibles only because of its name, which means “First” or “In the Beginning”). 

Genesis is a series of short stories that were plagiarized from far older works from India (Śrī Brahma-samhitā 5:1: īśvarah paramah krsnah, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahah anādir ādir govindah, sarva-kārana-kāranam), Mesopotamia (Enûma Eliš).   Egypt predating Genesis and the arrival of Habiru/Hebrews, being written 2780 – 2250 B.C.E (Hart, George (2004). Egyptian Myths. Austin, Texas: University of Texas. p. 9.), Ethiopia with the god Wak being the creator and throughout Africa, and so forth—showing that communication by people was in progress and only when education ceased was there the need to fantasize the fable of the Tower of Babel in an effort to explain the lack of dialogue.  This can be seen in a drawing by Colonel Coombs, of a sculptured column in a cave-temple in the South of India, representing the first pair of mortals at the foot of an ambrosial tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavily laden boughs, presenting to them some of the fruit from its mouth (cf. Jackson, John G. (1988). Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth.  Austin, TX: American Atheist Press). I use the pronoun its to denote the position but not the sex, as the drawing, now in the British Museum Department of Oriental Antiquity, has the serpent portrayed as a woman and heralds a distinct Babylonian influence.

Samothrace neophytes initiated into the Cabiri (pre-Grecian mystery religion)

In other cultures, the first people were not Adam and Eve (male and female) but rather two males (compare the Norse legend of two male gods creating the first two people out of two pieces of wood: with genderless beings in the religions of India and Asia).   The serpent is seen as the wise god giving them knowledge, and accomplished this by swallowing them (feet forward, indicating fellatio), so that they could be “born again.”  As noted by Mircea Eliade: the ritual swallowing by the Snake is to be interpreted as a return to the womb- on the one hand because the Snake is often described as female, on the other, because entering the belly of the divine also carries a symbolism of return to embryonic state…It represents not so much a ritual death followed by resurrection as a complete regeneration of the initiate through his gestation and birth by the Great Mother.

Serpent "re-birthing" man

Mircea Eliade (1983). Rites and Symbols of Initiation: the Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth New York, NY, USA: Harper & Row, an abridgement (chapter 2)

An ithphallyic male sky god and Nut with a snake-headed god under her (Egypt)

from the 1958/1959 edition Naissances mystiques; essai sur quelques types d’initiations. [Paris, France]: Gallimard. A Romanian and Italian translation exists. This was found to be the situation everywhere; outside of Abrahamic religions, as the serpent/snake represented wisdom and knowledge as was the ultimate symbol of wisdom and salvation: being born again (reincarnation) or being allowed to enter a garden of delights.  (cf. Bushby, Tony (2003). The Secret in the Bible.  Maroochydore, Qld: Stanford Publishing Group).

Gerald Massey wrote:

…it was the Serpent of Wisdom that first offered the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge for the Enlightenment of Mankind; whether this be Egyptian, Akkadian, or Gnostic, it is the Good Serpent. And as Guardian of the Tree set in Heaven it was the Good Serpent, or intelligent Dragon, as keeper of the treasures of Astral knowledge. It was the later Theology, Persian and Hebrew, that gave the character of the Evil One to the Serpent of Wisdom, and perverted the original meaning, both of the temptation and the Tempter who protected the Tree; which has been supplemented by the theology of the Vitriol-throwers who have scarified and blasted the face of nature on earth, and defiled and degraded the starry Intelligencers in heaven…

 Massey, Gerald (1887). The Hebrew and Other Creations Fundamentally Explained. London, UK: privately printed, a second edition was printed in London by Villa Bordighiera of New Southgate as a response to Archibald Henry Sayce’s Hibbert Lectures, an annual series of non-sectarian lectures on theological issues. (1–see footnote below).

A careful reading of the “Eve” story in Genesis does not show an ignorant, haughty nor prevaricating evil woman.  On the contrary it shows a wise woman capable debating a god, citing scripture (that later day Hebrews would rewrite, indicating that Eve’s story of being a wise sacerdotal priestess was impossible) while debating the fine hermeneutic (διερμηνεία: interpreting) points of Genesis 1-3, theologians for centuries deliberately or ignorantly misunderstood.

There are many problems with current (mis)translations of the original scrolls.  Even worse is the plethora of misinterpretations of the narrative.  “Eve” was created last so that she could be first, as was the custom in ancient civilizations: the servants arrived first to herald the ruler. Woman was the crowning glory of the narrative.

The Hebrew narrative is poorly written and can easily be exposed as fraud.  According to the contemporary era story of Genesis, the gods (אֱלהִים: a plural noun) “created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without shape and there was nothing on it except for darkness … so the gods said ‘let there be light’…” (Genesis 1:3).  No where does the scroll tell us where the light comes from–the gods would not create the sun and moon and stars until much later (Genesis 1:16-17). 

There is also the contradiction between the earth “bringing forth living creatures” (Genesis 1:24) and then the gods creating living creatures (Genesis 1:25).  The “creation” of man appears at Genesis 1:26.  One verse later “man” is “male and female”.

Creation of mortals (Epic of Gilgamesh) in Mesopotamian theology

In the second story (Genesis 2), the gods create woman from a rib (verse 22). This does not appear in the first story (Genesis 1). The omission is significant.  A rib is decidedly stronger than dust: woman is created of a superior substance, and is the stronger person, and the story actually comes from the Gilgamesh that tells of the creation by the gods of a genderless earth creature, Enkidu. Originally destined to be the nemesis of the semi-divine King Gilgamesh of Uruk, Enkidu becomes Gilgamesh’s companion on a great adventure, travelling the length and breadth of the known world. In one particular encounter on that journey, Enkidu beds a woman and is transformed into a human male when the gods grant Enkidu a penis.  From that penis the mortal race is conceived.  The writer(s) of Genesis 2 are in open conflict with the author(s) of Genesis 1. 

Neither school of writers seem to have been aware of the work of the other school. The accounts are dramatically different; the unity is broken. Genesis 1 and 2 were not only written by different people, but during different time periods.  They were spliced together only as the community of scribes approached the impending work required for the Septuagint bible.

Celtic goddess Hekate Goddess of Wisdom (symbolized with snakes), Wild Creatures, the Moon and the Crossroads

Order is made out of this chaos only with the advent of wisdom (the Tree of Knowledge and its fruit, being reserved only for the gods, a copy of ancient Sumerian theology).  The serpent/ snake of Genesis 2:3 is heralded as subtle/ crafty–having the power of speech (third account, Genesis 3:1; the New American, English Standard, and New International translations use the word “crafty”, while the New Living Translation uses “shrewdest”, while the King James, American Standard, and Douai-Rheims uses “subtle” [in various spellings] the original meaning was “skillful” or “ingenious” and understood as mental acuteness and discernment) and thus interpolated as a woman (although it is woman who is in control of the serpent/snake). 

Minoan (Crete) Serpent Goddess

The serpent (נחש or nachash, which means to “observe attentively”; modern mistranslations use the word as if it signified “brazen” or “chains” “fetters of brass” and other attributes of slavery, but this does appear in the Genesis fable; those terms appear only in 2 Samuel 22:35, Job 20:24, but in Job 26:13 it is further misused as נחש ברח, or nachash bariach, as something that passes through a gate or door or through rings, as with the Norse and Babylonian concept of the serpent swallowing its tale, but in each case it is a symbol of eternity of being and eternal life, and Psalm 18:34, with it being considered filthy or a form of fornication in Ezekiel 16:36; Ecclesiastes 10:11) is marked as “the babbler”: an old Hittite concept brought to Mesopotamia from Egypt.

Black-lored Babbler (Turdoides melanops) of Africa

The “babbler” was a bird Egyptian in origin that reiterated “everything good and pure” at the time a person died and stood to be judged on whether or not he or she deserved eternal life. The babbler later became a crocodile that was also Egyptian in origin.  It can be seen in Isaiah 27:1 and 65:25.  In these references it is clearly the god crocodile (the Egyptian god Sobek who offered power, protection, and fertility who in the Middle Kingdom was associated with the sun-god Ra; he would destroy sinners but debate the just and good who sought or obtained wisdom having come out of “the waters” (the ocean) of chaos and created the world; read: Harris, Geraldine and Pemberton, Delia (1999). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt.Lincolnwood, IL, USA: Peter Bedrick Books, pp.142-143.  From 1991 – 1650 BCE, Sobek’s influence extended far and became one of the foundations

Worship of the crocodile God Sobet, Temple of Kom Ombo

for the Genesis myth that dropped his depiction with the ankh, representing his ability to undo evil and cure illnesses, so as to degrade him from his divine status as if he were inferior to the gods of the Garden) or alligator who swallows the hearts of unbelievers.

In the Hall of Judgment in ancient Egyptian theology

In the Hall of Judgement Ma’ at weighs the hearts of the dead against her feather. If the heart weighs heavier it is thrown to the crocodile-headed Ammut to devour as it holds numerous sins that weigh down the heart. If the heart weighs lighter than the feather the soul that is not burdened with many transgressions may cross into the kingdom of Osiris, into paradise.

Isaiah’s use of the crocodile exposes the Isaiah account as plagiarised.  In spite of its many flaws, this tale is picked up and used later in Amos 9:3 where the serpent (נחש hannachash) rests at the bottom of the “seas” and remains the primal/primordial source of knowledge: נחשתי nichashti.  It is erroneously translated in the Septuagint, or Greek version of the Old Testament, as οφις; it has greater wisdom than the gods of the garden, as the serpent states “the gods know that on the day you eat of the fruit, your eyes shall be opened [you will have acquired knowledge] and you shall be equal to the gods.” (Genesis 1:5).  This happens two verses later.  The serpent walks erect and has feet, reaching out, for it has arms and hands–it does not “slither” on its belly (meaning “all four members) until the unmerciful garden keeper casts an evil spell upon it (Genesis 3:14b), but only after the serpent engages the mortal (female) in theological discourse.

Tree of Knowledge and its gods/priests (Assyrian cylinder)

The evil demon gods who damn the serpent and “man and woman” expose their draconian nature by admitting the truth of the serpent’s judgment, wisdom, and words. Genesis 3:22 condemns the gods of Eden without hesitation: “And the gods said, ‘Behold’, mankind has become one of us [this is a direct indication of the plurality of unity that is inherent in the Eternal Spirit and is a reference to personal distinction]—to know good and evil—for that reason, now, lest they put forth their hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat [its fruit] they will live forever [and be gods like us]”. 

Egyptian Tree of Life

The Tree of Life is found in all civilizations and in all of the world’s religions, but it is nourishing and to be sought out for food and wisdom.  For example, in ancient Egyptian theology, Isis Herself also appears once as a holy tree with a breast in its branches, nursing the king, found in the grave of Tuthmosis (Thutmosis); sexuality was affirmed, and breast milk was considered the milk of the gods–the milk of life for all future and present generations.  The breast was bared to receive

Goddess Isis as Tree of Life (Thutmosis tomb, Egypt)

petitioners who sought knowledge, food, and drink.  This motif  appears in most artistic expressions everywhere throughout the ancient world that was not plagued with the false modesty of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam. It was natural–without the forced modesty of putting on an apron to cover the sexual organs as the gods of Genesis compelled its people to wear once they stopped following orders that came without a reason (Genesis 3:21) one line in the Torah that has no equal in any of the world’s older and more enlightened religions.  In other instances, the Tree of Knowledge is also the Tree of Life, as without Knowledge there is no life. This was equally the case in ancient India and Greece, where people came, the gods who were serpents rejoiced, and bade them take

Hesperides (the golden apple) Tree of Life with the serpent as a doctor (ancient Greece)

from the Tree its fruit and eat.  The serpent surrounds the tree to offer advice, medical care, compassion, and education.  This is true everywhere from the frozen Northern regions and states, to the Buddhists in Tibet and monks moving into China and East Asia.  It occurred everywhere in every scripture–except in Genesis and among the Habiru mercenaries working for the Akkadians and Hittites until they set off for their own series of conquests: Palestine, Canaan, and tributaries that were never their own property by right, but became their land by might: force of arms and brutal battles and open genocide forays (Genesis 34:25-29; That Palestine/Canaan was never the property of Israel is attested to in Genesis 37:1, cp. Deuteronomy 2:25, 3:3-6, 18; Joshua 6; the Old Testament gods are equal to Set of Egypt: blood-thirsty and vengeful, sparing no one who would cross them. 

Nagarjuna (Buddhist Tree of Life) Tibet

In Genesis the intent is clear.  The gods of the Hebrews did not want mortals (who were “fashioned in their image” and would have been most likely demigods) to live forever for such a situation could lead to a revolt against the gods, or the rejection of the gods in favor of knowledge.  If this were to happen the gods would disappear and no longer exist.  The fate of all fantasies when people stop believing in them and think for themselves (cp. Revelation 2:7).   

The gods of the garden were not omniscient (all-knowing).  They had to ask Adam where he was (Genesis 3:9).  This is the mark of an overseer, who calls out for a worker by name.

The gods of Gan Eden were not omnipresent.  They were not with the “woman” when she debated the serpent. 

The gods of paradise were not omnipotent.  They had no power to stop woman and her debate.

The eleventh verse of this ancient tragedy opens more questions about the omniscience of the garden god—questions that any gifted deity would not have to ask. This is found repeated in verse thirteen.

“Adam” proves himself to be weak: of fashion, creation, and courage. The man blames the woman as would any cowardly bully. 

Woman asserts herself.  She responds affirmatively.  Eve cites her source (2–see footnote below).

Far from being loving, merciful, forgiving, and generous gods, the deities are harsh, cruel, vengeful, unrelenting, and evil. They insist that the mortals suffer and glory in their suffering (Genesis 3:15-19). 

Only once the woman suffers is she given a name–and then by the mortal who caused the suffering by pulling back and putting the full blame on the woman. The name Eve does not appear until line 20, with the scriptural notation that she is “the mother of all living things”: the title given to goddess throughout Sumerian history and theology, a theology carried over to Mesopotamian nations and Egypt, and only of late used in the emerging writings of Hebrew scribes.  It is a title identical to that bestowed on the Goddess Isis of ancient Egypt—and, yet, there is the surprising confession that Eve is Isis in part as she is the creatrix who gave life to all things (Genesis 1:11-25 ff, 2:9-19) making Eve the creating deity over any other deity (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1982). Woman in ancient Israel under the Torah and Talmud: with a translation and critical commentary on Genesis 1-3. Mesquite, TX, USA: IHP).

The destiny of the Mother of All Things, however, changes in the fourth tale, (Genesis 4:1-2) as she no longer has the power to spontaneous create, but must regenerate laboriously: giving birth.  This is quickly masked over by the scribes who created the fifth account–obviously unaware of the other records, for there are numerous generations from a single mother who had but three sons.  For Cain to marry (Genesis 4:17), he would have had to marry a daughter of Seth (in Egyptian theology his name is Set and he was the god of evil and darkness, but definitely patriarchal with no respect for women), his niece, while Seth would have had to have had sex with his mother as Oedipus did in Greek lore.

Sumerian Tree of Knowledge and Serpent God 2025 BCE

While “Eve” is essential to the Abrahamic religions’ plagiarism of far older world fables on creation, the serpent in the garden is the central figure, especially concerning the Temptation beside the Tree of Knowledge.  The words of the serpent are critical to understanding the significance of the “fall” (or rise) of males and patriarchy that did not exist for millennia. Nearly the serpent’s entire message is in the Third Tale (Genesis 3, which Batto, Bernard F. (1992). Slaying the Dragon, Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition. Louisville, KY, USA: Westminster/John Knox Press, p. 60: “The Yahwist’s Primeval Myth.” rejects as original or authentic).  It is the serpent-god who begins the dialogue:

vs. 1b: “Yes, [have not] the gods said, ‘you shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?” The full text is: וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃. In vs. 2b-3,

the woman points out “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden, but the fruit of the tree that is in the among/amidst/in the center of the garden, the gods declared ‘You all shall not eat of it, neither shall anyone touch it or you will die’.” The full text reads: וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתֹוךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בֹּו פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ .

The serpent retorts (vs. 4b=5): “Surely you will not die. For the gods know certainly that on the day that you eat [of the fruit of the tree], your eyes shall be opened and you shall be equal to the gods: knowing good and evil.” The full text reads: וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מֹות תְּמֻתוּן׃ כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיֹום אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טֹוב וָרָע׃  

Dispute Between Emesh and Enten (Sumerian cylinder)

The serpent is recognizing different forces.  The serpent is not the betrayer, nor is the serpent an enemy of gods for the woman is a god (the creatrix) and the serpent is working to increase her knowledge.  This knowledge led to sex with the “first man” and from their union came Emesh and Enten (Cain [literally it means “the Shining One” and was later accorded to Lucifer; in the Greek New Testament, Cain is referred to as ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ: “the evil one” 1 John 3:12] and Abel, which in Hebrew means “breath”, “vanity”, and “waste”, but in Akkadian, Abel means “son”, and in Arabic Abel translates as “herdsmen” of camels, while Cain translates as “metal smith” indicating their professions: farming and industry and their “battle” was between the two professions, not between two men: Richard S. (1993).  Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11. Kevelaer, Germany: Verlag Butzon & Bercker ; Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany: Neukirchener Verlag, pp. 24-25) two Mesopotamians who fit into Sumerian theology.

The serpent demonstrates that it (since in fact there is no actual reference to the gender of the serpent as male or female) is in fact a deity.  It is not a demon as demons at this time in history did not recognize the existence of good but, like Marduk of Persia, were preoccupied with murdering messengers of light

Shiva (Pashupati terracotta seal) excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated c. 2000 BCE

(Ahura Mazda) in a great (and final) battle for control of the earth. 

Lord of cattle holding a snake of wisdom (India)

In India, the serpent-god was the guide to heaven, his erect phallus a symbol of peace and love and direction toward god.  This is seen graphically in the Shiva Pashupati (“lord of cattle”) seal, a famous terracotta seal excavated from the Mohenjo Daro (Mound of the Dead) in the Indus Valley dated approximately 2000 BCE depicting a horned (divine) yogi figure in lotus position with an erect phallus:  a symbol of the way to heaven.  Shiva, frequently depicted in yogi form, is commonly venerated in

Shiva lingam in 10th century temple of Sri Brihadeswara Thanjavur (India)

the form of the male organ of procreation or lingam. The lingam, upon which devotees focus their prayers that is usually located at ground level, the vertical configuration of the icon symbolizes ascent, pointing to heaven. Shiva lingam is usually found in the innermost sanctuary of Shiva temples. Reference to the Shiva lingam (लिङ्गं in Sanskrit) is noted in ancient Hindu scriptures, including the Puranas and Mahabharata.

Yoga practices rest on awakening the “kundalini,” a Sanskrit word meaning “serpent power.” Only when the “coiled serpent” (the phallus) is awakened the real (subconscious) Yogi becomes the creator and destroyer of the universe, like God. Yoga is motivated by a spirit that inspires self-deificationin the practitioner with a promise of

Shiva Lingam and Yoni (India)

reincarnation through regeneration (sexuality and sexual active intercourse).  As Hindu theology ebbed into Mesopotamia, with an intensive emphasis on the divine qualities of the phallus and phallic worship that had long played a role in Canaanite and other Palestinian religions, the Habiru began to fight the innovative ontology and form schools to battle it by inventing evil to be the hallmark of the Celestial Advocate (Satan).  The reality of human sexuality was repressed by the ignorance of a few that such activity, if left unguarded and unchecked, would lead to transgressions against the laws of the deities they worshipped

Shiva lingam (Hindu, India)

and such transgressions would become unforgivable sins unless punished to the ultimate extent.  Thus stoning for adultery or effeminacy was demanded by the numerous authors of Leviticus, and from there carried to other tracts that never existed.  While the Hindus, Canaanites and other Palestinians had no problem, and in fact rejoiced in the display of the phallus as a symbol of the deities love for mortals, such a display was forbidden among the early emerging Habiru who considered the organ to be a work of the serpent that they would in time refer to as The Devil.  All images of the phallus would be forbidden among the wandering nomads/mercenaries, and any reference was prohibited under pain of offending the tribal god Yahweh–who would avenge himself by causing those who dared mention it to suffer.  All symbols, common in Hinduism, Asherahism of the Canaanites, and others, were destroyed.  Religion had become the warlord over choice and wisdom was denied.

Single serpent entwined around a pole (Egypt 3000 BCE)

All religions have stories of serpents that become staffs, rods, pillars, and even the phallus.  The ancient Egyptians created legends of magicians (magi) who turned serpents into rods (cf. Exodus 7:10-12) to warn pharaohs of impending dangers, mass famine and pestilence, leading ultimately to the invention of Moses, from the tale of the priest On (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1992).  Moses : making of myth & law : the influence of Egyptian sex, religion, and law on the writing of the Torah ; with an introduction by Decherd Turner; cp. Loud, Gordo,  Megiddo II: Plates plate 240: 1, 4, from Stratum X (dated by Loud 1650–1550 BC) and Statum VIIB (dated 1250–1150 BC), noted by Karen Randolph Joines, “The Bronze Serpent in the Israelite Cult” Journal of Biblical Literature 87.3 (September 1968:245-256) p. 245 note 2.),

Moab serpent-god with feathers and horns of divinity (date unknown)

a symbol that even appears on Moab and Mesoamerica cave walls (cp. Exodus 7:9-12).  Scholars have found this iconography regarding the serpent going back to the legend of Kukulcan/ Quetzalcoatal (first documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BCE or first century CE), represented   as a feathered serpent. Quetzalcoatl was associated most intriguingly with legends of a white bearded hero arriving by boat from the sea, teaching the people, and then leaving, with the promise to return again in the future. This long-lived legend permitted the quick and easy overthrow of the Aztec Empire by Spanish invaders, who troops encouraged by their clergy quick martyred the Aztecs to steal their gold and claim their land for their pagan god and king.  The brutal atrocities committed by the clergy far outdid the carnage capped by the soldiers in service to their kings: secular and divine (cp. Matthew 10:34).

Feathered, with horns, serpent deity (Moab cave art)All ancient religions, including that of the Habiru/Hebrews saw the serpent is co-equal with the gods.  The serpent is the source of wisdom (the Levi, or priestly class, had to destroy that concept, even though Moses had the serpent on his staff as did all medical practitioners, educators, and even priests and royalty). With that the conversation is finished, and the diminishing of woman initiated–to be made complete with the rise of “Christianity” and Islam–both that demand that mortals submit to cruel gods and their priests and prophets.

Papyrus _Oxy VI 932 A private letter on papyrus from Oxyrhynchus written in a Greek hand of the second century CE The holes are caused by worms

Paulinity, the usurper of initial community of believers in Jesus of the New Testament and the actual root of what would become confessional Christianity that had nearly nothing in common with the Sayings of Jesus (referred to by Papias of Hierapolis in Anatolia (c. 60-130 CE): fragmentary logia texts appear on two Oxyrhynchus papyri discovered in 1897 and 1904; cf. Cross, F. L., ed. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, read articles Logia and Sayings of Jesus; Papias, Exposition on the Oracles of the Lord survives only in quotations made by Irenaeus and Eusebius; Oxyrhynchus was a city in Egypt (in ancient Egypt it was Per-Mejed the capital of the Upper Egypt Nome and rebuilt after the conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE and renamed Οξυρρύγχου Πόλις : “town of the sharp-snouted fish”) on the

Bronze statue of Oxyrhynchus fish (date uncertain)

west of the Nile.  From this site came an enormous collection of papyrus texts dating from the time of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history were found.  It was also the trove for Gnostic writings, especially the Gospel of Thomas, which many sawn as a threat to the emerging Paulinity church and sacerdotal priests committed to Saul of Tarsus) or any original text (most of which were destroyed by Constantine I and his subservient bishops determined to weed out heresy, deliberately, in the fourth century CE, further twisted the story as recorded by the schools of scribes in ancient Israel, to make the serpent appear as evil: “like sheep (a word that is both singular and plural, here used in the plural format; those that were found at Oxyrhynchus were written, or copied from older originals, between the third and fourth centuries CE.  Many were written on the back of old government and accounting records as papyrus and paper were expensive) among wolves” (a symbol of evil) in Mathew 10:16.  2 Corinthians 11:3 actually admits, reluctantly, that inquisitiveness is a virtue yet one that could lead to “being led astray” from blind obedience to the madness of the creators of Paul (“pure devotion to Christ”: a title Jesus of the New Testament never claimed). 

Shri Anantasayana Vishnu , Lord Vishnu sleeping on the cosmic serpent

The universality of the serpent as a part of the waters and ring of life, as in Hindu theology it is affirmed that Lord Vishnu sleeps while floating on the cosmic waters on the serpent , and antecedent to the Torah is found in Babylonian and other texts where the serpent is a prized and wisdom giving god is found in Revelation 12:15.  It is not until Revelation 20:2 that a mysterious saviour (not named Jesus) seizes the serpent and at that point calls it a devil, and then adds the name “Satan” (that does not mean “evil” but translates as “celestial advocate” and was a Babylonian son of the gods: Job 2:1).  The Babylonian Satan, sourced from the Sumerian Satan (“Divine Advocate”) was a god in mortal shape.

Gadd Seal (Ur III period, 2380-2360 BCE, ancient Sumeria) foundation for SatanNaramsin with horns of divinity, fully armed (Sumeria) (c. 3000 BCE)

The BM 122847 cylinder seal shows a humped bull standing before a palm-tree (Tree of Knowledge), feeding from a round manager (or a bundle of fodder symbolizing the promised birth of a warrior [“messiah”: מָשִׁיחַ meaning “anointed”; cp. سيح that is translated in the Greek Septuagint as  Χριστός (Khristós), cp. Book of Enoch (xxxvii.-lxxi.) of the first century BCE]; behind the bull (a god, called Apis in Egypt where the calf was known as Yah, Marduk is the “bull of Utu”.  Shiva’s Hindu steed is Nandi, the Bull.various names in Mesopotamia; Aurochs are depicted in many Paleolithic European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon in France, while the earliest survivals of a bull cult are at neolithic Çatalhöyük: southern Anatolia (Turkey), which existed from approximately 7500 BCE to 5700 BCE and while most agree it was a matriarchal society, there are those who argue it was gender-nuetral: Hodder, Ian. “Women and Men at Çatalhöyük,” Scientifi  American Magazine, January 2004 (update V15:1, 2005) and Hodder, Ian (2006). The Leopard’s Tale: Revealing the Mysteries of Çatalhöyük. London; New York: Thames & Hudson), is holy scorpion and two snakes; above this scene is a human figure (placed horizontally) who has long arms and legs and rays (“horns”) about his head (antedating Moses of the Torah) who is the overseer.  The serpent is the one who imparts knowledge, discusses Truth with “creatures” and is the senior aid to the human figure (cuneiform Gadd Seal 1). The serpent is the prototype of “all things good” and wisdom.

"Everything good and pure" (Egyptian hieroglyph)

The strangest part appears in verse 15b: “it [the serpent] shall bruise your head, and you both shall bruise his heel.”  This has met little discussion, but the fact that the serpent had a head, arms, hands, and legs, and walked upright (it is only later it crawls on its belly: Genesis 3:14) is indicative not that it was necessarily a person shaped, formed, and endowed like a mortal, but rather that it had a head indicating that it had a brain and was wise—there is no record within the Third Tale that the gods had a head (none is mentioned), nor were the omnipresent or omnipotent as was the serpent who displayed both characteristics (Matthew 10:16, John 3:14-15; the Torah devolution of the serpent was slow and only transmogrified to separate Israelites from other mortal communities: Kelly Satan: a biography, p. 360 “However, the idea of Zoroastrian influence on the evolution of Satan is in limited favor among scholars today, not least because the satan figure is always subordinate to God in Hebrew and Christian representations: Kelly, Henry Ansgar (2006). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press), for the serpent was

Devil Man (Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 CE)

“subtle” (Genesis 3:1).  Furthermore, the serpent was not a traditional snake, for the text reads that “you shall bruise his heal” and only non-serpentine (not snakes) have heels, the passage reminiscent of Achilles whose heel was unprotected in combat (a final combat: an apocalyptic End Time); the Satan, allegedly, created the genitals.

To protect the Abrahamic religions, and after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, a concerted attack on the recognition and worship of the serpent as a source of knowledge broke out with ferocity.

Constantinus II with Licinius Crispus (coin, 4th century CE)The Emperor Constantinus II in 356 CE ordered the Egyptian temples of Isis-Osiris closed and forbade the use of Egyptian hieroglyphics as a religious language while stealing Egyptian gold for his own use. The Emperor Theodosius in 380 CE declared Christianity to be the official Roman state religion, forbade the existence of all pagan cults with especially attention to destroying the records of ancient Egyptian culture and religion, attacking the Egyptian language and the writing systems of Egyptian priests, destroying manuscripts in a way similar to the burning of Arian records by Constantine I, in favor of an illiterate emerging priestly class that changed Christianity into Paulinity favoring a few over the many.

Theophilus and the Serapeum

In 391 C.E. the pandering, predatory Patriarch of Alexandria, Theophilus (d. 412 CE), one of the most evil and illiterate patriarchs in Church history: “Seiz[ed] this opportunity, Theophilus exerted himself to the utmost … he caused the Mithraeum to be cleaned out… Then he destroyed the Serapeum [the greatest library in the world of that day]… and he had the phalli of Priapus carried through the midst of the forum. … the heathen temples… were therefore razed to the ground, and the images of their gods molten into pots and other convenient utensils for the use of the Alexandrian church” (written by Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History 16) having summoned his venal and blood-thirsty monks to arms and sent them as a barbaric horde against the city of imperial Memphis, which had a reputation similar to today’s Vatican and its libraries, and the great shrine of Serapis, the Serapeum, the main temple of the Osirian-Isis religion where more records were kept than could be found in any Christian church or convent. The object, an open secret, was to steal all gold of non-Christians to adorn the Christian churches and starve the masses. 

This violence and carnage was repeated by the Christian community  when the female philosopher Hypatia (350/370 – March 415), a noted mathematician and librarian who was head of the Platonist school at Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy, was lynched and flayed by a mob of Alexandrian Coptic monks who acclaimed Theophilus’s nephew and successor Cyril as “the new Theophilus, for he had destroyed the last remains of idolatry in the city”, as recorded in the Chronicle (only a translation in Ethiopian in 1602 survives) by John of Nikiu, an Egyptian Coptic bishop, in the seventh century (“La Chronique de Jean de Nikioû”, ed. and translated into French by H. Zotenberg in Notices et Extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale, t. XXIV, I, pp. 125–605 (Paris, 1883) and also separately (Paris, 1883).  The death of Hypatia ( Toohey, Sue (2003). “The Important Life & Tragic Death of Hypatia”. Skyscript.co.uk.) marked the beginning of the decline and end of education in the Christian world, that substituted memorization of myths for learning and the conduct of inquiry, more interested in turning out bigoted clerics than producing intelligent leaders, scientists, mathematicians and inventors (Wider, Kathleen (1986). “Hypatia”, Women Philosophers in the Ancient Greek World: Donning the Mantle.  Indianapolis, IN, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 49–50).  Schools were closed, libraries destroyed, and the mythology of Paulinity became the only acceptable religion until Islam took over Arabia and began its march to conquer the world.

USA soldier Lynndie England holding a leash attached to a Abu Ghraib prisoner in Iraq

More violent than the armies of the legendary Joshua, more bloodthirsty than the Cossacks (Казаки) of Imperial Russia, and more deadly than Lynndie England and her gaggle of goons at Abu Ghraib prison (2004-2005; for her role in and torturing Iraqis England was indicted on of one count of conspiracy, four counts of maltreating detainees and one count of committing an indecent act, England received only a three-year prison sentence), the Christian terrorists from Alexandria massacred Egyptian priests in their shrines and in the streets. The ferocity of the violence consumed priests, followers, and the Egyptian intellectual elite of Alexandria, Memphis, and other cities of Egypt who were murdered and their temples and libraries destroyed and a motley crew of scribes were assigned to rewrite (“revise”) history and create a fiction supporting Alexandria’s concept of Christianity that would be buttressed by the Arian bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius, who was commissioned by Constantine to create and write a Bible in 385 CE (Eusebius, Vita Constantini, IV,36-37). The institutional structure of Egyptian religion, then more than four millennia old, was demolished in less than two decades (cf. Gabriel, Richard A (2005).  Jesus the Egyptian: the Origins of Christianity and the Psychology of Christ.  [S.I.] Iuniverse Inc).

The conclusion in the nineteenth century, and not ignored until the rise of evangelical fundamentalism among the new emerging sects, was that the serpent was neither demon nor devil, but a god sent to educate and elucidate wisdom.  This came from a study of serpentine figures from all ancient civilizations that used the image of the serpent to hallmark medical corporations, technical and educational institutions, and government think tanks employing the symbol of the serpent on their emblems and logos.

FOOTNOTES

(1) Sayce was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist who held the chair as Professor of Assyriology at Oxford University (1891-1919), publishing transcriptions and translations of cuneiform texts for the Society of Biblical Archaeology (see vol. 3, part 1). Sayce argued that the Hittites existed centuries before the age of Old Testament patriarchs, debunking the common thought that the Old Testament was the earliest history of the region; it was but a plagiarism.  His Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian religion and showed how it was far older than any Jewish writing or the Torah (cf. Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). The Hibbert Lectures, 1887. Lectures on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by the religion of the ancient Babylonians. London, UK: Williams & Norgate).  Sayce’s goal was to find the Rosetta stone to unlock all ancient languages. Cf. Archibald Henry Sayce (1875). An elementary grammar: with full syllabary and progressive reading book, of the Assyrian language, in the cuneiform type. London, UK: Samuel Bagster and Sons, I have a copy of the second edition, but no date was printed on the book; Sayce, Archibald Henry (1887). Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the ancient Babylonians. London: Williams and Norgate; and, Sayce, Archibald Henry (1888-[1892].  Records of the Past: Being English translations of the ancient monuments of Egypt and Western Asia. New Series; 6 vols. London: Bagster & Sons).

(2) Although contemporary versions read that she claims “the serpent beguiled me” meaning to “suggest” or “impose upon” (James 1:22) even “lecture” but the concept of  “deceit” is of later origin and at first was understood to me “to cheat” from giving full details as in Romans 7:11, 16:18 (where it is to “encourage” or “offer”, and 1 Corinthians 3:18; as a verb transitive, “beguile” means “to make time pass without notice” indicating that the dialogue lasted for some time and various points debated).  In 2 Corinthians 11:3, it is the offering of serious scholarship to the exclusion of accepting “the simplicity that is in Christ”—or accepting the least complicated answer in favor of ignorance, also inserted in 2 Thessalonians 2:3; it is a commandment to obey the priests (Isaiah 37:10) who work for the good of their particular god(s) and not for the good of people, as noted in Jeremiah 29:8.

9 Comments

Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Christian Terrorists, Church history, Genesis, Homosexuality, Old Testament, Roman Catholicism, Torah

Christmas, Jesus, December 25, and making merry

On December 20, 2011, I received an e-mail from Fred Edwords, National Director of the Coalition for Reason.  In his e-mail, Edwords cited a passage in an oral presentation that he made to two groups in Pennsylvania and one in New Jersey.  One line struck one of the listeners with concern.  The line in question that Edwords delivered was:

Isis and Horus (Egypt) and Mary and Jesus (Christianity)

The Madonna and Child icon was developed from the mother and child imagery of Cybele and Attis (Mother of God and Sun God), in use at Rome, itself rooted in the older Egyptian imagery of Isis and Osiris–the child in each case being born on December 25th.”

The individual who was troubled by Edwords’ assessment and initially spoke with the National Director then sent Edwords an e-mail.  The cognoscenti queried:

“…you used Osiris in your talk, but the information on Osiris is very, very limited and our source pool comes from the Classical period, which predates Christianity, and from late antiquity, a la Plutarch (who is extremely unreliable as a source).  While some similarities between Jesus and Osiris exists (for example, the resurrection account between Mark and Plutarch dealing with Jesus and Osiris, respectively), there is no record of a date of birth for Osiris, per se.  Plutarch claims that he was the first of the gods of Egypt born during the five-days Egyptians attributed to their births.  It assuredly was not during the solstice, but if you have a source on the matter I’d be interested in giving it a look. I poured over my copy of the ANET trying to find any reference of a seasonal connection to the birth dates surrounding the Egyptian deities. That isn’t to say a source does not exist, but I certainly don’t know of it.

 While I do not claim the luxury of having personally met with Fred Edwords or knowing him as a personal friend, I am quite aware of his objectivity, dedication to track down and determine the veracity of all resource citations (he called me down on a statement I made about Justin Martyr that I  initially  appended to a comment on two of my blogs that I later expanded to demonstrate that Martyr was never a traditional Christian (in fact he was banished for a time by the very church he claimed to defend, and whose life and writings are not certain today) and had created the fantasy of a cross (crux) whereas in the scrolls Jesus of the New Testament was executed on a pole), and works tirelessly to dispel myths and folklore.  I wrote back with these comments (the questioner’s comments are in black, my response is in red): … you used Osiris in your talk, but the information on Osiris is very, very limited (…from the darkest ages in Egypt until its hostile take over initially by the Hyksos (who may have either been or incorporated the Habiru/Hebrews) or the Ptolemy dynasty that included Cleopatra.  The reason is clear, that the individual is referring to one or two papyrus, but (1) there are over 100 different papyrus …, (2) there is tomb and pyramid art with inscriptions that have been … been translated [usually into German] that deal with this subject, (3) there are extra-Egyptiological works left in cuneiform, most likely by Hittites, Hyksos, Phoenicians, etc, (4), etc. which I address in my newest work) and our source pool comes from the Classical period (… your authority is obviously citing Herodotus [“Father of History”] but while there is material, he [like Trajan] recorded what he heard–not saw–and the adiaphora details and references did not exist at that time as a part of the academic buttressing of arguments. …we also have Strabo and his Geography, Plinar and his History (which only specialists seem to know of its existence) and various other writers, but they are writing in the last 500 years BCE, and never entered Egyptian of Mesopotamian tombs, etc, nor studied the work.  Today, for example, there are a growing number of scholars who are refining and redefining the various Mithras/Mithraic works that decorate walls in underground “churches” of Mithras detailing how the Christians were kept busy burning the original texts of the Mithras religion…  I hope I showed in my last article that the first century CE writers, especially Justin Martyr were not considered “Christians” in the first century not only in the East but the west, and that Constantine I ordered in 325/326 the destruction of most “heathen” texts.  …), which predates Christianity, and from late antiquity, a la 

Constantine and Council of Nicaea burning Arian books

Plutarch (who is extremely unreliable as a source [actually no–… NGL (Nicholas Geoffrey Lempriere) Hammond, Chester G. Star [whom I studied ancient History under] and others all cite Plutarch and note his reliability. Plutarch’s Nine Greek Lives (now entitled “Rise and Fall of Athens”) rejects most of your antagonist’s … objections, as do most German and [other] scholars …].  While some similarities between Jesus and Osiris exist (for example, the resurrection account between Mark and Plutarch dealing with Jesus and Osiris, respectively), there is no record of a date of birth for Osiris, per se (actually that is incorrect, [existing records]  all give Osiris’ birth as December 25 [but do not use the current Christian calendar; read about that below]… but it was not proclaimed throughout the Roman Empire until the first century BCE … read). 

Ancient Egyptian calendar

All ancient cultures had different calendars. Most were lunar and dating matched rising and falling of tides, seasonal variations, and so on.  Nearly everything else would officially conform to Roman rule, but not the dating of nativities, resurrections, or holy days.  These would not be suppressed until the Emperor Constantine would seek to strengthen his rule by creating a  church in 325 CE that he could dominate and control: this would be the reason for establishing Christianity as a faith, one that Constantine rejected (the claim that he converted on his death-bed and was baptized by the Arian Bishop Eusebius is fantasized decades later). 

Osiris with shepherd staff and serpent rod (serpent represents wisdom)

Osiris was among the more current gods of salvation within the Empire, where his devotees proclaimed that “his burden is light” and “his rod and shaft” caused no pain.

Osiris pine cone staff

Osiris is a savior-god who had been worshipped as far back as Neolithic times. “He was called Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God of Gods…the Resurrection and the Life, the Good shepherd…the god who ‘made men and women be born again’”  Three wise men announced his birth. His followers ate cakes of wheat that symbolized his body. Many sayings associated with Osiris were taken over into the Bible and the emerging Christian Church adopted his symbols, token, and promises, while incorporating the dress of Mithraist priests for their own sacerdotal leaders. This includes, for example:

Papal pine cone staff

Parts of Psalm 23, where the Egyptian hieroglyphs read: “We appeal to Osiris as the good Shepherd to lead believers through the Valley of the Shadow of Death and to green pastures and still waters”

  • Part of the “Lord’s Prayer”, that in various ancient Egyptian text reads: “O Amen /Amen-Ra [sometimes Amun], who are in the heavens, we keep your name holy…”

Relief of Rameses III "smiting enemies" before Amen-Ra at the God's temple at Thebes

(Cairo Amen Hymn  (Papyrus Cairo CG 58038= Papyrus Boulaq 17)  that  dates, at least in parts, to the late Middle Kingdom: early 17th century BCE) The name of the Egyptian God Amen translates as “the Hidden One” whose name was so holy that only a select few were allowed to pronounce it (ref. Sarcophagus Texts, Formula 44 (CT I, 189f-g)).  He is one of the antecedents of Yahweh/Jehovah/YHWH of the later Jews who would become the Hebrews. Amen and his consort, Amenet were the gods of creation

Rameses II with the gods Amun/Amen, son Khons, wife Mut

Amen was part of the Theban Trinity (along with Mut and their son Khons the moon-god; cf., Brunner, Hellmut, and Beyerlin, Walter (1975).  Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum alten Testament, Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1985; Kees, Hermann (reissued 1956)  Der Götterglaube im alten Ägypten, Leipzig, Germany, 1941: Berlin : Akademie-Verlag, 1956; Lurker, Manfred (1998).  Lexikon der Götter und Symbole der alten Ägypter. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, 2005; originally published in Bern, Switzerland: Scherz, 1987; newest edition: [München], Germany: Barth, 2011).  It was from the Egyptian theology concerning three supreme deities that Constantine would create his Christian Trinity.

Osiris had numerous similarities to Jesus of the New Testament–similarities that Christian apologists deny or brush over.  Osiris was a god who turned water into wine, forgave fallen women, cured blindness and illness and did most things that Jesus did (Frazer, James George (1962). Adonis, Attis, Osiris: studies in the History of Oriental Religion. Reprint, New Hyde Park, NY, USA: University Books; original printing New York, NY and London, UK: The Macmillan Company, 1906).  On the power of Osiris and his champion Horus, read Pyramid Texts, utterance 356, §§ 581-582. 

Western Christianity does not adopt December 25 as the birthday of Jesus of the New Testament until 336 or 379/380 (depending on what document is being read).  The Eastern churches did not accept December 25 until 386 CE, while Egypt (primarily the See of Antioch) did not concur until 432, and Jerusalem more than a century later (the Armenian Christians never accepted the date, but continues to celebrate Christmas, “manifestation of the magi” and baptism on January 6; read more here).  

Orthodox Armenians, Copts, Russians, Georgians and Serbs celebrate the Nativity on January 7th

The year that the Jesus of the New Testament was born was never recorded as the year zero for more than 500 years after his alleged birth; the “Christian” calendar did not exist before the eighth century at the earliest.  Religious scholars and serious, trained historians place the assumed nativity somewhere between 7 and 2 BCE (cf. Carson, D. A. Moo, Douglas J, and Morris, Leon (1992) An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI, USA: Zondervan).

There is no mention of birth celebrations in the writings of early Christian writers such as Irenaeus (c. 130–200) or Tertullian (c. 160–225). Outside of mythology, there is no historical evidence of there ever being a “bishop of Rome” before the end of the first century.  There is a similar lack of evidence even into the second century, and there are no surviving (if there ever had been) documents from any presbyters or other leaders on a nativity of a Jesus of the Testament or on any other son of god anywhere in the City of Rome or on any of the pagan hills of the Vatican that was home to numerous gods from Vulcan to Mithras, who, according to Herodotus, History Bk. 1, c. 131, goes back to the seventh century BCE. 

Initiation into Mithraism (serpent represents being surrounded by wisdom)

Mithras had an inscription on his altars, on his cave walls where rituals were performed, and in numerous other places.  The inscription reads: “He who will not eat of my body and drink of my blood, so that he will be made on with me and I with him, the same shall not know salvation.”  It was later plagiarized by the writers of John 6:53-54.

Origen of Alexandria (c. 165–264) goes so far as to mock Roman celebrations of birth anniversaries, dismissing them as “pagan” practices—a strong indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time (Origen, Homily on Leviticus 8).  Among the most convoluted arguments for December 25, comes from the Father of the Church Tertullian—who would leave the church and become a born-again pagan—of Carthage.  He tried to determine the date Jesus died, placing it at the 14th of Nisan (day of the crucifixion according to the Gospel of John that did not exist in its entirety. That would make it March 25 in the Roman solar calendar—which is precisely nine months before December 25, making March 25 the date (and later commemoration) of Jesus’ conception (Luke 1:26; ovulation was not a science, but it was commonly known that a pregnancy lasted nine months, and that date was determined by referencing Elizabeth’s conception of John the Baptist: Luke 1:10-13; that was based on duties Zacharias performed on the Day of Atonement during the seventh month of the Hebrew lunar calendar, now lunisolar [הלוח העברי], Ethanim or Tishri (Leviticus 16:29, 1 Kings 8:2) which falls in September–October but the precise date is uncertain given the calendar at that time), as apologists for the New Testament Jesus argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year—thus the birth was pegged at December 25.  This argument appears in an anonymous “Christian” treatise entitled On Solstices and Equinoxes that was appears from fourth-century Africa: De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis domini nostri iesu christi et iohannis baptistae.  It is based on Augustine of Hippo (only late in life, after whoring and fathering a bastard did he become a Christian under the scolding of his mother), as found in Augustine, Sermo CCII.

Stone manger to feed cattle in Iran (200 BCE - 2011 CE)

There was no stable, nor any farm animals present at the birth, and the “manger” was a feeding troth in a cave—not in a barn near a hotel (Luke 2:7).  That there were “shepherds in a field” does not indicate that the shepherds were near-by, but that the season was warm and not raining nor cold—this would exclude winter months.  Matthew 2:11 reports that an indefinite number of astrologers visited the cave, not three wise men nor magi. The fantasy of Jesus being wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger comes from the theology of the Persian/Zoroastrian God Mithra/Mithras. As with Christianity that has its trinity composed of the Father, Son (Jesus) and Holy Ghost/Spirit; Mithra/Mithras was a part of the Zoroastrian Trinity: along with Rashnu “Justice” and Sraosha “Obedience”, Mithra is one of the three judges at the

Mithras Chinva Bridge of Separation (separating souls)

Chinva (or Chinvat) bridge, the “bridge of separation” that all souls must cross, and as with what became Christianity without Jesus (better known as Paulinity), no one could go to the Father without first turning to the Son, nor could one achieve eternal life without confessing the name of Mithra/Mithras as he “quiets the waters and makes the pastures green” (Avestan hymn to Mithra (Yasht 10) and Yasna 1:11-3:13).

Saturnalia celebrated with alcohol and sex on December 25 to initiate fertility

Christmas “traditions” are of recent vintage.  They were never a part of the early, medieval, or renaissance periods. The word “Christmas,” in fact, does not appear in word-formation until 1038, and then only in medieval English. All Christmas celebrations and traditions can be dated back at least 4000 to 15000 years BCE from Egypt to Scandinavia, Eastern Russia to France, Ethiopia to Mesopotamia, and elsewhere. These are found in Scandinavia worship celebration of the God Odin, in the Roman Empire recognizing the joyful sounds of Bacchus and the riotous merrymaking of Saturnalia, in Egypt where fertility rituals were the sport of the day, and numerous other occurrences.  

Nicholas bishop of Myra

The innovation of gift-giving (originally ascribed to a Greek bishop named Nicholas (Νικόλαος) of Myra who left socks of money to poor girls for dowries) whose relics were transferred to the Italian town of Bari (for that reason he is also known as Nicholas of Bari); he has always been favored by fishermen, sailors, and masters of ships and has been considered the Christianized version of the god of the seas: Poseidon. 

Dionysios/Bacchus god of wine: Triumphal Chariot (Tunisia) 200 BCE

Merrymaking goes back to the worshipful practices of the priests of Saturnalia and Bacchus (Roll, Susan K. (1995). Toward the Origins of Christmas, Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House. p. 129 has Pope Benedict XIV being the first to roundly defend December 25 as being the birth of the New Testament Jesus).  Fernand Cabrol, “Les Origines du Culte catholique. Le Paganisme dans la liturgie” in Revue pratique d’apologétique 3 (1906-1907), pp. 210-211 note 2, and 212, note 3 with page 281 is among many who reject Christmas as being a Christian celebration and as an invention in the seventh century but not crystallized into popular canon until the seventeenth century; cp. Blötzer, Joseph (1907), “Das heidnische Mysterienwesen und die Hellenisierung des Christentums,” in Stimmen aus Maria Laach 72, pp. 41-42).  The most frequent use of other religions’ feasts and celebrations was among the Arians, with the established (Constantinian) church incorporating them to battle against Arianism. 

It is not before the seventh century, at the earliest, and continues through the nineteenth century, that Christianity has attempted to justify the mythological birth date of Jesus of the New Testament as December 25—which even science reviewing the New Testament accounts reject (Francis Pagi, Breviarium historic-chronologico-criticum, illustriora Pontificum Romanorum Gesta, Conciliorum Geralium acta, vol. 1 (Antwerp, The Netherlands: Van der Hart, 1717), pp. 89-93, cf. Patrologia Latina  128:24-30, under Anastasius, Vitae Romanorum pontificorum.

Christmas Day 1830: Farmer Giles' Establishment (UK)

Nativity scenes do not appear anywhere in any record until the tenth century CE, and homes are not decorated with “green” (shrubs, ivy, decorations, mistletoe (Viscum album) that was originally hung in honor of Nordic gods in petitioning for greater sexual fertility for poor families so that there would be more hands to work, and so forth) until the sixteenth century.  Commercially produced adornments/ornaments do not appear until 1860 and then only in Germany. When I was a young man attending St. Patrick’s Catholic Church in Cedar Falls, Iowa, there were no Christmas trees allowed in the church in the 1960s. Father McMullan blasted the practice as pagan.  In that the priest was correct, as the tree was adorned in honor of the Nordic god Thor (Allhoff, Fritz; Lowe, Scott C.; and, Nissenbaum, Stephen  (2010). Christmas – Philosophy for Everyone: Better than a Lump of Coal. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons).  The word “Christmas tree” does not appear in the German language until the eighteenth century, and in English it is first recorded in 1835, brought in and translated by Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III,

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (UK) 1846 Christmas tree

and acculturated by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.  The Christmas tree, grudgingly, is accepted in the USA by the 1870s, and in South America in the twentieth century. Poinsettia doe not appear outside of Mexico until the nineteenth century, and they were a symbol of an ancient pagan god under the name of Cuitlaxochitl and carried to ancient Chile and Peru. It was initially attacked, then held in reverence by Franciscan friars and fathers who saw it as a symbol of the blood of the New Testament Jesus.

Joel Poinsett

The plant was and is used to produce a red dye and an antipyretic medication.  When the plant was introduced into the United States in 1825 by Joel Poinsett it took the name of Poinsettia.

Christmas carols (religious music) do not appear in any Christian church or community until the fourth century, and then as a means to popular counter Arianism. It is argued by apologists that Ambrose, archbishop of Milan wrote the first Latin hymn: Veni redemptor gentium.  Popular Christian songs do not appear until the thirteenth century and then they were heard only in France, Germany, and Italy.  They appear in England in 1426, and were sung by wassailers who went from house to house in quest of food and drink.

Panetón Todino (Perú) Translation: Let us go, eat, drink, dance, it is party time.

Eating special foods, especially pastries and confections do not reappear until the late Middle Ages and then as a means to wean the common people away from a return to pagan Bacchanalia in honor of the god Bacchus whose ministry and celebration included lavish feasts, drunkenness and sexual license. To this end there became the ritual consumption of bûche de Noël in France, panettone in Italy, and panetón in Spain and its conquered nations, especially in South America.

Martin Luther's Christmas tree

Gift giving was always a part of most pagan celebrations, and in the Roman west gift giving was associated with the theology and ritual of the god Saturnalia.  It was banned by the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages because of its non-Christian origins (it was reinvented by Martin Luther to counter St. Nicholas day, that was actually a Norse legend around the god Odin), but later rationalized in Roman Catholic communities as being a part of the presents to the New Testament infant Jesus by the men who visited him (in bad translations, these men are called magi).  While the magi/astrologers were considered wise, it is because they preached an Apocalyptic end of the world since the days of Zoroaster–and the Star that they followed they believed was the light of the End Times (Yasna 30:3-4).

Zurvan emerged as a deified version of the concept of Infinite Time.  His name may have been borrowed from an earlier Phoenician deity, and is 

Bodleian Ms. J2 fol. 175 Y 28 1: End Times would come with birth of a child

translated as both “fate” and “fortune.”  The Zoroastrian god prophesied that there would be those who would cause a great war between two forces: good and evil (Nyayisn, 1.8), both of whom are his sons: Ahura Mazda and Ahriman, the prototypes for Israel and Ishmael, the children of the ancient Hindu god Brahama (Abraham; see the Pahlavi literature including the Denkart (cf. Dresden, Mark Jan (1966). Denkart: a Pahlavi text: facsimile edition of the manuscript B of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute Bombay. Wiesbaden, Germany:  Harrassowitz; the original Pahlavi text, that I am using, was published at Bombay, India: Duftur Ashkara Press, 1874-1928), the Menok-i Xrat (Zaehner, Robert Charles (1955). Zurvan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Oxford : Clarendon Press; it was reprinted New York, NY, USA: Biblo and Tannen, with a new introduction by the author; multiple languages), and the Selections of Zadspram (a glossary to the ancient text is available from Teheran, Iran: Iranian Culture Foundation, 1973), as these works are a part of what would be generated as Islam and the Qu’ran; they exist in Farsi and Syriac).  Far from Christmas being a time of joy and fulfillment, it was to be a time of warfare, hunger, strife initiated by the gods who did not follow the laws of Zoroastrianism.  The Eternal War promised has not been realized, and “fate” has not found its destiny. It is truly the “mirror of religion”, the “cloak of ignorance” as prophets foretold as people have rejected old gods and they have vanished along with their apocalyptic visions and promises save for those who continue to follow Sharia Law and the damnation of the individual.

2 Comments

Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Bishop of Rome, Christmas, Church history, crucifixon, Islam, History, Jesus Christ, Jewish history, Martin Luther, Muhammad, Old Testament, Papacy, Roman Catholicism

Palestinians are an “invented” people, Newt Gingrich?

Newt Gingrich in Iowa in 2011

Newton Leroy (surname McPherson at birth, his father was Newton Searles McPherson but the parents divorced within days) Gingrich (born June 17, 1943) was raised a Lutheran, but converted to the Baptist faith while at Tulane.  Newt received an MA (1968) and a PhD (1971) from Tulane University in European history.  His dissertation was entitled “Belgian Education Policy in the Congo: 1945–1960”.  He never studied neither Middle Eastern nor Arab history but in 2011 proclaimed that he is knowledgeable about Palestine and the Ottoman Empire.  

In 1970, Gingrich joined the history department at West Georgia College (now University of West Georgia; today it is ranked 16th out of 48 universities in Georgia) as an assistant professor.  Four years later Gingrich moved to the geography department and was instrumental in establishing an interdisciplinary environmental studies program. He was denied tenure and left the third-rank college in 1978.

Callista and Newt discuss debt of up to $500,000 owed Tiffany's (AP Photo)

With a penchant for luxury jets and expensive jewelry (bought at Tiffany’s in New York City where he owed more than six figures without any interest charge), he demands that he be treated and toasted as if royalty, regardless if it

Newt Gingrich home in McLean, VA (2011)

is giving a speech at a small college or on the campaign trail (on public disclosure forms, politicians must only give an approximate figure on what is owned or owed).  Gingrich is known for excessive demands such as luxury hotel accommodations plus two bathrooms in any hotel suite.  At the same time Gingrich likes to style himself a friend of the Middle Class tracing his roots back to his childhood.  His five bedroom, 4.5 bath house was worth $995,000 in 2000 and is 5,206 square feet that he finds to be painfully small on a cul-de-sac in McLean, Virginia and today is marked down to the price of $1.275 million.

Gingrich and current wife (Callista) say they live frugally but buy jewelry at Tiffany's

Nearly a puritan in proclamations Gingrich is a vocal critic against sexual infidelity. While in Congress, the Georgia Republican led the charge against President Bill Clinton for the Lewinsky scandal, while at the same time keeping a mistress, Congressional staffer Callista Bisek, secret from his colleagues.  He demands objectivity of others, but at the same time taught a politically motivated course and took public money

While arguing against health care Newt took millions of dollars from the health care industry.  He has been on the side of the large insurance companies and faults those who do not have health coverage as being parasites for not buying health coverage, while Michele Bachmann told an Iowa audience that those without health insurance can rely on charity.

Golda Meir, socialist and Zionist, with troops

Running for President of the USA, On December 9, 2011, in an interview with The Jewish Channel, Gingrich was quick to disparage Arabs and Palestinians—calling Palestinians an “invented people” (read here and here)  as if trying to channel  former USA citizen and socialist-Zionist Golden Meir, who left her home in Michigan 1921 for a British mandate it acquired following World War I and was a onetime Prime Minister of Israel, declared in ignorance in 1969 that there had never been a Palestinian state, but was addressing the current post-war era, as Meir had no knowledge of ancient history or of the land that included Jews, Muslims and Christians, with the land the people living on the land identified as “Palestinian.”  This can be seen in Elliott Abrams, who was President George W. Bush’s top Mideast advisor, dismissal of Gingrich’s statement as out of touch with reality.  “There was no Jordan or Syria or Iraq, either, so perhaps he would say they are all invented people as well and also have no right to statehood. Whatever was true then, Palestinian nationalism has grown since 1948, and whether we like it or not, it exists.”  Meir moved to an unchartered place that the UN ultimately styled Israel (which was historically known as Palaestina, and is in Roman records as late as 135 CE (in the age of Julius Cesar it was known by various names including Canaan, Judea, Sumeria, and by latter-day Jews “a pagan land” as it did not embrace the agriculture or warrior gods of the Hebrews)—and both are wrong. 

 

GOP House Whip embraces PLO leader Yassar Arafat 1993 (Huffington Post photo)

While former House Speaker Newt Gingrich on December 9, 2011, claimed that Palestinians were an invention, in 1993, standing in front of Representative Nick Rahall (D-WV), embraced Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasser Arafat.  Gingrich has claimed, furthermore, that the Palestinians are “Arabs” (as if they originated in Arabia) since they were a part of the Ottoman Empire.  They were never Arabs when the nation first began over 15,000 years ago.  However, many became Muslim by force (it was known as the Eastern Roman Empire and was far more civilized than Rome) although Palestines have Jews, Christians of various denominations and sects, and other religions.  It was a geographical area that belonged to the Roman Empire, having as its capital the Greek Imperial City of Constantinople (today’s Istanbul).  The majority were Greek and Christian at the time of the conquest who merged into the Ottoman Empire but did not renounce their Christian faith.

According to the Torah and Hebrew Old Testament, the “first people” (by modern mistranslation a man and a woman) lived in Gan Eden (Genesis 3:3)—which is geographically located in Iraq.  The Jews claimed them as their ancestors. From there the record is weak, with the “sons” who had sex with their sisters (Genesis 4:19ff) moving to other lands and taking them by conquest (Genesis 5-6, 10-11).  Genesis 12:1 and 13:1 speaks of “Abram” going out of Egypt—which would match the records of the Hyksos (a Greek word: Ὑκσώς; in Egyptian it is heqa khasewet) who had Apiru/Abiru/Habiru (or Hebrews) as retainers.  The retainers were also known as Kassites or Amorites and identified as being Arabs.  Many now think that these people were minor functionary Hyksos (known as Midianites and as Palestinians; read here and here).  They were similar to the shepherd kings in Arabia: الملوك الرعاة who records also style as mercenaries working for the pharaoh. 

Mercenaries have always excisted, and were made up of two groups of people: those seeking adventure and wealth, and the very poor who had no alternative.  They included Celtic who were joined by Greek (664-250 BCE) adventurers and vagabonds.  The Greeks required payment, although Egypt was not at this time a monetary society. Special gold staters seem to have been struck to maintain their services, and this led to coinage and currency. Copts and Ethiopians joined them.

Native Egyptian pyramid workers in ancient Egypt (none were slaves)

The Jews were never slaves in Egypt.  There is no record of such enslavement found anywhere in Egypt: in or on any tomb or pyramid, in any scroll or other document.  Those farmers and workers who built the pyramids were paid, given housing, food, and medical attention.  Large limestone blocks were pulled along using wooden rollers. Nearly all the workers were Egyptians, with many being full-time paid employees, while others rotated seasonally when work was available.  The whip was not applied.  

If Jews had been slaves, the Egyptians (who were meticulous record-keepers) would have noted that, and written beside each name the value of the slave.  Such records do not exist.  The fact that such an allegation of Jews being slaves appears only in the Bible and basically in the Book of Exodus (the word pyramid does not appear anywhere in the Bible; it comes from Herodotus): and none of that book is historical (Ide, Arthur Frederick (1992). Moses: making of myth & law : the influence of Egyptian sex, religion, and law on the writing of the Torah / with an introduction by Decherd Turner.  Las Colinas, TX, USA: Monument Press).  It is political posturing and has no resemblance to reality.  It is popular propaganda: a practice that was widespread. 

The Hyksos and Palestinians (Palestinians can be traced from the Stone Age to prerecorded epochs: 500,000 to 14,000 BCE) were a settled and affluent society.  In the Mesolithic Period (15,000 – 9,500 BCE), they were known as the Natufian.  The Natufian Palestinians built fortified cities far grander and more secure than other people built their towns.  Many of these urban areas were constructed near Jericho (which was another Palestinian stronghold). 

Walls of Jericho (8500 BCE - 2011 CE)

Jericho’s walls held for millennium until they were shaken by a massive earthquake as was first suggested by John Garstang, who confessed in his introduction that he had labored to prove the story of Joshua in the Bible–but could not prove the legend of heralding angels with trumpet blasts (Garstang, John and Garstang, JBE (John Bergès Eustace) (1940). The Story of Jericho. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton).  Those who recorded its destruction used a metaphor, as the Garstangs later acknowledge, that some of the mud-brick walls of Jericho fell due to an earthquake that sounded like “trumpet blasts”: a common expression for seismic upheavals and the sounds earthquakes make.  Other walls surrounding Jericho are still standing.

Using a metaphor to describe the fury and shaking, sound and swiftness of the earthquake was in keeping with the genre of the time. There is no record (pictorial or otherwise) of any army marching around it, for Jericho was believed protected to be protected by the gods of Mesopotamia.

As early as the 10 millennium B.C.E., Palestinians engaged in plant and animal domestication that sprung forth from the transition of shepherding to agriculture.  It would highlight the ‘Neolithic Revolution’ (9000 – 4500 BCE) and the antecedents for the name began to emerge.

The ancient Palestinians were known as the al-Natoofieh.  They occupied caves north of Jerusalem, and had a long history as a civilized state. 

The al-Natoofieh established the City of Jericho (Tell es-Sultan).  It was (and is) the oldest continuously inhabited city in existence, being founded in 8000 BCE.  It flourished for one thousand years.   

Hyksos introduce war chariots and horses into Egypt

Palestine civilization was more advanced beyond that of the Hyksos and Apiru (who may have been the same nation) when the people moved toward greater unity, education, and inventing various arts from 8000-4500 BCE, going from food collectors to food producers (especially barley and wheat; the mythology of Enoch attributed early man’s knowledge of plant domestication to the fallen angel Semjaza out of which would come the invention of The Devil).  The Book of Enoch mentions Sarara and Galbanum (spices listed in Exodus 30:34), and suggests that the people were not depending solely on hunting or herding as was the lot of the early Habiru/Apiru (Hebrews) who had not yet invaded their lands with the open intent to steal it.  Enoch and his people were Sumerians, not Jews, and had an advanced culture that rivaled most other civilizations.  They gave to the world such myths as giants, fallen angels, and even extra-terrestrial beings coming to earth.

Palestine carried on trade with foreign nations, as seen in the pottery found in Egypt and elsewhere that matches that of Palestine.  It shows the close connection between Palestine and Egypt and it would be out of Egypt (especially during the reign of Pharaoh Seti I) that the later Hyksos and Apiru would come.

By 7200 BCE, Palestine was invaded by exiles from the North: by Aryans from India, to unsettled Greeks and people from what would become present-day Turkey.  Farms began to develop, with the average size farm being ten acres.

Palestinian artifacts in Chalcolithic Age 4500-3500 BCE

The Chalcolithic Period (4500 – 3300 BCE), also known as the Copper Stone Age, was relatively peaceful.  This can be noted in the paucity of fortresses built and the allowance of older walls to crumble. The arts flourished as seen in more sophisticated pottery production and ornamentation, heralding the beginning of Nimrod’s empire (Genesis 10:10) that was a beacon for intellectual dialogue, the advance of science but the diminution of religion leading many cult leaders seeing the multiculturalism of the empire as a threat, with plots to overthrow it and reestablish theocracies thereby enriching the sacerdotalists’ coffers.

Ancient ruins of Beersheba

An alphabet and writing was introduced and caught on quickly (Genesis 10:10, 11:2, 14:2).  Jewelry, using copper and ivory (discovered in and around Beersheba) became popular for both genders—as sex was an act of worship and joy and not reserved merely for procreation—distressing the a Hyksos and Apiru who argued that a woman’s purpose was to produce future soldiers for conquest, and misogynism entered into ontology and theologies. Flint anvils were fashioned along with ovens, various tools, and the introduction of roads that made Palestine the crossroads between East and West, appeared. Foundations for homes were laid out; architecture began in earnest, while the

Zarethan (advanced Palestinian city)

Hyksos and Habiru were still living in tents. In the biblical city of Zarethan (Joshua 3:16; I Kings 4:12, 7:46; II Chronicles 4:17) archaeologists have found evidence of an olive oil production facility, strengthening the theory that Palestine was engaged in large-scale production for foreign trade since it most likely made more oil than the immediate community could consume.  That there was foreign trade is evidenced by the numerous tokens of currency from other civilizations found in the region.  Furthermore, within the facility a sunken room was found providing an area to cool liquids, such as wine and olive oil, for storage.  The Hyksos remained in Egypt until c. 1550 BCE, when the boy-pharaoh Ahmos ejected the invaders in battle.  As one foot-soldier wrote:

Pharaoh Ahmos and the defeat of the Hyksos

Let me speak to you and tell you the honors I received. How I was decorated with gold. During the siege of Avaris, the king noticed me fighting bravely on foot, and promoted me. We took Avaris. I carried off four people there. A man and three women and his majesty let me keep them as slaves.

Hyksos art

Ahmos pushed the Hyksos out of Southern Egypt, but died before reclaiming all of ancient Egypt.  The Hyksos would remain in the North for a while until they would be turned out by the Egyptians (most likely the root of the myth of Moses and the Exodus). Neither the Habiru nor the Hyksos had similar, and none of this would appear in what would become Israel until the final millennium BCE.  Their art was more pastoral than their neighbors, although they were a war-like people because of their need to eat and work was not easily obtained for a “foreign” nation of shepherds, concentrating on familial scenes, especially that of women carrying children. Archaeological evidence proves that when Abram arrived in a heterogeneous Palestine that was neither backwards nor unsettled, but was a highly developed civilization engaged in international commerce (Paton, Lewis Bayles (1901). The early history of Syria and Palestine. New York, NY, USA: Charles Scribners’ Sons [reissued in 1902, 1909, and 2007).  Abram was the barbarian who invaded and destroyed what he saw, with his apologists distorting (and destroying) records to make the man from Ur appear as a holy and knowledgeable sage.  The Palestinians had already invented writing, kept written historical and economic records, and led to the introduction of education.  From 3200 to 2000 BCE, the Palestinians built fortifications to keep out the less civilized tribes, including the Hyksos including Habiru/Apiru and their mercenaries who ultimately entered around 1900 BCE, destroying most of the advanced civilizations, communities and people.  

During the third millennium BCE, The Ammonites, Canaanites, Yabousians and Phoenicians moved into Palestine in the third millennium BCE. The Canaanites, who built more than 200 towns in the second millennium BCE, settled on the plains of Palestine and the Ammonites settled in the mountains. The Yabousians settled in and around the area that would become Jerusalem and built the city of Jerusalem naming it “Yabous” then “Hierosolyma”. The Phoenicians settled on the north coast of Palestine and in Lebanon, but all considered themselves Palestinians, identified with the Palestinian people and armed against the saber-rattling of the Habiru who were known as blood-thirsty assassins and thieves.

The Hyksos and Habiru

Habiru shown in the tombs of Amarna (Egypt)

The Hyksos were famous for introducing the horse and chariot and modern burial customs including burying the horse with its owner and became a part of the shepherd kings who ultimately would rule over Arabia: الفلسطينيون ‎, al-‘Arab al-Filasṭīniyyūn but were not Arab by definition but were mixed Semitic-Asiatics with their foreign (non-indigenous) traits found at Tell el-Dab’a whose chief deity was the Egyptian storm and desert god Seth—who legend claims was the third son of an early goddess fashioned from bone. From this came the legend detailed by Josephus Flavius, Adversus Apion, 1.73, who wrote: It was also reported that the priest, who ordained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name Osarsiph, from Osyris, who was the god of Heliopolis; but that when he was gone over to these people, his name was changed, and he was called Moses.

Turk/Arab racism in North Africa (Black Obelisk 4)

Once out of Egypt, Abram and his “nephew” Lot began a war to oust the original inhabitants (cf. Genesis 14:14f) of what would become Israel—the Canaanites who are recognized as the heirs of Canaan (who was cursed by Noah but without reason as it was Ham who “saw” his father naked, the grandson is not even mentioned as being in the tent; this follows the scenario of Oedipus and his incestuous relationship with his mother by whom they spawned Electra), son of Ham.  This was because the gods of Abram were violent, warmongering and hate-filled, eager for human sacrifice (cf. Genesis 22:2, 9, cp. John 3:16 as the gods demanded that mortals to fear them: Genesis 22:12b). Lot would later go to Zoar (Genesis 19:39), and after being expelled from that city-state went into the mountains with his daughters.  Once in a cave (reminiscent of the cave where Mithras was born of a virgin mother (who was given the title of “Mother of God“) on December 25, and some scrolls claim that Jesus was born, according to Justin Martyr (Dialogue with Trypho, LXX and LXXVIII citing Isaiah 33:16 as the source for the Mirthras nativity–but there is no such reference in Isaiah, and Justin Martyr is neither credible nor reliable and is not a confirmed Christian in the orthodox definition and should be used with care and caution), Origen, Contra Celsum 1.2, and the Protoevangelium 18, while in the Jerusalem Talmud (Ber. ii. 3) it is written that Jesus was born in a “royal castle” that was an euphemism for a cave as both were made out of rock or stone) his two daughters made him drunk and then had sex with him (Genesis 19:34-36), in keeping the debauchery of the earlier crucified saviour Bacchus.  Both females conceived, adding bastardy (illegitimacy) to incest.

The constant attack upon the Palestinians and their compatriots the Phoenicians continued for generations, as is found to be common in the Old Testament: from Joshua to “the people of Moses” and so forth (Genesis 50:30 sq, cp. Joshua 7). The Biblical Jews (there is little historical evidence for a people of that name at that time) continued to war for the plains “that the gods [Elohim] gave” them (Moses uses the plural adjective with the plural noun elohim: “hath heard the voice of the living gods [elohim hayyim]”; cp. Genesis 1:26 as it is followed by a plural verb; for an interesting discussion read here)—a tribal god(s) who was/were married, allegedly, to the goddess of the Canaanites: Asherah (Astarte).  The argument that Joshua wrestled the lands away from the Palestinians because his gods The stories of Joshua and “the people of Moses” (Genesis 50:30 sq, cp. Joshua 7) follow the same pattern: war for the plains “that the gods [Elohim] gave” them (Moses uses the plural adjective with the plural noun elohim: “hath heard the voice of the living gods [elohim hayyim]”; cp. Genesis 1:26; the plural noun is followed by a plural verb; for an interesting discussion read more here; the story of Moses and the Torah that he allegedly wrote is filled with numerous errors, the most basic being his authorship as he not only writes, in the third person singular, of his death but also his burial: Deuteronomy 34) were determined to give the Jews a “homeland” is filled with errors: it is justified based on land taken by war 3,300 years ago and lost by war 2600 years ago. By that logic, Americans

Palestinian protester dies of his wounds while throwing stones at an Israeli military vehicle that lobbed a tear-gas canister direct at him and hit him in the face (10 Dec 2011 al-Jazeera

should give the southwest territory back to the Mexicans and the rest to the nation back to the Indians. The Jews get a “homeland” only because of a UN decree and the force of arms by Great Britain, the USA, and others repentant for their lethargy in attacking the NAZIs and the genocide of Hitler’s government: the German holocaust—antecedent to the Israeli holocaust of the Palestinians today.

Mustafa Tamimi dies after being directly hit in the face by Israeli military shooting cannisters of tear-gas 2011

About 1000 BCE, Palestine was divided into two parts: Samaria and Judea.  Division of Palestine did not stop then, nor today.

Palestine existed before Zionists arrived (photo 1870 by Michael Maslan)

On November 12, 1917, the government of Great Britain issued the Balfour Declaration promising to build a Jewish state that had not existed for more than a millennia: a declaration Great Britain had no right to make since the land was already owned by Palestinians.  To enforce its illegal designs, Great Britain invaded Palestine in December 1917 under the guise of destroying the Ottoman Empire.  Sir Herbert Louis 1st Viscount Samuel, a declared Zionist who was openly opposed to any recognition of Palestinian legitimacy (Ingrams, Doreen (1972). Palestine Papers. New York, NY, USA: G. Braziller, p. 106), was sent as Britain’s first High Commissioner to Palestine, and began the systematic persecution and suppression of the Palestinian people.  In April 1920, in the small Italian town of San Remo, Britain and France divide the Middle East into mandates while the American ambassador read his newspaper in the garden (Cohen, Michael Joseph (1987). Origins and Evolution of the Arab-Zionist Conflict.  Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, p. 64 and footnote).  This was buttressed the corrupt League of Nations in 1922 that used greater force against the Palestinians while ignoring the rise of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s and 1940s.

It is impossible to prove anything in one book by citing the book itself, yet that is what Gingrich and Israeli apologists do—using the bibles of their faith that were written not as historical records by records of faith and instruction.  What is known is that there are no external contemporary records in ancient Egypt, Sumeria, or Babylon that note a Jewish presence in Palestine when the descendants of Jacob moved in on the land in open warfare.  The Arabs adopted much from the Torah and the Old and New Testaments to create the Qur’an/Koran (Abraham is mentioned more times than Muhammad), but religious plagiarism is common throughout the world.  It is from the tale of Abram and his two sons (Isaac, the youngest, born to Sara (a shortened version of the Egyptian Ummu-sarra), wife of Abram; and, Ishmael (إسماعيل‎), born to Abraham’s concubine (cf. Koran 2:62; 37:102-111; the problem that exists is that many Christians take the Bible as fact, when the same Bible says it is not all fact: Jeremiah 8:8 RSV:  How can you say, We are wise, we have the law of the LORD, when scribes with their lying pens have falsified it? ) and slave Hagar [a name that means flight or cast out) that enmity broke out among their descendants: Muslims who cite Ishmael as the father of the Arab race (Greenspahn, Frederick E. “Ishmael” in Lindsay Jones, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed). New York, NY, USA: MacMillan Reference Books. p. 4551-4552; cp. McAuliffe, Jane Dammen, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of the Qur’an.  Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill Academic Publishers. Ishmael is far older than Isaac in ancient Semitic literature and folklore, and most likely was incorporated into the Abrahamic legends) and Jews who cite Isaac as the father of Jews.  The battle has lasted since Ishmael was cast out into the wilderness because of the jealous of Sara (Genesis 21:8-21). The son whom Abram intended to kill is not named in the Torah, but Muslims claim it was not Isaac but Ishmael who accompanied him into the mountains to be sacrificed to a vengeful god who would sacrifice his own son.

Related links:

The Bible Unearthed  Archeological evidence shows no Jewish control of Palestine.
The Israeli-Palestinian Struggle An well-researched, contemporary historical account (Seattle Times).

8 Comments

Filed under Ancient Egypt, Bible, Genesis, Old Testament, Torah